Chair and Professor of the Department of Public Health Policy and Management
Dr. Pagán received his PhD in economics from the University of New Mexico and is a former Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health & Society Scholar with expertise in health economics and population health. He has led research, implementation, and evaluation projects on the redesign of health care delivery and payment systems. He is interested in population health management, health care payment and delivery system reform, and the social determinants of health. Over the years his research has been funded through grants and contracts from the Department of Defense, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, the European Commission, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, among others.
Dr. Pagán is Chair of the Board of Directors of NYC Health + Hospitals, the largest public healthcare system in the United States. He also served as Chair of the National Advisory Committee of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s Health Policy Research Scholars and was a member of the Board of Directors of the Interdisciplinary Association for Population Health Science and the American Society of Health Economists.
Applied EconomicsHealth EconomicsPopulation HealthPublic Health Policy
Aligning social and health care services: The case of Community Care ConnectionsFisher, E. M., Akiya, K., Wells, A., Li, Y., Peck, C., & Pagán, J. A.
Journal titlePreventive Medicine
Volume143AbstractThe Community Care Connections (CCC) program aims to align social and healthcare services to improve health outcomes in older adults with complex medical and social needs. This study assessed changes in healthcare utilization before and after CCC program participation. Between June 2016 and March 2019, 1214 adults with complete data who provided informed consent participated in the CCC program. CCC client data were linked with data on hospitalizations, emergency department (ED) visits, and observation stays 90 days before and after program start. Data analysis examined changes in health care utilization 90 days after program start, compared to 90 days before. Hospitalizations decreased by 30% (Change = −0.029, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = −0.053, −0.005), ED visits decreased by 29% (Change = −0.114, 95% CI = -0.163, −0.066), and observation stays decreased by 23% (Change = −0.041, 95% CI = -0.073, −0.009) during the post period. ED visits decreased by 37% (Change = −0.140, 95% CI = -0.209, −0.070) for those with hypertension and by 30% (Change = −0.109, 95% CI = -0.199, −0.020) for those with high cholesterol, while observation stays decreased by 46% (Change = −0.118, 95% CI = -0.185, −0.052) for those with diabetes and by 44% (Change = −0.082, 95% CI = -0.150, −0.014) for those with high cholesterol during the post period. Connecting older adults with social services through the healthcare delivery system may lead to decreases in hospitalizations, ED visits, and observation stays. Implementation of cross-sector partnerships that address non-clinical factors that impact the health of older adults may reduce the use of costly healthcare services.
Bridging hospital quality leadership to patient care qualityChakraborty, S., Kaynak, H., & Pagán, J. A.
Journal titleInternational Journal of Production Economics
Volume233AbstractUnderstanding what drives quality in the delivery of healthcare services is critical to improve the patient care experience. In a hospital, the integration of technology platforms and effective teamwork promote quality care, but this outcome requires that hospital leadership prioritizes technology integration and commits resources to sustain effective healthcare delivery teams. Some of these concepts have been investigated with a limited focus or in very narrow research contexts. Because these concepts do not interact in isolation, an empirical study that examines the relationships between them simultaneously is important to explore the links between hospital quality leadership (QL), technology integration (TI), healthcare team effectiveness (HTE) and patient care quality (PCQ). An online survey of 300 middle and senior-level U.S. hospital executives and quality heads completed during a four-month period is used to test the research hypotheses drawn primarily from quality management, information processing, and team effectiveness theories. The results suggest that hospital leaders should emphasize the integration of all technology systems in their hospitals and continuously encourage their healthcare teams to work effectively thereby improving the quality of patient care delivered. Based on the post-hoc results, we suggest that hospital quality leaders should recognize the difference in magnitude of the effects of HTE and TI on the four PCQ facets.
Views on the need to implement restriction policies to be able to address COVID-19 in the United StatesWang, V. H. C., & Pagán, J. A.
