September 12, 2018
Research and Development in Hypertension Screening Guidelines and Treatment Protocols in Uganda
By: Sarah Bender, Felicity Duran, and Jason F. Arnold
Longitudinal associations between youth tobacco and substance use in waves 1 and 2 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study
Silveira, M. L., Conway, K. P., Green, V. R., Kasza, K. A., Sargent, J. D., Borek, N., Stanton, C. A., Cohn, A., Hilmi, N., Cummings, K. M., Niaura, R., Lambert, E. Y., Brunette, M. F., Zandberg, I., Tanski, S. E., Reissig, C. J., Callahan-Lyon, P., Slavit, W. I., Hyland, A. J., & Compton, W. M.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Background: While evidence suggests bidirectional associations between cigarette use and substance (alcohol or drug) use, how these associations are reflected across the range of currently available tobacco products is unknown. This study examined whether ever tobacco use predicted subsequent substance use, and ever substance use predicted subsequent tobacco use among 11,996 U.S. youth (12–17 years) from Waves 1 (2013–2014) and 2 (2014–2015) of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study. Methods: Ever use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, traditional cigars, cigarillos, filtered cigars, pipe, hookah, snus pouches, smokeless tobacco excluding snus pouches, dissolvable tobacco, bidis, kreteks, alcohol, marijuana, prescription drugs, and other drugs (cocaine and other stimulants, heroin, inhalants, solvents, and hallucinogens) was assessed at Wave 1 followed by past 12-month use assessments at Wave 2. The analyses included covariates (demographics, mental health, sensation seeking, prior use) to mitigate confounding. Results: Ever tobacco use predicted subsequent substance use. The magnitude of the associations was lowest for alcohol, higher for marijuana, and highest for other drugs. Ever substance use also predicted subsequent tobacco use. Specifically, ever alcohol, marijuana, and non-prescribed Ritalin/Adderall use predicted tobacco-product use. Ever e-cigarette and cigarette use exclusively and concurrently predicted subsequent any drug (including and excluding alcohol) use. E-cigarette and cigarette use associations in the opposite direction were also significant; the strongest associations were observed for exclusive cigarette use. Conclusion: Tobacco and substance use prevention efforts may benefit from comprehensive screening and interventions across tobacco products, alcohol, and drugs, and targeting risk factors shared across substances.
August 30, 2018
A Message from the Department of Global Health to All Incoming Global Health Concentration Students
Correlates of burnout in small independent primary care practices in an urban setting
Blechter, B., Jiang, N., Cleland, C., Berry, C., Ogedegbe, O., & Shelley, D.
Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine
Background: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of burnout among providers who work in small independent primary care practices (<5 providers). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis by using data collected from 235 providers practicing in 174 small independent primary care practices in New York City. Results: The rate of provider-reported burnout was 13.5%. Using bivariate logistic regression, we found higher adaptive reserve scores were associated with lower odds of burnout (odds ratio, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02– 0.85; P .034). Conclusion: The burnout rate was relatively low among our sample of providers compared with previous surveys that focused primarily on larger practices. The independence and autonomy providers have in these small practices may provide some protection against symptoms of burnout. In addition, the relationship between adaptive reserve and lower rates of burnout point toward potential interventions for reducing burnout that include strengthening primary care practices’ learning and development capacity.
Community Oriented Primary Care: Training for Urban Practice
Boufford, J. I., & Shonubi, P. A.
Setting the global agenda for health
Boufford, J. I. In Global Dimensions in Domestic Health Issues.