Tailored behavioral intervention among blacks with metabolic syndrome and sleep apnea: Results of the MetSO trial
Jean-Louis, G., Newsome, V., Williams, N. J., Zizi, F., Ravenell, J., & Ogedegbe, G.
Study Objectives: To assess effectiveness of a culturally and linguistically tailored telephone-delivered intervention to increase adherence to physician-recommended evaluation and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among blacks. Methods: In a two-arm randomized controlled trial, we evaluated effectiveness of the tailored intervention among blacks with metabolic syndrome, relative to those in an attention control arm (n = 380; mean age = 58 ± 13; female = 71%). The intervention was designed to enhance adherence using culturally and linguistically tailored OSA health messages delivered by a trained health educator based on patients' readiness to change and unique barriers preventing desired behavior changes. Results: Analysis showed 69.4% of the patients in the intervention arm attended initial consultation with a sleep specialist, compared to 36.7% in the control arm; 74.7% of those in the intervention arm and 66.7% in the control arm completed diagnostic evaluation; and 86.4% in the intervention arm and 88.9% in the control arm adhered to PAP treatment based on subjective report. Logistic regression analyses adjusting for sociodemographic factors indicated patients in the intervention arm were 3.17 times more likely to attend initial consultation, compared to those in the control arm. Adjusted models revealed no significant differences between the two arms regarding adherence to OSA evaluation or treatment. Conclusion: The intervention was successful in promoting importance of sleep consultation and evaluation of OSA among blacks, while there was no significant group difference in laboratory-based evaluation and treatment adherence rates. It seems that the fundamental barrier to OSA care in that population may be the importance of seeking OSA care.
Clinic and ambulatory blood pressure in a population-based sample of African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study
Thomas, S. J., Booth, J. N., Bromfield, S. G., Seals, S. R., Spruill, T. M., Ogedegbe, G., Kidambi, S., Shimbo, D., Calhoun, D., & Muntner, P.
Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
Blood pressure (BP) can differ substantially when measured in the clinic versus outside of the clinic setting. Few population-based studies with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) include African Americans. We calculated the prevalence of clinic hypertension and ABPM phenotypes among 1016 participants in the population-based Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively African-American cohort. Mean daytime systolic BP was higher than mean clinic systolic BP among participants not taking antihypertensive medication (127.1[standard deviation 12.8] vs. 124.5[15.7] mm Hg, respectively) and taking antihypertensive medication (131.2[13.6] vs. 130.0[15.6] mm Hg, respectively). Mean daytime diastolic BP was higher than clinic diastolic BP among participants not taking antihypertensive medication (78.2[standard deviation 8.9] vs. 74.6[8.4] mm Hg, respectively) and taking antihypertensive medication (77.6[9.4] vs. 74.3[8.5] mm Hg, respectively). The prevalence of daytime hypertension was higher than clinic hypertension for participants not taking antihypertensive medication (31.8% vs. 14.3%) and taking antihypertensive medication (43.0% vs. 23.1%). A high percentage of participants not taking and taking antihypertensive medication had nocturnal hypertension (49.4% and 61.7%, respectively), white-coat hypertension (30.2% and 29.3%, respectively), masked hypertension (25.4% and 34.6%, respectively), and a nondipping BP pattern (62.4% and 69.6%, respectively). In conclusion, these data suggest hypertension may be misdiagnosed among African Americans without using ABPM.
Optimal Systolic Blood Pressure Target After SPRINT: Insights from a Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials
Bangalore, S., Toklu, B., Gianos, E., Schwartzbard, A., Weintraub, H., Ogedegbe, G., & Messerli, F. H.
