Olugbenga Ogedegbe

Olugbenga Ogedegbe
Olugbenga Ogedegbe

Professor of Social and Behavioral Sciences

Professional overview

Gbenga Ogedegbe, a physician, is Professor of Population Health & Medicine, Chief Division of Health & Behavior and Director Center for Healthful Behavior Change in the Department of Population Health at the School of Medicine. Gbenga is a leading expert on health disparities research; his work focuses on the implementation of evidence-based interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction in minority populations. He is Principal Investigator on numerous NIH projects, and has expanded his work globally to Sub-Saharan Africa where he is funded by the NIH to strengthen research capacity and reduce the burden of noncommunicable diseases. He has co-authored over 250 publications and his work has been recognized by receipt of several research and mentoring awards including the prestigious John M. Eisenberg Excellence in Mentorship Award from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the Daniel Savage Science Award. He has served on numerous scientific panels including the NIH, CDC, World Health Organization, and the European Union Research Council. Prior to joining NYU, he was faculty at Cornell Weill Medical School and Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. 

Education

MPH from Columbia University, 1999
Residency, Montefiore Medical Center, Internal Medicine, 1998
MD from Donetsk University, 1988

Areas of research and study

Access to Healthcare
Global Health
Health of Marginalized Population
Implementation and Impact of Public Health Regulations
Implementation science
Stroke and Cardiovascular Disease

Publications

Publications

A Social Media–Based Diabetes Intervention for Low-Income Mandarin-Speaking Chinese Immigrants in the United States: Feasibility Study

Hu, L., Islam, N., Trinh-Shevrin, C., Wu, B., Feldman, N., Tamura, K., Jiang, N., Lim, S., Wang, C., Bubu, O. M., Schoenthaler, A., Ogedegbe, G., & Sevick, M. A. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

JMIR Formative Research

Volume

6

Issue

5
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Chinese immigrants bear a high diabetes burden and face significant barriers to accessing diabetes self-management education (DSME) and counseling programs. Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability and to pilot test the potential efficacy of a social media–based DSME intervention among low-income Chinese immigrants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in New York City. Methods: This was a single group pretest and posttest study in 30 Chinese immigrants with T2D. The intervention included 24 culturally and linguistically tailored DSME videos, focusing on diabetes education and behavioral counseling techniques. Over 12 weeks, participants received 2 brief videos each week via WeChat, a free social media app popular among Chinese immigrants. Primary outcomes included the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Feasibility was evaluated by recruitment processes, retention rates, and the video watch rate. Acceptability was assessed via a satisfaction survey at 3 months. Secondary outcomes, that is, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), self-efficacy, dietary intake, and physical activity, were measured at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Descriptive statistics and paired 2-sided t tests were used to summarize the baseline characteristics and changes before and after the intervention. Results: The sample population (N=30) consisted of mostly females (21/30, 70%) who were married (19/30, 63%), with limited English proficiency (30/30, 100%), and the mean age was 61 (SD 7) years. Most reported an annual household income of <US $25,000 (24/30, 80%) and a high school education or less (19/30, 63%). Thirty participants were recruited within 2 months (January and February 2020), and 97% (29/30) of the participants were retained at 6 months. A video watch rate of 92% (28/30) was achieved. The mean baseline HbA1c level was 7.3% (SD 1.3%), and this level declined by 0.5% (95% CI –0.8% to –0.2%; P=.003) at 6 months. The mean satisfaction score was 9.9 (SD 0.6) out of 10, indicating a high level of satisfaction with the program. All strongly agreed or agreed that they preferred this video-based DSME over face-to-face visits. Compared to baseline, there were significant improvements in self-efficacy, dietary, and physical activity behaviors at 6 months. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrated that a social media–based DSME intervention is feasible, acceptable, and potentially efficacious in a low-income Chinese immigrant population with T2D. Future studies need to examine the efficacy in an adequately powered clinical trial.

Advancing Equity in Blood Pressure Control: A Response to the Surgeon General's Call-to-Action

Colvin, C. L., Kalejaiye, A., Ogedegbe, G., & Commodore-Mensah, Y. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

American Journal of Hypertension

Volume

35

Issue

3

Page(s)

217-224
Abstract
Abstract
Hypertension is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although controlling blood pressure reduces cardiovascular and stroke mortality and target organ damage, poor blood pressure control remains a clinical and public health challenge. Furthermore, racial and ethnic disparities in the outcomes of hypertension are well documented. In October of 2020, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services published The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Control Hypertension. The Call to Action emphasized, among other priorities, the need to eliminate disparities in the treatment and control of high blood pressure and to address social determinants as root causes of inequities in blood pressure control and treatment. In support of the goals set in the Call to Action, this review summarizes contemporary research on racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in hypertension and blood pressure control; describes interventions and policies that have improved blood pressure control in minoritized populations by addressing the social determinants of health; and proposes next steps for achieving equity in hypertension and blood pressure control.

