Mentored training to increase diversity among faculty in the biomedical sciences: The NHL BI Summer Institute Programs to Increase Diversity (SI PID ) and the Programs to Increase Diversity among Individuals Engaged in Health-related Research (PRIDE )

Rice, T. K., Jeffe, D. B., Boyington, J. E., Jobe, J. B., Dávila-Román, V. G., Gonzalez, J. E., De Las Fuentes, L., Makala, L. H., Sarkar, R., Ogedegbe, G. G., Taylor, A. L., Czajkowski, S., Rao, D. C., Pace, B. S., Jean-Louis, G., & Boutjdir, M.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Ethnicity and Disease

Volume

27

Issue

3

Page(s)

249-256
Abstract
Objective: To report baseline characteristics of junior-level faculty participants in the Summer Institute Programs to Increase Diversity (SIPID) and the Programs to Increase Diversity among individuals engaged in Health-Related Research (PRIDE), which aim to facilitate participants' career development as independent investigators in heart, lung, blood, and sleep research. Design and Setting: Junior faculty from groups underrepresented in the biomedicalresearch workforce attended two, 2-3 week, annual summer research-education programs at one of six sites. Programs provided didactic and/or laboratory courses, workshops to develop research, writing and career-development skills, as well as a mentoring component, with regular contact maintained via phone, email and webinar conferences. Between summer institutes, trainees participated in a short mid-year meeting and an annual scientific meeting. Participants were surveyed during and after SIPID/PRIDE to evaluate program components. Participants: Junior faculty from underrepresented populations across the United States and Puerto Rico participated in one of three SIPID (2007-2010) or six PRIDE programs (2011-2014). Results: Of 204 SIPID/PRIDE participants, 68% were female; 67% African American and 27% Hispanic/Latino; at enrollment, 75% were assistant professors and 15% instructors, with most (96%) on non-tenure track. Fifty-eight percent had research doctorates (PhD, ScD) and 42% had medical (MD, DO) degrees. Mentees' feedback about the program indicated skills development (eg, manuscript and grant writing), access to networking, and mentoring were the most beneficial elements of SIPID and PRIDE programs. Grant awards shifted from primarily mentored research mechanisms to primarily independent investigator awards after training. Conclusions: Mentees reported their career development benefited from SIPID and PRIDE participation.

Transportability of an Evidence-Based Early Childhood Intervention in a Low-Income African Country: Results of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Study

Huang, K. Y., Nakigudde, J., Rhule, D., Gumikiriza-Onoria, J. L., Abura, G., Kolawole, B., Ndyanabangi, S., Kim, S., Seidman, E., Ogedegbe, G., & Brotman, L. M.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Prevention Science

Page(s)

1-12
Abstract
Children in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are burdened by significant unmet mental health needs. Despite the successes of numerous school-based interventions for promoting child mental health, most evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are not available in SSA. This study investigated the implementation quality and effectiveness of one component of an EBI from a developed country (USA) in a SSA country (Uganda). The EBI component, Professional Development, was provided by trained Ugandan mental health professionals to Ugandan primary school teachers. It included large-group experiential training and small-group coaching to introduce and support a range of evidence-based practices (EBPs) to create nurturing and predictable classroom experiences. The study was guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, the Teacher Training Implementation Model, and the RE-AIM evaluation framework. Effectiveness outcomes were studied using a cluster randomized design, in which 10 schools were randomized to intervention and wait-list control conditions. A total of 79 early childhood teachers participated. Teacher knowledge and the use of EBPs were assessed at baseline and immediately post-intervention (4–5 months later). A sample of 154 parents was randomly selected to report on child behavior at baseline and post-intervention. Linear mixed effect modeling was applied to examine effectiveness outcomes. Findings support the feasibility of training Ugandan mental health professionals to provide Professional Development for Ugandan teachers. Professional Development was delivered with high levels of fidelity and resulted in improved teacher EBP knowledge and the use of EBPs in the classroom, and child social competence.

A Comparison of Measured and Self-Reported Blood Pressure Status among Low-Income Housing Residents in New York City

Williams, J., Duncan, D., Cantor, J., Elbel, B. D., Ogedegbe, O., & Ravenell, J.

