NYU Launches Online MPH Geared Toward Graduate Students in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

May 23, 2017

The College of Global Public Health Degree to Focus on Meeting 2030 UN Sustainable Development Goals in Public Health

First Class to Include Twenty Students from Low-Income Nations

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Message from Dean Cheryl Healton: Mental Health

June 15, 2018

The Hidden and Undetected Can Be Deadly

June 15, 2018

Dear Colleagues and Students:

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Evaluating different criteria for defining a complete ambulatory blood pressure monitoring recording: Data from the Jackson Heart Study

Bromfield, S. G., Booth, J. N., Loop, M. S., Schwartz, J. E., Seals, S. R., Thomas, S. J., Min, Y. I., Ogedegbe, G., Shimbo, D., & Muntner, P.

Publication year

2018

Journal title

Blood Pressure Monitoring

Volume

23

Issue

2

Page(s)

103-111
Abstract
Objective We determined differences in the prevalence of blood pressure (BP) phenotypes and the association of these phenotypes with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) for individuals who fulfilled and did not fulfill various criteria used for defining a complete ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) recording. Methods We analyzed data for 1141 participants from the Jackson Heart Study. Criteria evaluated included having greater than or equal to 80% of planned readings with more than or equal to one reading per hour (Spanish ABPM Registry criteria), more than or equal to 70% of planned readings with a minimum of 20 daytime and seven nighttime readings (2013 European Society of Hypertension criteria), greater than or equal to 14 daytime and greater than or equal to seven nighttime readings (2003 European Society of Hypertension criteria), more than or equal to 10 daytime and more than or equal to 5 nighttime readings (International Database of Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcome criteria), and greater than or equal to 14 daytime readings (UK National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence criteria). Results Between 45.0% (Spanish ABPM Registry) and 91.8% (UK National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence) of the participants fulfilled the different criteria for a complete ABPM recording. Across the various criteria evaluated, 55.5-57.8% of participants had nocturnal hypertension and 62.8-66.8% had nondipping systolic BP. Among participants with clinic-measured systolic/diastolic BP of more than or equal to 140/90 mmHg, 22.9-26.5% had white-coat hypertension. The prevalence of daytime, 24-h, sustained, and masked hypertension differed by up to 2% for participants fulfilling each criterion. The association of BP phenotypes with LVH was similar for participants who fulfilled versus those who did not fulfill different criteria (each P>0.05). Conclusion Irrespective of the criteria used for defining a complete ABPM recording, the prevalence of BP phenotypes and their association with LVH were similar.

Ambulatory blood pressure threshold for black Africans: More questions than answers

Adeoye, A. M., Tayo, B. O., Owolabi, M. O., Adebiyi, A. A., Lackland, D. T., Cooper, R., Ojo, A., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2018

Journal title

Journal of Clinical Hypertension

Developing a Tailored Website for Promoting Awareness about Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Among Blacks in Community-Based Settings

Robbins, R., Senathirajah, Y., Williams, N. J., Hutchinson, C., Rapoport, D. M., Allegrante, J. P., Cohall, A., Rogers, A., Ogedegbe, O., & Jean-Louis, G.

Publication year

2018

Journal title

Health Communication

Page(s)

1-9
Abstract
Blacks are at greater risk for lower sleep quality and higher risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) than other racial groups. In this study, we summarize the development of a tailored website including visuals, key messages, and video narratives, to promote awareness about sleep apnea among community-dwelling blacks. We utilized mixed methods, including in-depth interviews, usability-testing procedures, and brief surveys (n = 9, 55% female, 100% black, average age 38.5 years). Themes from the qualitative analysis illuminated varied knowledge regarding OSA symptoms and prevalent self-reported experience with sleep disturbance and OSA symptoms (e.g., snoring). On a scale from 1 (not at all) to 5 (very high), participants provided favorable ratings of website usefulness (mean = 4.9), user friendliness (mean = 4.9) and attractiveness (mean = 4.3). Our findings suggest although tailored health communication has potential for serving as a tool for advancing health equity, usability-testing of health materials is critical to ensure that culturally and linguistically tailored messages are acceptable and actionable in the intended population.