Journal titlePreventive Medicine
Volume143AbstractSeveral restriction policies implemented in many states in the United States have demonstrated their effectiveness in mitigating the spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19), but less is known about the differences in views on the restriction policies among different population segments. This study aimed to understand which different population groups of adults in the United States consider several key restriction policies as necessary to combat COVID-19. Survey data from Wave 64 (March 19–24, 2020) of the Pew Research Center's American Trends Panel (n=10,609) and logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, employment status, political party affiliation, news exposure, census region, and opinions about COVID-19 restriction policies. The policies included restricting international travel, imposing business closures, banning large group gatherings, cancelling entertainment events, closing schools, limiting restaurants to carry-out only, and postponing state primary elections. Most survey respondents viewed COVID-19 restriction policies as necessary. Views on each restriction policy varied substantially across some population segments such as age, race, and ethnicity. Regardless of population segments, those who followed news closely or considered themselves Democrat/lean Democrat were more likely to consider all the policies as necessary than those not following the news closely or those who considered themselves Republican/lean Republican. The effectiveness of key COVID-19 restriction policies is likely to vary substantially across population groups given that views on the need to implement these policies vary widely. Tailored health messages may be needed for some population segments given divergent views on COVID-19 restriction policies.
Addressing practical issues of predictive models translation into everyday practice and public health management: A combined model to predict the risk of type 2 diabetes improves incidence prediction and reduces the prevalence of missing risk predictionsVettoretti, M., Longato, E., Zandonà, A., Li, Y., Pagán, J. A., Siscovick, D., Carnethon, M. R., Bertoni, A. G., Facchinetti, A., & Di Camillo, B.
Journal titleBMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care
Issue1AbstractIntroduction Many predictive models for incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) exist, but these models are not used frequently for public health management. Barriers to their application include (1) the problem of model choice (some models are applicable only to certain ethnic groups), (2) missing input variables, and (3) the lack of calibration. While (1) and (2) drives to missing predictions, (3) causes inaccurate incidence predictions. In this paper, a combined T2D risk model for public health management that addresses these three issues is developed. Research design and methods The combined T2D risk model combines eight existing predictive models by weighted average to overcome the problem of missing incidence predictions. Moreover, the combined model implements a simple recalibration strategy in which the risk scores are rescaled based on the T2D incidence in the target population. The performance of the combined model was compared with that of the eight existing models using data from two test datasets extracted from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; n=1031) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA; n=4820). Metrics of discrimination, calibration, and missing incidence predictions were used for the assessment. Results The combined T2D model performed well in terms of both discrimination (concordance index: 0.83 on MESA; 0.77 on ELSA) and calibration (expected to observed event ratio: 1.00 on MESA; 1.17 on ELSA), similarly to the best-performing existing models. However, while the existing models yielded a large percentage of missing predictions (17%-45% on MESA; 63%-64% on ELSA), this was negligible with the combined model (0% on MESA, 4% on ELSA). Conclusions Leveraging on existing literature T2D predictive models, a simple approach based on risk score rescaling and averaging was shown to provide accurate and robust incidence predictions, overcoming the problem of recalibration and missing predictions in practical application of predictive models.
Community Health Needs Predict Population Health Partnerships Among U.S. Children’s HospitalsFranz, B., Cronin, C. E., Wainwright, A., Lai, A. Y., & Pagán, J. A.
Journal titleMedical Care Research and ReviewAbstractCross-sector collaboration is critical to improving population health, but data on partnership activities by children’s hospitals are limited, and there is a need to identify service delivery gaps for families. The aim of this study is to use public community benefit reports for all children’s hospitals in the United States to assess the extent to which children’s hospitals partner with external organizations to address five key health needs: health care access, chronic disease, social needs, mental health, and substance abuse. Strategies that involved partnering with community organizations were most common in addressing social needs and substance abuse. When adjusted for institutional and community characteristics hospitals in a multilevel regression model, hospitals had higher odds of partnering to address chronic illness and social needs. To encourage hospital engagement with complex social and behavioral health needs and promote health equity, support should be provided to help hospitals establish local population health networks.
Connecting healthcare professionals in Central America through management and leadership development: A social network analysisPrado, A. M., Pearson, A. A., Bertelsen, N. S., & Pagán, J. A.