American Journal of Medicine
Background: The optimal on-treatment blood pressure (BP) target has been a matter of debate. The recent SPRINT trial showed significant benefits of a BP target of <120 mm Hg, albeit with an increase in serious adverse effects related to low BP. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were searched for randomized trials comparing treating with different BP targets. Trial arms were grouped into 5 systolic BP target categories: 1) <160 mm Hg, 2) <150 mm Hg, 3) <140 mm Hg, 4) <130 mm Hg, and 5) <120 mm Hg. Efficacy outcomes of stroke, myocardial infarction, death, cardiovascular death, heart failure, and safety outcomes of serious adverse effects were evaluated using a network meta-analysis. Results: Seventeen trials that enrolled 55,163 patients with 204,103 patient-years of follow-up were included. There was a significant decrease in stroke (rate ratio [RR] 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-1.00) and myocardial infarction (RR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-1.00) with systolic BP <120 mm Hg (vs <160 mm Hg). Sensitivity analysis using achieved systolic BP showed a 72%, 97%, and 227% increase in stroke with systolic BP of <140 mm Hg, <150 mm Hg, and <160 mm, respectively, when compared with systolic BP <120 mm Hg. There was no difference in death, cardiovascular death, or heart failure when comparing any of the BP targets. However, the point estimate favored lower BP targets (<120 mm Hg, <130 mm Hg) when compared with higher BP targets (<140 mm Hg or <150 mm Hg). BP targets of <120 mm Hg and <130 mm Hg ranked #1 and #2, respectively, as the most efficacious target. There was a significant increase in serious adverse effects with systolic BP <120 mm Hg vs <150 mm Hg (RR 1.83; 95% CI, 1.05-3.20) or vs <140 mm Hg (RR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.46-3.08). BP targets of <140 mm Hg and <150 mm Hg ranked #1 and #2, respectively, as the safest target for the outcome of serious adverse effects. Cluster plots for combined efficacy and safety showed that a systolic BP target of <130 mm Hg had optimal balance between efficacy and safety. Conclusions: In patients with hypertension, a on-treatment systolic BP target of <130 mm Hg achieved optimal balance between efficacy and safety.
Exploring stakeholders' perceptions of a task-shifting strategy for hypertension control in Ghana: A qualitative study
Iwelunmor, J., Gyamfi, J., Plange-Rhule, J., Blackstone, S., Quakyi, N. K., Ntim, M., Zizi, F., Yeboah-Awudzi, K., Nang-Belfubah, A., & Ogedegbe, G.
BMC Public Health
Background: The purpose of this study was to explore stakeholders' perception of an on-going evidence-based task-shifting strategy for hypertension (TASSH) in 32 community health centers and district hospitals in Ghana. Methods: Using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, qualitative data were obtained from 81 key stakeholders including patients, nurses, and site directors of participating community health centers involved in the TASSH trial. Qualitative data were analyzed using open and axial coding techniques. Results: Analysis of the qualitative data revealed three themes that illustrate stakeholders' perceptions of the ongoing task-shifting strategy for blood pressure control in Ghana and they include: 1) awareness and understanding of the TASSH program; 2) reasons for participation and non-participation in TASSH; and 3) the benefit and drawbacks to the TASSH program. Conclusion: The findings support evidence that successful implementation of any task-shifting strategy must focus not only on individual patient characteristics, but also consider the role contextual factors such as organizational and leadership factors play. The findings also demonstrate the importance of understanding stakeholder's perceptions of evidence-based task-shifting interventions for hypertension control as it may ultimately influence the sustainable uptake of these interventions into "real world" settings.
Modifiable risk factors versus age on developing high predicted cardiovascular disease risk in blacks
Bress, A. P., Colantonio, L. D., Booth, J. N., Spruill, T. M., Ravenell, J., Butler, M., Shallcross, A. J., Seals, S. R., Reynolds, K., Ogedegbe, G., Shimbo, D., & Muntner, P.
Journal of the American Heart Association
Background-Clinical guidelines recommend using predicted atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk to inform treatment decisions. The objective was to compare the contribution of changes in modifiable risk factors versus aging to the development of high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk. Methods and Results-A prospective follow-up was done of the Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively black cohort at visit 1 (2000-2004) and visit 3 (2009-2012). Analyses included 1115 black participants without high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk (<7.5%), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or ASCVD at visit 1. We used the Pooled Cohort equations to calculate the incidence of high (≥7.5%) 10-year predicted ASCVD risk at visit 3. We recalculated the percentage with high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk at visit 3 assuming each risk factor (age, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, diabetes mellitus, smoking, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), one at a time, did not change from visit 1. The mean age at visit 1 was 45.2±9.5 years. Overall, 30.9% (95% CI 28.3-33.4%) of participants developed high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk. Aging accounted for 59.7% (95% CI 54.2-65.1%) of the development of high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk compared with 32.8% (95% CI 27.0-38.2%) for increases in systolic blood pressure or antihypertensive medication initiation and 12.8% (95% CI 9.6-16.5%) for incident diabetes mellitus. Among participants <50 years, the contribution of increases in systolic blood pressure or antihypertensive medication initiation was similar to aging. Conclusions-Increases in systolic blood pressure and antihypertensive medication initiation are major contributors to the development of high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk in blacks, particularly among younger adults.
Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage; Neighborhood Racial Composition; and Hypertension Stage, Awareness, and Treatment Among Hypertensive Black Men in New York City: Does Nativity Matter?
Cole, H., Duncan, D. T., Ogedegbe, G., Bennett, S., & Ravenell, J.
Journal of racial and ethnic health disparities
Objective: Neighborhood-level poverty and racial composition may contribute to racial disparities in hypertension outcomes. Little is known about how the effects of neighborhood social environments may differ by nativity status among diverse urban Black adults. We aimed to characterize the influence of neighborhood-level socio-demographic factors on hypertension outcomes among US- and foreign-born Black men with uncontrolled blood pressure. Design: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from two large community-based trials of hypertensive Black men aged 50 and over linked with census tract data from the 2012 American Community Survey 5-year estimates. We defined census tracts with high racial segregation as those where 60 % or more self-identified as Black and high-poverty census tracts as those where 20 % or more lived below the poverty line. Multivariable general estimating equation models were used to measure associations between neighborhood characteristics and stage of hypertension, hypertension awareness, and treatment to yield adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR). Models were run separately for US- and foreign-born Black men. Results: Over 64 % of the 1139 participants lived in a census tract with a high percentage of Black residents and over 71 % lived in high-poverty census tracts. Foreign-born Black men living in neighborhoods with a high concentration of Black residents were less likely to be treated for their high blood pressure (aPR 0.44, 95 % CI 0.22–0.88), but this result did not hold for US-born Black men. There were no significant associations between neighborhood poverty and hypertension outcomes. Conclusions: Neighborhood context may impact treatment for hypertension, one of the most important factors in hypertension control and decreasing hypertension-related mortality, particularly among foreign-born Black men.
Training nurses in task-shifting strategies for the management and control of hypertension in Ghana: a mixed-methods study
Gyamfi, J., Plange-Rhule, J., Iwelunmor, J., Lee, D., Blackstone, S. R., Mitchell, A., Ntim, M., Apusiga, K., Tayo, B., Yeboah-Awudzi, K., Cooper, R., & Ogedegbe, G.
BMC Health Services Research
Background: Nurses in Ghana play a vital role in the delivery of primary health care at both the household and community level. However, there is lack of information on task shifting the management and control of hypertension to community health nurses in low- and middle-income countries including Ghana. The purpose of this study was to assess nurses' knowledge and practice of hypertension management and control pre- and post-training utilizing task-shifting strategies for hypertension control in Ghana (TASSH). Methods: A pre- and post- test survey was administered to 64 community health nurses (CHNs) and enrolled nurses (ENs) employed in community health centers and district hospitals before and after the TASSH training, followed by semi-structured qualitative interviews that assessed nurses' satisfaction with the training, resultant changes in practice and barriers and facilitators to optimal hypertension management. Results: A total of 64 CHNs and ENs participated in the TASSH training. The findings of the pre- and post-training assessments showed a marked improvement in nurses' knowledge and practice related to hypertension detection and treatment. At pre-assessment 26.9% of the nurses scored 80% or more on the hypertension knowledge test, whereas this improved significantly to 95.7% post-training. Improvement of interpersonal skills and patient education were also mentioned by the nurses as positive outcomes of participation in the intervention. Conclusions: Findings suggest that if all nurses receive even brief training in the management and control of hypertension, major public health benefits are likely to be achieved in low-income countries like Ghana. However, more research is needed to ascertain implementation fidelity and sustainability of interventions such as TASSH that highlight the potential role of nurses in mitigating barriers to optimal hypertension control in Ghana. Trial registration: Trial registration for parent TASSH study: NCT01802372 . Registered February 27, 2013.
Testing the use of practice facilitation in a cluster randomized stepped-wedge design trial to improve adherence to cardiovascular disease prevention guidelines: HealthyHearts NYC
Shelley, D. R., Ogedegbe, G., Anane, S., Wu, W. Y., Goldfeld, K., Gold, H. T., Kaplan, S., & Berry, C.
