Minority males: Cultural stressors and their impact on health and well-being
Cook, S., Calebs, B., Perry, M., & Hopkins, R. In Social issues in living color: Challenges and solutions from the perspective of ethnic minority psychology.
Transitions in Friendship Attachment during Adolescence are Associated with Developmental Trajectories of Depression Through Adulthood
Cook, S. H., Heinze, J. E., Miller, A. L., & Zimmerman, M. A.
Journal of Adolescent Health
Purpose Forming secure friendship attachments during adolescence are important for mental health; few, however, have specifically examined the ways in which the transitions in attachment during adolescence may influence future mental health outcomes among African Americans. Methods The present study examines how transitions in attachment in adolescence predicted changes in depression symptoms from late adolescents through adulthood in an African-American sample. We used growth curve modeling to examine the association between transitions in friendship attachment and changes in depression symptoms in adulthood. Results At age 16 years, 346 (64.0%) adolescents reported secure attachment with 195 (36.0%) reporting either avoidant or resistant attachment. At age 17 years, 340 (62.9%) reported secure attachment and 201 (37.2%) reported avoidant or resistant attachment. The largest percentage of participants (46.2%) reported stable-secure attachment across the two time points. Results of the growth model indicated that adolescents who reported a stable-secure attachment style had lower levels of depression symptoms during adulthood than those individuals who transitioned from secure-to-insecure, from insecure-to-secure, or were in the stable-insecure group. Interestingly enough, individuals in both the attachment transition groups had a faster declining rate of depression symptoms over time compared to the two stability groups. Conclusions Data support existing research showing an association between transitions in attachment during adolescence and depression through adulthood. Furthermore, these study findings suggest there may be protective features associated with transitioning between attachment styles during adolescence on later depression, compared to African Americans who remain stable in their attachment style.
Consumption of sugars, sugary foods, and sugary beverages in relation to adiposity-related cancer risk in the framingham offspring cohort (1991–2013)
Makarem, N., Bandera, E. V., Lin, Y., Jacques, P. F., Hayes, R. B., & Parekh, N.
Cancer Prevention Research
Background: Higher sugar consumption may increase cancer risk by promoting insulin-glucose dysregulation, oxidative stress, hormonal imbalances, and excess adiposity. This prospective study investigates the association between dietary sugars (fructose and sucrose) and sugary foods and beverages in relation to combined and site-specific (breast, prostate, colorectal) adiposity-associated cancers. Methods: The analytic sample consisted of 3,184 adults, aged 26–84 years, from the Framingham Offspring cohort. Diet data were first collected between 1991 and 1995 using a food frequency questionnaire. Intakes of fructose, sucrose, sugary foods, and sugary beverages (fruit juice and sugar-sweetened beverages) were derived. Participants were followed up until 2013 to ascertain cancer incidence; 565 doctor-diagnosed adiposity-related cancers, including 124 breast, 157 prostate, and 68 colorectal cancers occurred. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate associations. Tests for interaction with BMI and waist circumference were conducted. Results: No associations were observed between fructose, sucrose, sugary food consumption, and combined incidence of adiposity-related cancers or the examined site-specific cancers. While total consumption of sugary beverages was not associated with site-specific cancer risk, higher intakes of fruit juice were associated with 58% increased prostate cancer risk (HR: 1.58; 95% CI, 1.04–2.41) in multivariable-adjusted models. In exploratory stratified analyses, higher sugary beverage intakes increased overall adiposity-related cancer risk by 59% in participants with excessive central adiposity (HR: 1.59; 95% CI, 1.01–2.50; Ptrend ¼ 0.057). Conclusions: In this cohort of American adults, higher sugary beverage consumption was associated with increased cancer risk among participants with central adiposity. Impact: These analyses suggest that avoiding sugary beverages represents a simple dietary modification that may be used as an effective cancer control strategy.
Associations of Whole and Refined Grain Intakes with Adiposity-Related Cancer Risk in the Framingham Offspring Cohort (1991–2013)
Makarem, N., Bandera, E. V., Lin, Y., McKeown, N. M., Hayes, R. B., & Parekh, N.
Nutrition and Cancer
Case-control studies suggest that higher whole grain and lower refined grain intakes are associated with reduced cancer risk, but longitudinal evidence is limited. The objective of this prospective cohort study is to evaluate associations between whole and refined grains and their food sources in relation to adiposity-related cancer risk. Participants were adults from the Framingham Offspring cohort (N = 3,184; ≥18 yr). Diet, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, medical and lifestyle data were collected at exam 5 (1991–95). Between 1991 and 2013, 565 adiposity-related cancers were ascertained using pathology reports. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations of whole and refined grains with risk of adiposity-related cancers combined and with risk of breast and prostate cancers in exploratory site-specific analyses. Null associations between whole and refined grains and combined incidence of adiposity-related cancers were observed in multivariable-adjusted models (HR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.71–1.23 and HR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.70–1.38, respectively). In exploratory analyses, higher intakes of whole grains (oz eq/day) and whole grain food sources (servings/day) were associated with 39% and 47% lower breast cancer risk (HR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.38–0.98 and HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.33–0.86, respectively). In conclusion, whole and refined grains were not associated with adiposity-related cancer risk. Whole grains may protect against breast cancer, but findings require confirmation within a larger sample and in other ethnic groups.