Publication year

2016

Journal title

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Volume

9

Issue

4

Page(s)

153-165

‘I believe high blood pressure can kill me: ’ using the PEN-3 Cultural Model to understand patients’ perceptions of an intervention to control hypertension in Ghana

Blackstone, S., Iwelunmor, J., Plange-Rhule, J., Gyamfi, J., Quakyi, N. K., Ntim, M., Addison, A., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Ethnicity and Health

Page(s)

1-14
Abstract
Objectives: Currently in Ghana, there is an on-going task-shifting strategy in which nurses are trained in hypertension management. While this study will provide useful information on the viability of this approach, it is not clear how patients in the intervention perceive hypertension, the task-shifting strategy, and its effects on blood pressure management. The objective of this paper is to examine patients’ perceptions of hypertension and hypertension management in the context of an on-going task-shifting intervention to manage blood pressure control in Ghana. Design: Forty-two patients participating in the Task Shifting Strategy for Hypertension program (23 males, 19 females, and mean age 61. 7 years) completed in-depth, qualitative interviews. Interviews were transcribed, and key words and phrases were extracted and coded using the PEN-3 Cultural Model as a guide through open and axial coding techniques, thus allowing rich exploration of the data. Results: Emergent themes included patients’ perceptions of hypertension, which encompassed misperceptions of hypertension and blood pressure control. Additional themes included enablers and barriers to hypertension management, and how the intervention nurtured lifestyle change associated with blood pressure control. Primary enabling factors included the supportive nature of TASSH nurses, while notable barriers were financial constraints and difficulty accessing medication. Nurturing factors included the motivational interviewing and patient counseling which instilled confidence in the patients that they could make lasting behavior changes. Conclusions: This study offers a unique perspective of blood pressure control by examining how patients view an on-going task-shifting initiative for hypertension management. The results of this study shed light on factors that can help and hinder individuals in low-resource settings with long-term blood pressure management.

Blood pressure control and mortality in US- and foreign-born blacks in New York City

Gyamfi, J., Butler, M., Williams, S. K., Agyemang, C., Gyamfi, L., Seixas, A., Zinsou, G. M., Bangalore, S., Shah, N. R., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Abstract
This retrospective cohort study compared blood pressure (BP) control (BP <140/90 mm Hg) and all-cause mortality between US- and foreign-born blacks. We used data from a clinical data warehouse of 41 868 patients with hypertension who received care in a New York City public healthcare system between 2004 and 2009, defining BP control as the last recorded BP measurement and mean BP control. Poisson regression demonstrated that Caribbean-born blacks had lower BP control for the last BP measurement compared with US- and West African-born blacks, respectively (49% vs 54% and 57%; P<.001). This pattern was similar for mean BP control. Caribbean- and West African-born blacks showed reduced hazard ratios of mortality (0.46 [95% CI, 0.42-0.50] and 0.28 [95% CI, 0.18-0.41], respectively) compared with US-born blacks, even after adjustment for BP. BP control rates and mortality were heterogeneous in this sample. Caribbean-born blacks showed worse control than US-born blacks. However, US-born blacks experienced increased hazard of mortality. This suggests the need to account for the variations within blacks in hypertension management.

Cardiovascular Health and Incident Hypertension in Blacks: JHS (The Jackson Heart Study)

Booth, J. N., Abdalla, M., Tanner, R. M., Diaz, K. M., Bromfield, S. G., Tajeu, G. S., Correa, A., Sims, M., Ogedegbe, G., Bress, A. P., Spruill, T. M., Shimbo, D., & Muntner, P.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Hypertension
Abstract
Several modifiable health behaviors and health factors that comprise the Life’s Simple 7—a cardiovascular health metric—have been associated with hypertension risk. We determined the association between cardiovascular health and incident hypertension in JHS (the Jackson Heart Study)—a cohort of blacks. We analyzed participants without hypertension or cardiovascular disease at baseline (2000–2004) who attended ≥1 follow-up visit in 2005 to 2008 or 2009 to 2012 (n=1878). Body mass index, physical activity, diet, cigarette smoking, blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, and fasting glucose were assessed at baseline and categorized as ideal, intermediate, or poor using the American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7 definitions. Incident hypertension was defined at the first visit wherein a participant had systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg, or self-reported taking antihypertensive medication. The percentage of participants with ≤1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 ideal Life’s Simple 7 components was 6.5%, 22.4%, 34.4%, 25.2%, 10.0%, and 1.4%, respectively. No participants had 7 ideal components. During follow-up (median, 8.0 years), 944 (50.3%) participants developed hypertension, including 81.3% with ≤1 and 11.1% with 6 ideal components. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident hypertension comparing participants with 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 versus ≤1 ideal component were 0.80 (0.61–1.03), 0.58 (0.45–0.74), 0.30 (0.23–0.40), 0.26 (0.18–0.37), and 0.10 (0.03–0.31), respectively (Ptrend <0.001). This association was present among participants with baseline systolic BP <120 mm Hg and diastolic BP <80 mm Hg and separately systolic BP 120 to 139 mm Hg or diastolic BP 80 to 89 mm Hg. Blacks with better cardiovascular health have lower hypertension risk.