Journal titleGlobalization and Health
Issue1AbstractBackground: Leadership and management training has become increasingly important in the education of health care professionals. Previous research has shown the benefits that a network provides to its members, such as access to resources and information, but ideas for creating these networks vary. This study used social network analysis to explore the interactions among Central American Healthcare Initiative (CAHI) Fellowship alumni and learn more about information sharing, mentoring, and project development activities among alumni. The CAHI Fellowship provides leadership and management training for multidisciplinary healthcare professionals to reduce health inequities in the region. Access to a network was previously reported as one of the top benefits of the program. Results: Information shared from the work of 100 CAHI fellows from six countries, especially within the same country, was analyzed. Mentoring relationships clustered around professions and project types, and networks of joint projects clustered by country. Mentorship, which CAHI management promoted, and joint project networks, in which members voluntarily engaged, had similar inclusiveness ratios. Conclusion: Social networks are strategic tools for health care leadership development programs to increase their impact by promoting interactions among participants. These programs can amplify intergenerational and intercountry ties by organizing events, provide opportunities for alumni to meet, assign mentors, and support collaborative action groups. Collaborative networks have great value to potentiate health professionals' leadership and management capabilities in a resource-constrained setting, such as the Global South.
Sleep duration and health care expenditures in the United StatesJasani, F. S., Seixas, A. A., Madondo, K., Li, Y., Jean-Louis, G., & Pagán, J. A.
Journal titleMedical care
Page(s)770-777AbstractObjective:To estimate the average incremental health care expenditures associated with habitual long and short duration of sleep as compared with healthy/average sleep duration.Data Source:Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data (2012; N=6476) linked to the 2010-2011 National Health Interview Survey.Study Design:Annual differences in health care expenditures are estimated for habitual long and short duration sleepers as compared with average duration sleepers using 2-part logit generalized linear regression models.Principal Findings:Habitual short duration sleepers reported an additional $1400 in total unadjusted health care expenditures compared to people with average sleep duration (P<0.01). After adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic factors, and health behavior factors, this difference remained significant with an additional $1278 in total health care expenditures over average duration sleepers (P<0.05). Long duration sleepers reported even higher, $2994 additional health care expenditures over average duration sleepers. This difference in health care expenditures remained significantly high ($1500, P<0.01) in the adjusted model. Expenditure differences are more pronounced for inpatient hospitalization, office expenses, prescription expenses, and home health care expenditures.Conclusions:Habitual short and long sleep duration is associated with higher health care expenditures, which is consistent with the association between unhealthy sleep duration and poorer health outcomes.
Timely postpartum visits for low-income women: A health system and medicaid payer partnershipHowell, E. A., Balbierz, A., Beane, S., Kumar, R., Wang, T., Fei, K., Ahmed, Z., & Pagán, J. A.
Journal titleAmerican journal of public health
Page(s)S215-S218AbstractA health care system and a Medicaid payer partnered to develop an educational intervention and payment redesign program to improve timely postpartum visits for low-income, high-risk mothers in New York City between April 2015 and October 2016. The timely postpartum visit rate was higher for 363 mothers continuously enrolled in the program than for a control group matched by propensity score (67% [243/363] and 56% [407/726], respectively; P < .001). An innovative partnership between a health care system and Medicaid payer improved access to health care services and community resources for high-risk mothers.
Trends and sociodemographic disparities in sugary drink consumption among adults in New York City, 2009–2017Jiang, N., Yi, S. S., Russo, R., Bu, D. D., Zhang, D., Ferket, B., Zhang, F. F., Pagán, J. A., Wang, Y. C., & Li, Y.