Associations of Parental Self-Efficacy With Diet, Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Swedish Preschoolers: Results From the MINISTOP Trial
Parekh, N., Henriksson, P., Delisle Nyström, C., Silfvernagel, K., Ruiz, J. R., Ortega, F. B., Pomeroy, J., & Löf, M.
Health Education and Behavior
Background. High parental self-efficacy (PSE) has been associated with healthy diets and higher levels of physical activity (PA) in children; however, data on PSE in relation to body weight and body composition are scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of PSE with measures of diet, PA, body composition, and physical fitness in early childhood. Method. We used baseline data from the MINISTOP trial in healthy Swedish children (n = 301; 4.5 ± 0.15 years). PSE was assessed using a questionnaire, dietary data were collected using a mobile technology–assisted methodology, and PA was obtained (sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous) by accelerometry. Body composition was measured using the pediatric option for BodPod and cardiorespiratory fitness by the 20 m shuttle run. Linear regression was conducted to evaluate cross-sectional associations of the outcomes in relation to total PSE and scores computed for the individual PSE factors: (1) diet, (2) limit setting of unhealthful behaviors, and (3) PA. Results. Higher scores of total PSE and the diet factor were associated with higher fruit intake (β = 0.82 g/point and 1.99 g/point; p =.014 and.009, respectively) and lower consumption of unhealthy snacks (β = −0.42 g/point and −0.89 g/point; p =.012 and.020, respectively) after adjustment for parental body mass index and education, respondent, and child’s sex and age. No associations were observed between PSE and PA, body composition, or cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusions. Our study noted that PSE should be considered in conjunction with other strategies for a sustainable impact on childhood obesity.
Carbohydrate nutrition and risk of adiposity-related cancers: results from the Framingham Offspring cohort (1991–2013)
Makarem, N., Bandera, E. V., Lin, Y., Jacques, P. F., Hayes, R. B., & Parekh, N.
British Journal of Nutrition
Higher carbohydrate intake, glycaemic index (GI), and glycaemic load (GL) are hypothesised to increase cancer risk through metabolic dysregulation of the glucose-insulin axis and adiposity-related mechanisms, but epidemiological evidence is inconsistent. This prospective cohort study investigates carbohydrate quantity and quality in relation to risk of adiposity-related cancers, which represent the most commonly diagnosed preventable cancers in the USA. In exploratory analyses, associations with three site-specific cancers: breast, prostate and colorectal cancers were also examined. The study sample consisted of 3184 adults from the Framingham Offspring cohort. Dietary data were collected in 1991–1995 using a FFQ along with lifestyle and medical information. From 1991 to 2013, 565 incident adiposity-related cancers, including 124 breast, 157 prostate and sixty-eight colorectal cancers, were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the role of carbohydrate nutrition in cancer risk. GI and GL were not associated with risk of adiposity-related cancers or any of the site-specific cancers. Total carbohydrate intake was not associated with risk of adiposity-related cancers combined or prostate and colorectal cancers. However, carbohydrate consumption in the highest v. lowest quintile was associated with 41 % lower breast cancer risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0·59; 95 % CI 0·36, 0·97). High-, medium- and low-GI foods were not associated with risk of adiposity-related cancers or prostate and colorectal cancers. In exploratory analyses, low-GI foods, were associated with 49 % lower breast cancer risk (HR 0·51; 95 % CI 0·32, 0·83). In this cohort of Caucasian American adults, associations between carbohydrate nutrition and cancer varied by cancer site. Healthier low-GI carbohydrate foods may prevent adiposity-related cancers among women, but these findings require confirmation in a larger sample.
Nutrition Literacy among Cancer Survivors: Feasibility Results from the Healthy Eating and Living Against Breast Cancer (HEAL-BCa) Study: a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
Parekh, N., Jiang, J., Buchan, M., Meyers, M., Gibbs, H., & Krebs, P.
Journal of Cancer Education
Knowledge of nutrition among breast cancer patients is insufficient, despite their motivation to seek valid information about healthy food choices. This study examines the feasibility of nutrition education workshops for cancer survivors, to inform the design of a multi-center intervention. Fifty-nine female English-speaking breast cancer patients, who had completed treatment, were enrolled. Participants were randomized to the intervention or control group. The intervention group attended six nutrition education sessions, and the control group received brochures. Measurements were done at baseline and 3-month follow-up and included the Assessment Instrument for Breast Cancer (NLit-BCa), fruit/vegetable and general health literacy screeners. Height and weight were measured. Changes in nutrition literacy, health literacy, and food intake from baseline to follow-up (within-group change) were calculated for both groups (effect sizes were reported as Cohen’s d). Participants were mostly white, with a mean age of 58 years, BMI of 31.6 kg/m2, and had college degrees. Follow-up rates were high (89% = control and 77% = intervention group). At baseline, participants scored high for most NLit-BCa assessment components except food portions in both groups. At the 3-month follow-up, effect sizes (d) on the NLit-BCa ranged from −0.5 to 0.16. The study met its recruitment goals within 6 months. Focus groups indicated that (a) attending six sessions was acceptable, (b) patients found social/emotional support, (c) improvements should include information for special diets and booster sessions. This pilot study suggests that the intervention was acceptable and that scaling up of this intervention is feasible and could provide benefit to breast cancer survivors.