An Evaluation of Alternative Technology-Supported Counseling Approaches to Promote Multiple Lifestyle Behavior Changes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease

St-Jules, D. E., Hu, L., Woolf, K., Wang, C., Goldfarb, D. S., Katz, S. D., Popp, C., Williams, S. K., Li, H., Jagannathan, R., Ogedegbe, O., Kharmats, A. Y., & Sevick, M. A. (n.d.).

Publication year

2023

Journal title

Journal of Renal Nutrition

Volume

33

Issue

1

Page(s)

35-44
Abstract
Abstract
Objectives: Although technology-supported interventions are effective for reducing chronic disease risk, little is known about the relative and combined efficacy of mobile health strategies aimed at multiple lifestyle factors. The purpose of this clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy of technology-supported behavioral intervention strategies for managing multiple lifestyle-related health outcomes in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Design and Methods: Using a 2 × 2 factorial design, adults with excess body weight (body mass index ≥27 kg/m2, age ≥40 years), T2D, and CKD stages 2-4 were randomized to an advice control group, or remotely delivered programs consisting of synchronous group-based education (all groups), plus (1) Social Cognitive Theory–based behavioral counseling and/or (2) mobile self-monitoring of diet and physical activity. All programs targeted weight loss, greater physical activity, and lower intakes of sodium and phosphorus-containing food additives. Results: Of 256 randomized participants, 186 (73%) completed 6-month assessments. Compared to the ADVICE group, mHealth interventions did not result in significant changes in weight loss, or urinary sodium and phosphorus excretion. In aggregate analyses, groups receiving mobile self-monitoring had greater weight loss at 3 months (P = .02), but between 3 and 6 months, weight losses plateaued, and by 6 months, the differences were no longer statistically significant. Conclusions: When engaging patients with T2D and CKD in multiple behavior changes, self-monitoring diet and physical activity demonstrated significantly larger short-term weight losses. Theory-based behavioral counseling alone was no better than baseline advice and demonstrated no interaction effect with self-monitoring.

Aspirin Use to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

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Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

327

Issue

16

Page(s)

1577-1584
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the US, accounting for more than 1 in 4 deaths. Each year, an estimated 605000 people in the US have a first myocardial infarction and an estimated 610000 experience a first stroke. Objective: To update its 2016 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review on the effectiveness of aspirin to reduce the risk of CVD events (myocardial infarction and stroke), cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality in persons without a history of CVD. The systematic review also investigated the effect of aspirin use on colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality in primary CVD prevention populations, as well as the harms (particularly bleeding) associated with aspirin use. The USPSTF also commissioned a microsimulation modeling study to assess the net balance of benefits and harms from aspirin use for primary prevention of CVD and CRC, stratified by age, sex, and CVD risk level. Population: Adults 40 years or older without signs or symptoms of CVD or known CVD (including history of myocardial infarction or stroke) who are not at increased risk for bleeding (eg, no history of gastrointestinal ulcers, recent bleeding, other medical conditions, or use of medications that increase bleeding risk). Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that aspirin use for the primary prevention of CVD events in adults aged 40 to 59 years who have a 10% or greater 10-year CVD risk has a small net benefit. The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that initiating aspirin use for the primary prevention of CVD events in adults 60 years or older has no net benefit. Recommendation: The decision to initiate low-dose aspirin use for the primary prevention of CVD in adults aged 40 to 59 years who have a 10% or greater 10-year CVD risk should be an individual one. Evidence indicates that the net benefit of aspirin use in this group is small. Persons who are not at increased risk for bleeding and are willing to take low-dose aspirin daily are more likely to benefit. (C recommendation) The USPSTF recommends against initiating low-dose aspirin use for the primary prevention of CVD in adults 60 years or older. (D recommendation).