Journal titlePreventive Medicine Reports
Volume19AbstractDespite efforts to decrease sugary drink consumption, sugary drinks remain the largest single source of added sugars in diets in the United States. This study aimed to examine trends in sugary drink consumption among adults in New York City (NYC) over the past decade by key sociodemographic factors. We used data from the 2009–2017 NYC Community Health Survey to examine trends in sugary drink consumption overall, and across different age, gender, and racial/ethnic subgroups. We conducted a test of trend to examine the significance of change in mean sugary drink consumption over time. We also conducted multiple zero-inflated negative binomial regression to identify the association between different sociodemographic and neighborhood factors and sugary drink consumption. Sugary drink consumption decreased from 2009 to 2014 from 0.97 to 0.69 servings per day (p < 0.001), but then plateaued from 2014 to 2017 (p = 0.01). Although decreases were observed across all age, gender and racial/ethnic subgroups, the largest decreases over this time period were observed among 18–24 year old (1.75 to 1.22 servings per day, p < 0.001); men (1.12 to 0.86 servings per day, p < 0.001); Blacks (1.45 to 1.14 servings per day, p < 0.001); and Hispanics (1.26 to 0.86 servings per day, p < 0.001). Despite these decreases, actual mean consumption remains highest in these same sociodemographic subgroups. Although overall sugary drink consumption has been declining, the decline has slowed in more recent years. Further, certain age, gender and racial/ethnic groups still consume disproportionately more sugary drinks than others. More research is needed to understand and address the root causes of disparities in sugary drink consumption.
What Strategies Are Hospitals Adopting to Address the Opioid Epidemic? Evidence From a National Sample of Nonprofit HospitalsFranz, B., Cronin, C. E., & Pagan, J. A.
Journal titlePublic Health ReportsAbstractObjectives: Hospitals are on the front lines of the opioid epidemic, seeing patients who overdose or have complicated infections, but the extent of services offered or whether services are evidence-based is not known. The objective of our study was to assess the extent to which nonprofit hospitals are addressing opioid abuse, a critical public health issue, through their community benefit work and to identify which evidence-based strategies they adopt. Methods: We reviewed community benefit documents from January 1, 2015, through December 31, 2018, for a sample (N = 446) of all nonprofit hospitals in the United States. We classified hospital opioid-related strategies into 9 categories. Using logistic regression, we predicted the likelihood of hospitals adopting various strategies to address opioid abuse. Results: Of the 446 nonprofit hospitals in our sample, 49.1% (n = 219) adopted ≥1 clinical strategy to address opioid use disorder in their community. Approximately one-quarter (26.5%; n = 118) of hospitals adopted a strategy related to treatment services for substance use disorder; 28.2% (n = 126) had ≥1 program focused on connecting patients to a primary care medical home, and 14.6% (n = 65) focused on caring for patients with opioid-related overdoses in the emergency department. We also identified factors that predicted involvement in programs that were less common than clinical strategies, but potentially effective, such as harm reduction and prescriber initiatives (both 6.3% of hospitals). Conclusions: Evidence-based prevention and treatment require strong collaboration between health care and community institutions at all levels. Effective policy interventions may exist to encourage various types and sizes of nonprofit hospitals to adopt evidence-based interventions to address opioid abuse in their communities.
Why Are Some US Nonprofit Hospitals Not Addressing Opioid Misuse in Their Communities?Cronin, C. E., Franz, B., & Pagán, J. A.
Journal titlePopulation Health Management
Page(s)407-413AbstractThe US opioid epidemic is national in scope, but many local solutions have been shown to have efficacy. Many nonprofit hospitals have the resources and infrastructure to lead these community-based efforts, but there is evidence that some organizations are not adopting opioid services as part of their community benefit requirements to assess and address critical community health needs. This paper assesses why hospitals do not address opioid abuse after completing a community health needs assessment. For a 20% random sample of nonprofit hospitals, a unique data set was constructed of hospital efforts to address opioid abuse using the most recent publicly available community health needs assessments and implementation strategies adopted by hospitals (calendar years 2015, 2016, 2017, or 2018). Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between 5 different reasons hospitals cited for not addressing opioid abuse and both hospital and community characteristics. Results indicate that opioid abuse was not addressed by 32% (143) of hospitals in their formal implementation strategies. State community benefit laws, county overdose level, county poverty rate, hospital region, and hospital system membership all were significantly related to the reasons hospitals cited for not addressing opioid abuse as part of their community health engagement. Hospitals in communities with significant substance abuse needs and few institutional resources may need support to address opioid misuse and adopt treatment and harm reduction initiatives. Policies that support hospital-public health partnerships may be especially important to assist hospitals to address nonmedical or behavioral health needs in their communities.