Neighborhood walk score and selected Cardiometabolic factors in the French RECORD cohort study

Méline, J., Chaix, B., Pannier, B., Ogedegbe, G., Trasande, L., Athens, J., & Duncan, D. T.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

BMC Public Health

Volume

17

Issue

1
Abstract
Background: Walkable neighborhoods are purported to impact a range of cardiometabolic outcomes through increased walking, but there is limited research that examines multiple cardiometabolic outcomes. Additionally, few Walk Score (a novel measure of neighborhood walkability) studies have been conducted in a European context. We evaluated associations between neighborhood Walk Score and selected cardiometabolic outcomes, including obesity, hypertension and heart rate, among adults in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods and results: We used data from the second wave of the RECORD Study on 5993 participants recruited in 2011-2014, aged 34-84 years, and residing in Paris (France). To this existing dataset, we added Walk Score values for participants' residential address. We used multilevel linear models for the continuous outcomes and modified Poisson models were used for our categorical outcomes to estimate associations between the neighborhood Walk Score (both as a continuous and categorical variable) (0-100 score) and body mass index (BMI) (weight/height2 in kg/m2), obesity (kg/m2), waist circumference (cm), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (mmHg), hypertension (mmHg), resting heart rate (RHR) (beats per minute), and neighborhood recreational walking (minutes per week). Most participants lived in Walker's Paradise (48.3%). In multivariate models (adjusted for individual variables, neighborhood variables, and risk factors for cardiometabolic outcomes), we found that neighborhood Walk Score was associated with decreased BMI (β: -0.010, 95% CI: -0.019 to -0.002 per unit increase), decreased waist circumference (β: -0.031, 95% CI: -0.054 to -0.008), increased neighborhood recreational walking (β: +0.73, 95% CI: +0.37 to +1.10), decreased SBP (β: -0.030, 95% CI: -0.063 to -0.0004), decreased DBP (β: -0.028, 95% CI: -0.047 to -0.008), and decreased resting heart rate (β: -0.026 95% CI: -0.046 to -0.005). Conclusions: In this large population-based study, we found that, even in a European context, living in a highly walkable neighborhood was associated with improved cardiometabolic health. Designing walkable neighborhoods may be a viable strategy in reducing cardiovascular disease prevalence at the population level.

Addressing the social needs of hypertensive patients the role of patient-provider communication as a predictor of medication adherence

Schoenthaler, A., Knafl, G. J., Fiscella, K., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes

Volume

10

Issue

9
Abstract
Background-Poor medication adherence is a pervasive problem in patients with hypertension. Despite research documenting an association between patient-provider communication and medication adherence, there are no empirical data on how the informational and relational aspects of communication affect patient's actual medication-Taking behaviors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of patient-provider communication on medication adherence among a sample of primary care providers and their black and white hypertensive patients. Methods and Results-Cohort study included 92 hypertensive patients and 27 providers in 3 safety-net primary care practices in New York City. Patient-provider encounters were audiotaped at baseline and coded using the Medical Interaction Process System. Medication adherence data were collected continuously during the 3-month study with an electronic monitoring device. The majority of patients were black, 58% women, and most were seeing the same provider for at least 1 year. Approximately half of providers were white (56%), 67% women, and have been in practice for an average of 5.8 years. Fifty-eight percent of patients exhibited poor adherence to prescribed antihypertensive medications. Three categories of patient-provider communication predicted poor medication adherence: lower patient centeredness (odds ratio: 3.08; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-9.12), less discussion about patients' sociodemographic circumstances (living situation, relationship with partner; odds ratio: 6.03; 95% confidence interval: 2.15-17), and about their antihypertensive medications (odds ratio: 6.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.83-23.0). The effect of having less discussion about patients' sociodemographic circumstances on medication adherence was heightened in black patients (odds ratio: 8.01; 95% confidence interval: 2.80-22.9). Conclusions-The odds of poor medication adherence are greater when patient-provider interactions are low in patient centeredness and do not address patients' sociodemographic circumstances or their medication regimen.