Assessing descriptions of scalability for hypertension control interventions implemented in low-and middle-income countries: A systematic review

Gyamfi, J., Vieira, D., Iwelunmor, J., Watkins, B. X., Williams, O., Peprah, E., Ogedegbe, G., & Allegrante, J. P. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

PloS one

Volume

17

Issue

7
Abstract
Abstract
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of hypertension continues to rise in low- and middle-income- countries (LMICs) where scalable, evidence-based interventions (EBIs) that are designed to reduce morbidity and mortality attributed to hypertension have yet to be fully adopted or disseminated. We sought to evaluate evidence from published randomized controlled trials using EBIs for hypertension control implemented in LMICs, and identify the WHO/ExpandNet scale-up components that are relevant for consideration during "scale-up" implementation planning.METHODS: Systematic review of RCTs reporting EBIs for hypertension control implemented in LMICs that stated "scale-up" or a variation of scale-up; using the following data sources PubMed/Medline, Web of Science Biosis Citation Index (BCI), CINAHL, EMBASE, Global Health, Google Scholar, PsycINFO; the grey literature and clinicaltrials.gov from inception through June 2021 without any restrictions on publication date. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, conducted data extraction using the WHO/ExpandNet Scale-up components as a guide and assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. We provide intervention characteristics for each EBI, BP results, and other relevant scale-up descriptions.MAIN RESULTS: Thirty-one RCTs were identified and reviewed. Studies reported clinically significant differences in BP, with 23 studies reporting statistically significant mean differences in BP (p < .05) following implementation. Only six studies provided descriptions that captured all of the nine WHO/ExpandNet components. Multi-component interventions, including drug therapy and health education, provided the most benefit to participants. The studies were yet to be scaled and we observed limited reporting on translation of the interventions into existing institutional policy (n = 11), cost-effectiveness analyses (n = 2), and sustainability measurements (n = 3).CONCLUSION: This study highlights the limited data on intervention scalability for hypertension control in LMICs and demonstrates the need for better scale-up metrics and processes for this setting.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registration PROSPERO (CRD42019117750).

Association of lipid profile biomarkers with breast cancer by molecular subtype: analysis of the MEND study

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Publication year

2022

Journal title

Scientific reports

Volume

12

Issue

1
Abstract
Abstract
There is conflicting evidence on the role of lipid biomarkers in breast cancer (BC), and no study to our knowledge has examined this association among African women. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association of lipid biomarkers—total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and triglycerides—with odds of BC overall and by subtype (Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2-enriched and triple-negative or TNBC) for 296 newly diagnosed BC cases and 116 healthy controls in Nigeria. Each unit standard deviation (SD) increase in triglycerides was associated with 39% increased odds of BC in fully adjusted models (aOR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.86). Among post-menopausal women, higher total cholesterol (aOR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.57), LDL cholesterol (aOR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.41), and triglycerides (aOR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.21, 3.01) were associated with increased odds of BC. Additionally, each unit SD increase in LDL was associated with 64% increased odds of Luminal B BC (aOR 1.64; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.55). Clinically low HDL was associated with 2.7 times increased odds of TNBC (aOR 2.67; 95% CI: 1.10, 6.49). Among post-menopausal women, higher LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly associated with increased odds of Luminal B BC and HER2 BC, respectively. In conclusion, low HDL and high LDL are associated with increased odds of TN and Luminal B BC, respectively, among African women. Future prospective studies can definitively characterize this association and inform clinical approaches targeting HDL as a BC prevention strategy.

Behavioral Counseling Interventions to Promote a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults Without Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Nicholson, W. K., Cabana, M., Coker, T. R., Davidson, K. W., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Jaén, C. R., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Ruiz, J. M., Stevermer, J., & Wong, J. B. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA

Volume

328

Issue

4

Page(s)

367-374
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes heart disease, myocardial infarction, and stroke, is the leading cause of death in the US. A large proportion of CVD cases can be prevented by addressing modifiable risk factors, including smoking, obesity, diabetes, elevated blood pressure or hypertension, dyslipidemia, lack of physical activity, and unhealthy diet. Adults who adhere to national guidelines for a healthy diet and physical activity have lower rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than those who do not; however, most US adults do not consume healthy diets or engage in physical activity at recommended levels. Objective: To update its 2017 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a review of the evidence on the benefits and harms of behavioral counseling interventions to promote healthy behaviors in adults without CVD risk factors. Population: Adults 18 years or older without known CVD risk factors, which include hypertension or elevated blood pressure, dyslipidemia, impaired fasting glucose or glucose tolerance, or mixed or multiple risk factors such as metabolic syndrome or an estimated 10-year CVD risk of 7.5% or greater. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that behavioral counseling interventions have a small net benefit on CVD risk in adults without CVD risk factors. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends that clinicians individualize the decision to offer or refer adults without CVD risk factors to behavioral counseling interventions to promote a healthy diet and physical activity. (C recommendation).