“Hey, We Can Do This Together”: Findings from an Evaluation of a Multi-sectoral Community CoalitionRealmuto, L., Weiss, L., Masseo, P., Madondo, K., Kumar, R., Beane, S., & Pagán, J. A.
Journal titleJournal of Urban HealthAbstractMulti-sectoral coalitions focused on systemic health inequities are commonly promoted as important mechanisms to facilitate changes with lasting impacts on population health. However, the development and implementation of such initiatives present significant challenges, and evaluation results are commonly inconclusive. In an effort to add to the evidence base, we conducted a mixed-methods evaluation of the Claremont Healthy Village Initiative, a multi-sectoral partnership based in the Bronx, New York City. At an organizational level, there were positive outcomes with respect to expanded services, increased access to resources for programs, improved linkages, better coordination, and empowerment of local leaders—all consistent with a systemic, community building approach to change. Direct impacts on community members were more difficult to assess: perceived access to health and other services improved, while community violence and poor sanitation, which were also priorities for community members, remained important challenges. Findings suggest significant progress, as well as continued need.
Assessing the Impact of Language Access Regulations on the Provision of Pharmacy ServicesWeiss, L., Scherer, M., Chantarat, T., Oshiro, T., Padgen, P., Pagan, J., Rosenfeld, P., & Yin, H. S.
Journal titleJournal of Urban Health
Page(s)644-651AbstractApproximately 25 million people in the United States are limited English proficient (LEP). Appropriate language services can improve care for LEP individuals, and health care facilities receiving federal funds are required to provide such services. Recognizing the risk of inadequate comprehension of prescription medication instructions, between 2008 and 2012, New York City and State passed a series of regulations that require chain pharmacies to provide translated prescription labels and other language services to LEP patients. We surveyed pharmacists before (2006) and after (2015) implementation of the regulations to assess their impact in chain pharmacies. Our findings demonstrate a significant improvement in capacity of chains to assist LEP patients. A higher proportion of chain pharmacies surveyed in 2015 reported printing translated labels, access and use of telephone interpreter services, multilingual signage, and documentation of language needs in patient records. These findings illustrate the potential impact of policy changes on institutional practices that impact large and vulnerable portions of the population.
Decoding Nonadherence to Hypertensive Medication in New York City: A Population Segmentation ApproachLi, Y., Jasani, F., Su, D., Zhang, D., Shi, L., Yi, S. S., & Pagán, J. A.
Journal titleJournal of Primary Care and Community Health
Volume10AbstractObjective: Nearly one-third of adults in New York City (NYC) have high blood pressure and many social, economic, and behavioral factors may influence nonadherence to antihypertensive medication. The objective of this study is to identify profiles of adults who are not taking antihypertensive medications despite being advised to do so. Methods: We used a machine learning–based population segmentation approach to identify population profiles related to nonadherence to antihypertensive medication. We used data from the 2016 NYC Community Health Survey to identify and segment adults into subgroups according to their level of nonadherence to antihypertensive medications. Results: We found that more than 10% of adults in NYC were not taking antihypertensive medications despite being advised to do so by their health care providers. We identified age, neighborhood poverty, diabetes, household income, health insurance coverage, and race/ethnicity as important characteristics that can be used to predict nonadherence behaviors as well as used to segment adults with hypertension into 10 subgroups. Conclusions: Identifying segments of adults who do not adhere to hypertensive medications has practical implications as this knowledge can be used to develop targeted interventions to address this population health management challenge and reduce health disparities.
Diabetes Management Through Remote Patient Monitoring: The Importance of Patient Activation and Engagement with the TechnologySu, D., Michaud, T. L., Estabrooks, P., Schwab, R. J., Eiland, L. A., Hansen, G., Devany, M., Zhang, D., Li, Y., Pagán, J. A., & Siahpush, M.