Self-monitoring of blood pressure in hypertension: A systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis

Tucker, K. L., Sheppard, J. P., Stevens, R., Bosworth, H. B., Bove, A., Bray, E. P., Earle, K., George, J., Godwin, M., Green, B. B., Hebert, P., Hobbs, F. D., Kantola, I., Kerry, S. M., Leiva, A., Magid, D. J., Mant, J., Margolis, K. L., McKinstry, B., McLaughlin, M. A., Omboni, S., Ogedegbe, O., Parati, G., Qamar, N., Tabaei, B. P., Varis, J., Verberk, W. J., Wakefield, B. J., & McManus, R. J.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

PLoS Medicine

Volume

14

Issue

9
Abstract
Background: Self-monitoring of blood pressure (BP) appears to reduce BP in hypertension but important questions remain regarding effective implementation and which groups may benefit most. This individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis was performed to better understand the effectiveness of BP self-monitoring to lower BP and control hypertension. Methods and findings: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomised trials comparing self-monitoring to no self-monitoring in hypertensive patients (June 2016). Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility and the authors of eligible trials were approached requesting IPD. Of 2,846 articles in the initial search, 36 were eligible. IPD were provided from 25 trials, including 1 unpublished study. Data for the primary outcomes—change in mean clinic or ambulatory BP and proportion controlled below target at 12 months—were available from 15/19 possible studies (7,138/8,292 [86%] of randomised participants). Overall, self-monitoring was associated with reduced clinic systolic blood pressure (sBP) compared to usual care at 12 months (−3.2 mmHg, [95% CI −4.9, −1.6 mmHg]). However, this effect was strongly influenced by the intensity of co-intervention ranging from no effect with self-monitoring alone (−1.0 mmHg [−3.3, 1.2]), to a 6.1 mmHg (−9.0, −3.2) reduction when monitoring was combined with intensive support. Self-monitoring was most effective in those with fewer antihypertensive medications and higher baseline sBP up to 170 mmHg. No differences in efficacy were seen by sex or by most comorbidities. Ambulatory BP data at 12 months were available from 4 trials (1,478 patients), which assessed self-monitoring with little or no co-intervention. There was no association between self-monitoring and either lower clinic or ambulatory sBP in this group (clinic −0.2 mmHg [−2.2, 1.8]; ambulatory 1.1 mmHg [−0.3, 2.5]). Results for diastolic blood pressure (dBP) were similar. The main limitation of this work was that significant heterogeneity remained. This was at least in part due to different inclusion criteria, self-monitoring regimes, and target BPs in included studies. Conclusions: Self-monitoring alone is not associated with lower BP or better control, but in conjunction with co-interventions (including systematic medication titration by doctors, pharmacists, or patients; education; or lifestyle counselling) leads to clinically significant BP reduction which persists for at least 12 months. The implementation of self-monitoring in hypertension should be accompanied by such co-interventions.

Adherence to antihypertensive medications and associations with blood pressure among African Americans with hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study

Butler, M. J., Tanner, R. M., Muntner, P., Shimbo, D., Bress, A. P., Shallcross, A. J., Sims, M., Ogedegbe, G., & Spruill, T. M.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Journal of the American Society of Hypertension

Volume

11

Issue

9

Page(s)

581-588.e5
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to test the association between a self-report measure of 24-hour adherence to antihypertensive medication and blood pressure (BP) among African Americans. The primary analysis included 3558 Jackson Heart Study participants taking antihypertensive medication who had adherence data for at least one study examination. Nonadherence was defined by self-report of not taking one or more prescribed antihypertensive medications, identified during pill bottle review, in the past 24 hours. Nonadherence and clinic BP were assessed at Exam 1 (2000–2004), Exam 2 (2005–2008), and Exam 3 (2009–2013). Associations of nonadherence with clinic BP and uncontrolled BP (systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg) were evaluated using unadjusted and adjusted linear and Poisson repeated measures regression models. The prevalence of nonadherence to antihypertensive medications was 25.4% at Exam 1, 28.7% at Exam 2, and 28.5% at Exam 3. Nonadherence was associated with higher systolic BP (3.38 mm Hg) and diastolic BP (1.47 mm Hg) in fully adjusted repeated measures analysis. Nonadherence was also associated with uncontrolled BP (prevalence ratio = 1.26; 95% confidence interval = 1.16–1.37). This new self-report measure may be useful for identifying nonadherence to antihypertensive medication in future epidemiologic studies.

Resistant hypertension

Olafiranye, O., Mahmud, S., Zizi, F., McFarlane, S. I., Jean-Louis, G., & Ogedegbe, G. In Diabetes and Hypertension: Etiology, evaluation and management.

Publication year

2012

Page(s)

65-73
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