Explaining racial/ethnic dietary patter ns in relation to type 2 diabetes: An analysis of NHAN ES 2007-2012
Nowlin, S. Y., Cleland, C. M., Vadiveloo, M., Parekh, N., Melkus, G. D., & Hagan, H.
Ethnicity and Disease
Objective: The purpose of this article is to examine sociodemographic and health behavior factors associated with dietary intake as measured by the healthy eating index (HEI-2010) for persons with and without diabetes (T2D). Design: A secondary data analysis of three NHANES data cycles spanning 2007-2012. Multiple linear regression assessed racial/ ethnic differences in HEI-2010 scores in those without T2D, with T2D, and with undiagnosed T2D. Participants: The sample included nonpregnant adults aged ≥20 years who had two days of reliable dietary recall data. Outcome Measures: Total scores for the HEI-2010. Results: For those without T2D, there was a significant association between race/ ethnicity and HEI score, with non-Hispanic Blacks achieving significantly lower scores than their non-Hispanic White counterparts. Differences in HEI-2010 score were also associated with age, sex, smoking status and time spent in the United States. Racial/ ethnic differences in dietary patterns were present, but not significant in those with undiagnosed or diagnosed T2D. Conclusions: Racial/ethnic disparities in dietary patterns are present in individuals without T2D, but differences are not statistically significant in those with undiagnosed or diagnosed T2D. Non-Hispanic Blacks without T2D received significantly lower HEI-2010 scores than non-Hispanic Whites. Further research is necessary to determine whether or not similarities in dietary intake across racial/ethnic groups with T2D will be reflected in diabetes-related health outcomes in this population.
Increasing mortality in the United States from cholangiocarcinoma: An analysis of the National Center for Health Statistics Database
Yao, K. J., Jabbour, S., Parekh, N., Lin, Y., & Moss, R. A.
Background: While mortality in the United States has decreased for most cancers, mortality from combined hepatocellular liver cancer and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) has increased and ranked 1st in annual percent increase among cancer sites. Because reported statistics combine ICC with other liver cancers, mortality rates of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) remain unknown. This study is to determine CCA mortality trends and variation based on national data. Methods: This nation-wide study was based on the underlying cause of death data collected by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) between 1999 and 2014. The Center for Disease Control (CDC) Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) system was used to obtain data. ICC and extra-hepatic CCA (ECC) were defined by ICD-10 diagnosis codes. Age-adjusted mortality rate was standardized to the US population in 2000. Results: There were more than 7000 CCA deaths each year in the US after 2013. CCA mortality for those aged 25+ increased 36 % between 1999 and 2014, from 2.2 per 100,000 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.1-2.3) to 3.0 per 100,000 (95 % CI, 2.9-3.1). Mortality rates were lower among females compared with males (risk ratio [RR] 0.78, 95 % CI 0.77-0.79). Asians had the highest mortality. Between 2004 and 2014, the increase in CCA mortality was highest among African Americans (45 %) followed by Asians (22 %), and whites (20 %). Conclusion: Based on the most recent national data, CCA mortality rates have increased substantially in the past decade. Among different race/ethnic groups, African Americans have the highest increase in CCA mortality.
Consumption of whole grains and cereal fiber in relation to cancer risk: A systematic review of longitudinal studies
Makarem, N., Nicholson, J. M., Bandera, E. V., McKeown, N. M., & Parekh, N.
Context: Evidence from previous reviews is supportive of the hypothesis that whole grains may protect against various cancers. However, the reviews did not report risk estimates for both whole grains and cereal fiber and only case-control studies were evaluated. It is unclear whether longitudinal studies support this conclusion. Objective: To evaluate associations between whole grains and cereal fiber in relation to risk of lifestyle-related cancers data from longitudinal studies was evaluated. Data Sources: The following 3 databases were systematically searched: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL. Study Selection: A total of 43 longitudinal studies conducted in Europe and North America that reported multivariable-adjusted risk estimates for whole grains (n=14), cereal fiber (n=23), or both (n=6) in relation to lifestyle-related cancers were included. Data Extraction: Information on study location, cohort name, follow-up duration, sample characteristics, dietary assessment method, risk estimates, and confounders was extracted. Data Synthesis: Of 20 studies examining whole grains and cancer, 6 studies reported a statistically significant 6%-47% reduction in risk, but 14 studies showed no association. Of 29 studies examining cereal fiber intake in relation to cancer, 8 showed a statistically significant 6%-49% reduction in risk, whereas 21 studies reported no association. Conclusions: This systematic review concludes that most studies were suggestive of a null association. Whole grains and cereal fiber may protect against gastrointestinal cancers, but these findings require confirmation in additional studies.