Journal titleTelemedicine and e-Health
Page(s)952-959AbstractBackground: The documented efficacy and promise of telemedicine in diabetes management does not necessarily mean that it can be easily translated into clinical practice. An important barrier concerns patient activation and engagement with telemedicine technology. Objective: To assess the importance of patient activation and engagement with remote patient monitoring technology in diabetes management among patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses were used to examine how patient activation and engagement with remote patient monitoring technology were related to changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) for 1,354 patients with type 2 diabetes monitored remotely for 3 months between 2015 and 2017. Results: Patients with more frequent and regular participation in remote monitoring had lower HbA1c levels at the end of the program. Compared to patients who uploaded their biometric data every 2 days or less frequently, patients who maintained an average frequency of one upload per day were less likely to have a postmonitoring HbA1c > 9% after adjusting for selected covariates on baseline demographics and health conditions. Conclusions: Higher levels of patient activation and engagement with remote patient monitoring technology were associated with better glycemic control outcomes. Developing targeted interventions for different groups of patients to promote their activation and engagement levels would be important to improve the effectiveness of remote patient monitoring in diabetes management.
Do State Opioid Policies Influence Nonprofit Hospitals’ Decisions to Address Substance Abuse in Their Communities?Franz, B., Cronin, C. E., Skinner, D., & Pagán, J. A.
Journal titleMedical Care Research and ReviewAbstractThe U.S. epidemic of opioid abuse calls for broad collaboration between a wide range of health care institutions and the various levels of government. Through the community benefit programs they provide, nonprofit hospitals are well positioned to be key partners in local efforts. Although substance abuse appears on approximately 90% of the most recent community health needs assessments completed by hospitals, many hospitals are not addressing substance abuse in their programmatic efforts. Given wide state variation in policies to combat opioid abuse, we assess whether state leadership to address the opioid crisis influences hospital decisions to invest in substance abuse programs. Our findings suggest that several key state policies are related to hospital investments in substance abuse initiatives. To capitalize on the community benefit responsibilities of local hospitals, policies that provide specific direction for and engagement with local hospitals may increase cooperation and investments to address substance abuse.
Implementing Project Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes for Geriatric Mental Healthcare in Long-Term Care FacilitiesHasselberg, M. J., Fisher, E., Conwell, Y., Jacobowitz, D., & Pagán, J. A. In Journal of the American Medical Directors Association.
Measuring Efforts of Nonprofit Hospitals to Address Opioid Abuse After the Affordable Care ActFranz, B., Cronin, C. E., Wainwright, A., & Pagán, J. A.
Journal titleJournal of Primary Care and Community Health
Volume10AbstractObjectives: To assess the strategies that nonprofit hospitals are adopting to address opioid abuse after requirements for community engagement expanded in the Affordable Care Act. Methods: We constructed a dataset of implementation activities for a 20% random sample of nonprofit hospitals in the United States. Using logistic regression, we assessed the extent to which strategies adopted are new, existing, or primarily partnerships. Using negative binomial regression, we assessed the total number of strategies adopted. We controlled for hospital and community characteristics as well as state policies related to opioid abuse. Results: Most strategies adopted by hospitals were new and clinical in nature and the most common number of strategies adopted was one. Hospitals in the Northeast were more likely to adopt a higher number of strategies and to partner with community-based organizations. Hospitals that partner with community-based organizations were more likely to adopt strategies that engage in harm reduction, targeted risk education, or focus on addressing social determinants of health. Conclusions: Community, institutional, and state policy characteristics predict hospital involvement in addressing opioid abuse. These findings underscore several opportunities to support hospital-led interventions to address opioid abuse.
Patient Perception and Cost-Effectiveness of a Patient Navigation Program to Improve Breast Cancer Screening for Hispanic WomenLi, Y., Carlson, E., Hernández, D. A., Green, B., Calle, T., Kumaresan, T., Madondo, K., Martinez, M., Villarreal, R., Meraz, L., & Pagán, J. A.