Thresholds for Ambulatory Blood Pressure among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study

Ravenell, J., Shimbo, D., Booth, J. N., Sarpong, D. F., Agyemang, C., Moody, D. L., Abdalla, M., Spruill, T. M., Shallcross, A. J., Bress, A. P., Muntner, P., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Circulation

Volume

135

Issue

25

Page(s)

2470-2480
Abstract
Background: Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring is the reference standard for out-of-clinic BP measurement. Thresholds for identifying ambulatory hypertension (daytime systolic BP [SBP]/diastolic BP [DBP] ≥135/85 mm Hg, 24-hour SBP/DBP ≥130/80 mm Hg, and nighttime SBP/DBP ≥120/70 mm Hg) have been derived from European, Asian, and South American populations. We determined BP thresholds for ambulatory hypertension in a US population-based sample of African American adults. Methods: We analyzed data from the Jackson Heart Study, a population-based cohort study comprised exclusively of African American adults (n=5306). Analyses were restricted to 1016 participants who completed ambulatory BP monitoring at baseline in 2000 to 2004. Mean SBP and DBP levels were calculated for daytime (10:00 am-8:00 pm), 24-hour (all available readings), and nighttime (midnight-6:00 am) periods, separately. Daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime BP thresholds for ambulatory hypertension were identified using regression-and outcome-derived approaches. The composite of a cardiovascular disease or an all-cause mortality event was used in the outcome-derived approach. For this latter approach, BP thresholds were identified only for SBP because clinic DBP was not associated with the outcome. Analyses were stratified by antihypertensive medication use. Results: Among participants not taking antihypertensive medication, the regression-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP/DBP corresponding to clinic SBP/DBP of 140/90 mm Hg were 134/85 mm Hg, 130/81 mm Hg, and 123/73 mm Hg, respectively. The outcome-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP corresponding to a clinic SBP ≥140 mm Hg were 138 mm Hg, 134 mm Hg, and 129 mm Hg, respectively. Among participants taking antihypertensive medication, the regression-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP/DBP corresponding to clinic SBP/DBP of 140/90 mm Hg were 135/85 mm Hg, 133/82 mm Hg, and 128/76 mm Hg, respectively. The corresponding outcome-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP were 140 mm Hg, 137 mm Hg, and 133 mm Hg, respectively, among those taking antihypertensive medication. Conclusions: On the basis of the outcome-derived approach for SBP and regression-derived approach for DBP, the following definitions for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime hypertension corresponding to clinic SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mm Hg are proposed for African American adults: daytime SBP/DBP ≥140/85 mm Hg, 24-hour SBP/DBP ≥135/80 mm Hg, and nighttime SBP/DBP ≥130/75 mm Hg, respectively.