Collaboration and Shared Decision-Making between Patients and Clinicians in Preventive Health Care Decisions and US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations

Davidson, K. W., Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Nicholson, W. K., Cabana, M. D., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

327

Issue

12

Page(s)

1171-1176
Abstract
Abstract
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) works to improve the health of people nationwide by making evidence-based recommendations for preventive services. Patient-centered care is a core value in US health care. Shared decision-making (SDM), in which patients and clinicians make health decisions together, ensures patients' rights to be informed and involved in preventive care decisions and that these decisions are patient-centered. SDM has a role across the spectrum of USPSTF recommendations. For A or B recommendations (judged by the USPSTF to have high or moderate certainty of a moderate or substantial net benefit at the population level), SDM allows individual patients to decide whether to accept such services based on their personal values and preferences. For C recommendations (indicating at least moderate certainty of a small net benefit at the population level), SDM is critical for individual patients to decide whether the net benefit for them is worthwhile. For D recommendations (reflecting at least moderate certainty of a zero or negative net benefit) or I statements (low certainty of net benefit), clinicians should be prepared to discuss these services if patients ask. More evidence is needed to determine if, in addition to promoting patient-centeredness, SDM reduces inequities in preventive care, as well as to define new strategies to find time for discussion of preventive services in primary care.

Enhancing HIV Self-Testing Among Nigerian Youth: Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of the 4 Youth by Youth Study Using Crowdsourced Youth-Led Strategies

Iwelunmor, J., Ezechi, O., Obiezu-Umeh, C., Gbaja-Biamila, T., Musa, A. Z., Nwaozuru, U., Xian, H., Oladele, D., Airhihenbuwa, C. O., Muessig, K., Rosenberg, N., Conserve, D. F., Ong, J. J., Nkengasong, S., Day, S., Tahlil, K. M., Belue, R., Mason, S., Tang, W., Ogedegbe, G., & Tucker, J. D. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

AIDS patient care and STDs

Volume

36

Issue

2

Page(s)

64-72
Abstract
Abstract
Although HIV self-testing (HIVST) has expanded in many regions, a few HIVST services have been tailored for and organized by youth. Innovative HIVST models are needed to differentiate testing services and generate local demand for HIVST among youth. The current pilot study aimed at examining the feasibility and efficacy of crowdsourced youth-led strategies to enhance HIVST as well as sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Teams of youth iteratively developed HIVST interventions using crowdsourcing approaches and apprenticeship training. Five interventions were selected and then evaluated among youth (ages 14-24) from September 2019 to March 2020. Given the similar outcomes and approaches, we present cumulative data from the completed interventions. We assessed HIVST uptake (self-report), STI uptake (facility reports for gonorrhea, syphilis, hepatitis B, and chlamydia testing), and quality of youth participation. Mixed-effect logistic regression models estimated intervention effects at baseline and 6 months. Of the 388 youths enrolled, 25.3% were aged 14-19, 58.0% were male, and 54.1% had completed secondary education. We observed a significant increase in HIVST from 3 months compared with 6 months (20% vs. 90%; p < 0.001). Among those who received an HIVST at 3 months, 324 out of 388 were re-tested at 6 months. We also observed significant increases in testing for all four STIs: syphilis (5-48%), gonorrhea (5-43%), chlamydia (1-45%), and hepatitis B testing (14-55%) from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. Youth participation in the intervention was robust. Youth-led HIVST intervention approaches were feasible and resulted in increased HIV/STI test uptake. Further research on the effectiveness of these HIVST services is needed.

Hormone Therapy for the Primary Prevention of Chronic Conditions in Postmenopausal Persons: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Nicholson, W. K., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Chelmow, D., Coker, T. R., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Jaén, C. R., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Ruiz, J. M., Stevermer, J., & Wong, J. B. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA

Volume

328

Issue

17

Page(s)