Journal titleHealth Equity
Page(s)280-286AbstractPurpose: Hispanic women are less likely to be screened for breast cancer than non-Hispanic women, which contributes to the disproportionate prevalence of advanced-stage breast cancer in this population group. Patient navigation may be a promising approach to help women overcome the complexity of accessing multiple health care services related to breast cancer screening and treatment. The goal of this study is to assess patient perception and cost-effectiveness of a multilevel, community-based patient navigation program to improve breast cancer screening among Hispanic women in South Texas. Methods: We used mixed methods - including focus groups of program participants and a microsimulation model of breast cancer - to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the program on the target population. Program data from 2013 to 2016 were collected and used to conduct the analyses. Results: Focus groups showed that the patient navigation program improved patient knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding breast health and increased the mammography screening rate from 60% to 80%. Cost-effectiveness analysis showed that the program could increase life expectancy by 0.71 years and yield an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $3120 per quality-adjusted life year compared to no intervention. Conclusion: The 3-year multilevel, community-based patient navigation program effectively increased mammography screening uptake and adherence and improved knowledge and behaviors on breast health among program participants. Future research is needed to translate and disseminate the program to other socioeconomic and demographic groups to test its robustness and design.
PrefacePagán, J., Mokhtari, M., Aloulou, H., Abdulrazak, B., & Cabrera, M. F.
Journal titleLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Spatial enablement to support environmental, demographic, socioeconomics and health data integration and analysis for big cities: A case study with asthma hospitalizations in New York CityPala, D., Pagán, J., Parimbelli, E., Rocca, M. T., Bellazzi, R., & Casella, V.
Journal titleFrontiers in Medicine
Volume6AbstractThe percentage of the world's population living in urban areas is projected to increase in the next decades. Big cities are heterogeneous environments in which socioeconomic and environmental differences among the neighborhoods are often very pronounced. Each individual, during his/her life, is constantly subject to a mix of exposures that have an effect on their phenotype but are frequently difficult to identify, especially in an urban environment. Studying how the combination of environmental and socioeconomic factors which the population is exposed to influences pathological outcomes can help transforming public health from a reactive to a predictive system. Thanks to the application of state-of-the-art spatially enabled methods, patients can be stratified according to their characteristics and the geographical context they live in, optimizing healthcare processes and the reducing its costs. Some public health studies focusing specifically on urban areas have been conducted, but they usually consider a coarse spatial subdivision, as a consequence of scarce availability of well-integrated data regarding health and environmental exposure at a sufficient level of granularity to enable meaningful statistical analyses. In this paper, we present an application of highly fine-grained spatial resolution methods to New York City data. We investigated the link between asthma hospitalizations and a combination of air pollution and other environmental and socioeconomic factors. We first performed an explorative analysis using spatial clustering methods that shows that asthma is related to numerous factors whose level of influence varies considerably among neighborhoods. We then performed a Geographically Weighted Regression with different covariates and determined which environmental and socioeconomic factors can predict hospitalizations and how they vary throughout the city. These methods showed to be promising both for visualization and analysis of demographic and epidemiological urban dynamics, that can be used to organize targeted intervention and treatment policies to address the single citizens considering the factors he/she is exposed to. We found a link between asthma and several factors such as PM2.5, age, health insurance coverage, race, poverty, obesity, industrial areas and recycling. This study has been conducted within the PULSE project, funded by the European Commission, briefly presented in this paper.
The Impact of Ritual Bathing in a Holy Hindu River on Waterborne DiseasesRoy Chowdhury, S., Bohara, A. K., Katuwal, H., Pagán, J. A., & Thacher, J. A.
Journal titleDeveloping Economies
Page(s)36-54AbstractIn this paper, we identify the role of religious practices on individual outcomes by examining if bathing in polluted river water for religious reasons affects the likelihood of missing days at work. To exploit the relationship, we use a primary survey (N = 1,200) of the residents of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal on their Bagmati River water usage. Probit and negative binomial estimation strategies reveal that bathing in river water, driven by traditional and cultural norms, is significantly associated with a higher probability of missing work. Among other factors, accessibility to personal sanitation facilities have a negative and significant correlation with the likelihood of missing work due to health reasons.