Metabolic syndrome and masked hypertension among African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study

Colantonio, L. D., Anstey, D. E., Carson, A. P., Ogedegbe, G., Abdalla, M., Sims, M., Shimbo, D., & Muntner, P.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Journal of Clinical Hypertension

Volume

19

Issue

6

Page(s)

592-600
Abstract
The metabolic syndrome is associated with higher ambulatory blood pressure. The authors studied the association of metabolic syndrome and masked hypertension (MHT) among African Americans with clinic-measured systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) <140/90 mm Hg in the Jackson Heart Study. MHT was defined as daytime, nighttime, or 24-hour hypertension on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Among 359 participants not taking antihypertensive medication, the metabolic syndrome was associated with MHT (prevalence ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.10–1.74]). When metabolic syndrome components (clinic SBP/DBP 130–139/85–89 mm Hg, abdominal obesity, impaired glucose, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides) were analyzed separately, only clinic SBP/DBP 130–139/85–89 mm Hg was associated with MHT (prevalence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.56–2.32]). The metabolic syndrome was not associated with MHT among participants not taking antihypertensive medication with SBP/DBP 130–139/85–89 and <130/85 mm Hg, separately, or among participants taking antihypertensive medication (n=393). Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring screening for MHT among African Americans should be considered based on clinic BP, not metabolic syndrome.

Developing consensus measures for global programs: Lessons from the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases Hypertension research program

Failed generating bibliography.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Globalization and Health

Volume

13

Issue

1
Abstract
Background: The imperative to improve global health has prompted transnational research partnerships to investigate common health issues on a larger scale. The Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (GACD) is an alliance of national research funding agencies. To enhance research funded by GACD members, this study aimed to standardise data collection methods across the 15 GACD hypertension research teams and evaluate the uptake of these standardised measurements. Furthermore we describe concerns and difficulties associated with the data harmonisation process highlighted and debated during annual meetings of the GACD funded investigators. With these concerns and issues in mind, a working group comprising representatives from the 15 studies iteratively identified and proposed a set of common measures for inclusion in each of the teams' data collection plans. One year later all teams were asked which consensus measures had been implemented. Results: Important issues were identified during the data harmonisation process relating to data ownership, sharing methodologies and ethical concerns. Measures were assessed across eight domains; demographic; dietary; clinical and anthropometric; medical history; hypertension knowledge; physical activity; behavioural (smoking and alcohol); and biochemical domains. Identifying validated measures relevant across a variety of settings presented some difficulties. The resulting GACD hypertension data dictionary comprises 67 consensus measures. Of the 14 responding teams, only two teams were including more than 50 consensus variables, five teams were including between 25 and 50 consensus variables and four teams were including between 6 and 24 consensus variables, one team did not provide details of the variables collected and two teams did not include any of the consensus variables as the project had already commenced or the measures were not relevant to their study. Conclusions: Deriving consensus measures across diverse research projects and contexts was challenging. The major barrier to their implementation was related to the time taken to develop and present these measures. Inclusion of consensus measures into future funding announcements would facilitate researchers integrating these measures within application protocols. We suggest that adoption of consensus measures developed here, across the field of hypertension, would help advance the science in this area, allowing for more comparable data sets and generalizable inferences.

Sustaining Nurse-Led Task-Shifting Strategies for Hypertension Control: A Concept Mapping Study to Inform Evidence-Based Practice

Blackstone, S., Iwelunmor, J., Plange-Rhule, J., Gyamfi, J., Quakyi, N. K., Ntim, M., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing
Abstract
Background: The use of task-shifting is an increasingly widespread delivery approach for health interventions targeting prevention, treatment, and control of hypertension in adults living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Addressing a gap in the literature, this research examined the sustainability of an ongoing task-shifting strategy for hypertension (TASSH) from the perspectives of community health nurses (CHNs) implementing the program. Methods: We used concept-mapping, a mixed-methods participatory approach to understand CHNs' perceptions of barriers and enablers to sustaining a task-shifting program. Participants responded to focal prompts, eliciting statements regarding perceived barriers and enablers to sustaining TASSH, and then rated these ideas based on importance to the research questions and feasibility to address. Twenty-eight community health nurses (21 women, 7 men) from the Ashanti region of Ghana completed the concept-mapping process. Results: Factors influencing sustainability were grouped into five categories: Limited Drug Supply, Financial Support, Provision of Primary Health Care, Personnel Training, and Patient-Provider Communication. The limited supply of antihypertensive medication was considered by CHNs as the most important item to address, while providing training for intervention personnel was considered most feasible to address. Linking Evidence to Action: This study's findings highlight the importance of examining nurses' perceptions of factors likely to influence the sustainability of evidence-based, task-shifting interventions. Nurses' perceptions can guide the widespread uptake and dissemination of these interventions in resource-limited settings.
Subscribe to