Background: HealthyHearts NYC (HHNYC) will evaluate the effectiveness of practice facilitation as a quality improvement strategy for implementing the Million Hearts' ABCS treatment guidelines for reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) among high-risk patients who receive care in primary care practices in New York City. ABCS refers to (A) aspirin in high-risk individuals; (B) blood pressure control; (C) cholesterol management; and (S) smoking cessation. The long-term goal is to create a robust infrastructure for implementing and disseminating evidence-based practice guidelines (EBPG) in primary care practices. Methods/design: We are using a stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial design to evaluate the implementation process and the impact of practice facilitation (PF) versus usual care on ABCS outcomes in 250 small primary care practices. Randomization is at the practice site level, all of which begin as part of the control condition. The intervention consists of one year of PF that includes a combination of one-on-one onsite visits and shared learning across practice sites. PFs will focus on helping sites implement evidence-based components of patient-centered medical home (PCMH) and the chronic care model (CCM), which include decision support, provider feedback, self-management tools and resources, and linkages to community-based services. Discussion: We hypothesize that practice facilitation will result in superior clinical outcomes compared to usual care; that the effects of practice facilitation will be mediated by greater adoption of system changes in accord with PCMH and CCM; and that there will be increased adaptive reserve and change capacity.
Psychosocial correlates of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study
Shallcross, A. J., Butler, M., Tanner, R. M., Bress, A., Muntner, P., Shimbo, D., Ogedegbe, G., Sims, M., & Spruill, T. M.
Journal of Human Hypertension
Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. aTRH is common and disproportionately affects African Americans. The objective of this study is to explore psychosocial correlates of aTRH in a population-based cohort of African Americans with hypertension. The sample included 1392 participants in the Jackson Heart Study with treated hypertension who reported being adherent to their antihypertensive medications. aTRH was defined as uncontrolled clinic BP (⩾140/90 mm Hg) with ⩾3 classes of antihypertensive medication or treatment with ⩾4 classes of antihypertensive medication, including a diuretic. Self-reported medication adherence was defined as taking all prescribed antihypertensive medication in the 24 h before the study visit. The association of psychosocial factors (chronic stress, depressive symptoms, perceived social support and social network) with aTRH was evaluated using Poisson regression with progressive adjustment for demographic, clinical and behavioural factors. The prevalence of aTRH was 15.1% (n=210). Participants with aTRH had lower social network scores (that is, fewer sources of regular social contact) compared with participants without aTRH (P<0.01). No other psychosocial factors differed between groups. Social network was also the only psychosocial factor that was associated with aTRH prevalence in regression analyses. In age-, sex-adjusted and fully adjusted models, one additional unique source of social contact was associated with a 19% (PR=0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68–0.94, P=0.001) and a 13% (PR=0.87; 95% CI 0.74–1.0, P=0.041) lower prevalence of aTRH, respectively. Social network was independently associated with aTRH and warrants further investigation as a potentially modifiable determinant of aTRH in African Americans.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 26 January 2017; doi:10.1038/jhh.2016.100.
What do You Need to Get Male Partners of Pregnant Women Tested for HIV in Resource Limited Settings? The Baby Shower Cluster Randomized Trial
Ezeanolue, E. E., Obiefune, M. C., Yang, W., Ezeanolue, C. O., Pharr, J., Osuji, A., Ogidi, A. G., Hunt, A. T., Patel, D., Ogedegbe, G., & Ehiri, J. E.
AIDS and Behavior
Male partner involvement has the potential to increase uptake of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). Finding cultural appropriate strategies to promote male partner involvement in PMTCT programs remains an abiding public health challenge. We assessed whether a congregation-based intervention, the Healthy Beginning Initiative (HBI), would lead to increased uptake of HIV testing among male partners of pregnant women during pregnancy. A cluster-randomized controlled trial of forty churches in Southeastern Nigeria randomly assigned to either the HBI (intervention group; IG) or standard of care referral to a health facility (control group; CG) was conducted. Participants in the IG received education and were offered onsite HIV testing. Overall, 2498 male partners enrolled and participated, a participation rate of 88.9%. Results showed that male partners in the IG were 12 times more likely to have had an HIV test compared to male partners of pregnant women in the CG (CG = 37.71% vs. IG = 84.00%; adjusted odds ratio = 11.9; p < .01). Culturally appropriate and community-based interventions can be effective in increasing HIV testing and counseling among male partners of pregnant women.