Assessing the role of access and price on the consumption of fruits and vegetables across New York City using agent-based modelingLi, Y., Zhang, D., Thapa, J. R., Madondo, K., Yi, S., Fisher, E., Griffin, K., Liu, B., Wang, Y., & Pagán, J. A.
Journal titlePreventive Medicine
Page(s)73-78AbstractMost residents in New York City (NYC) do not consume sufficient fruits and vegetables every day. Difficulties with access and high prices of fruits and vegetables in some neighborhoods contribute to different consumption patterns across NYC neighborhoods. We developed an agent-based model (ABM) to predict dietary behaviors of individuals at the borough and neighborhood levels. Model parameters were estimated from the 2014 NYC Community Health Survey, United States Census data, and the literature. We simulated six hypothetical interventions designed to improve access and reduce the price of fruits and vegetables. We found that all interventions would lead to increases in fruit and vegetable consumption but the results vary substantially across boroughs and neighborhoods. For example, a 10% increase in the number of fruit/vegetable vendors combined with a 10% decrease in the prices of fruits and vegetables would lead to a median increase of 2.28% (range: 0.65%–4.92%) in the consumption of fruits and vegetables, depending on neighborhood. We also found that the impact of increasing the number of vendors on fruit/vegetable consumption is more pronounced in unhealthier local food environments while the impact of reducing prices on fruits/vegetable consumption is more pronounced in neighborhoods with low levels of education. An agent-based model of dietary behaviors that takes into account neighborhood context has the potential to inform how fruit/vegetable access and pricing strategies may specifically work in tandem to increase the consumption of fruits and vegetables at the local level.
Cost-effectiveness analysis of intensive hypertension control in ChinaXie, X., He, T., Kang, J., Siscovick, D. S., Li, Y., & Pagán, J. A.
Journal titlePreventive Medicine
Page(s)110-114AbstractChina has the largest population of adults with hypertension in the world. Recent clinical trials have shown that intensive hypertension control can help patients achieve lower blood pressure and reduce the incidence of major cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, but this level of hypertension control also incurs additional costs to patients and society and may result in a substantial increase in adverse events. The objective of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of intensive hypertension control to inform health policymakers and health care delivery systems in China in their decision-making regarding hypertension treatment strategies. We developed a Markov based simulation model of hypertension to assess the impact of intensive and standard hypertension control strategies for the Chinese population who are diagnosed with hypertension. Model parameters were estimated based on the best available data and the literature. We projected that intensive hypertension control would avert about 2.2 million coronary heart disease events and 4.4 million stroke events for all hypertensive patients in China in 10 years compared to standard hypertension control. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for intensive hypertension control was estimated at 7876 CNY per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) compared to standard hypertension control. Intensive hypertension control would be more cost-effective than standard hypertension control in China. Our findings indicated that China should consider expanding intensive hypertension control among hypertensive patients given its great potential in preventing CVD.
Power Up for Health—Participants’ Perspectives on an Adaptation of the National Diabetes Prevention Program to Engage MenRealmuto, L., Kamler, A., Weiss, L., Gary-Webb, T. L., Hodge, M. E., Pagán, J. A., & Walker, E. A.
Journal titleAmerican Journal of Men's Health
Page(s)981-988AbstractThe National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDPP) has been effectively translated to various community and clinical settings; however, regardless of setting, enrollment among men and lower-income populations is low. This study presents participant perspectives on Power Up for Health, a novel NDPP pilot adaption for men residing in low-income communities in New York City. We conducted nine interviews and one focus group with seven participants after the program ended. Interview and focus group participants had positive perceptions of the program and described the all-male aspect of the program and its reliance on male coaches as major strengths. Men felt the all-male adaptation allowed for more open, in-depth conversations on eating habits, weight loss, body image, and masculinity. Participants also reported increased knowledge and changes to their dietary and physical activity habits. Recommendations for improving the program included making the sessions more interactive by, for example, adding exercise or healthy cooking demonstrations. Overall, findings from the pilot suggest this NDPP adaptation was acceptable to men and facilitated behavior change and unique discussions that would likely not have occurred in a mixed-gender NDPP implementation.