1740-1746
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Menopause is defined as the cessation of a person's menstrual cycle. It is defined retrospectively, 12 months after the final menstrual period. Perimenopause, or the menopausal transition, is the few-year time period preceding a person's final menstrual period and is characterized by increasing menstrual cycle length variability and periods of amenorrhea, and often symptoms such as vasomotor dysfunction. The prevalence and incidence of most chronic diseases (eg, cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, and fracture) increase with age, and US persons who reach menopause are expected on average to live more than another 30 years. Objective: To update its 2017 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review to evaluate the benefits and harms of systemic (ie, oral or transdermal) hormone therapy for the prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal persons and whether outcomes vary by age or by timing of intervention after menopause. Population: Asymptomatic postmenopausal persons who are considering hormone therapy for the primary prevention of chronic medical conditions. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that the use of combined estrogen and progestin for the primary prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal persons with an intact uterus has no net benefit. The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that the use of estrogen alone for the primary prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal persons who have had a hysterectomy has no net benefit. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends against the use of combined estrogen and progestin for the primary prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal persons. (D recommendation) The USPSTF recommends against the use of estrogen alone for the primary prevention of chronic conditions in postmenopausal persons who have had a hysterectomy. (D recommendation).

Music Upper Limb Therapy-Integrated Provides a Feasible Enriched Environment and Reduces Post-stroke Depression: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

Palumbo, A., Aluru, V., Battaglia, J., Geller, D., Turry, A., Ross, M., Cristian, A., Balagula, C., Ogedegbe, G., Khatri, L., Chao, M. V., Froemke, R. C., Urbanek, J. K., & Raghavan, P. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

Volume

101

Issue

10

Page(s)

937-946
Abstract
Abstract
Objective This study's aims were to refine Music Upper Limb Therapy-Integrated (MULT-I) to create a feasible enriched environment for stroke rehabilitation and compare its biologic and behavioral effects with that of a home exercise program (HEP). Design This was a randomized mixed-methods study of 30 adults with post-stroke hemiparesis. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and oxytocin levels measured biologic effects, and upper limb function, disability, quality of life, and emotional well-being were assessed as behavioral outcomes. Participant experiences were explored using semistructured interviews. Results MULT-I participants showed reduced depression from preintervention to postintervention as compared with HEP participants. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels significantly increased for MULT-I participants but decreased for HEP participants, with a significant difference between groups after excluding those with post-stroke depression. MULT-I participants additionally improved quality of life and self-perceived physical strength, mobility, activity, participation, and recovery from preintervention to postintervention. HEP participants improved upper limb function. Qualitatively, MULT-I provided psychosocial support and enjoyment, whereas HEP supported self-management of rehabilitation. Conclusions Implementation of a music-enriched environment is feasible, reduces post-stroke depression, and may enhance the neural environment for recovery via increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Self-management of rehabilitation through an HEP may further improve upper limb function.

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Hypertension with Longitudinal Amyloid-b Burden and Cognitive Changes

Bubu, O. M., Kaur, S. S., Mbah, A. K., Umasabor-Bubu, O. Q., Cejudo, J. R., Debure, L., Mullins, A. E., Parekh, A., Kam, K., Osakwe, Z. T., Williams, E. T., Turner, A. D., Glodzik, L., Rapoport, D. M., Ogedegbe, G., Fieremans, E., De Leon, M. J., Ayappa, I., Jean-Louis, G., Masurkar, A. V., Varga, A. W., Osorio, R. S., & Kline, N. S. (n.d.). In American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

Publication year

2022

Volume

206

Issue

5

Page(s)

632-636

Prevalence, risk factors, and cardiovascular disease outcomes associated with persistent blood pressure control: The Jackson Heart Study

Tajeu, G. S., Colvin, C. L., Hardy, S. T., Bress, A. P., Gaye, B., Jaeger, B. C., Ogedegbe, G., Sakhuja, S., Sims, M., Shimbo, D., O’Brien, E. C., Spruill, T. M., & Muntner, P. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

PloS one

Volume

17

Issue

8
Abstract
Abstract
Background Maintaining blood pressure (BP) control over time may contribute to lower risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals who are taking antihypertensive medication. Methods The Jackson Heart Study (JHS) enrolled 5,306 African-American adults ≥21 years of age and was used to determine the proportion of African Americans that maintain persistent BP control, identify factors associated with persistent BP control, and determine the association of persistent BP control with CVD events. This analysis included 1,604 participants who were taking antihypertensive medication at Visit 1 and had BP data at Visits 1 (2000–2004), 2 (2005–2008), and 3 (2009–2013). Persistent BP control was defined as systolic BP <140 mm Hg and diastolic BP <90 mm Hg at all three visits. CVD events were assessed from Visit 3 through December 31, 2016. Hazard ratios (HR) for the association of persistent BP control with CVD outcomes were adjusted for age, sex, systolic BP, smoking, diabetes, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at Visit 3. Results At Visit 1, 1,226 of 1,604 participants (76.4%) with hypertension had controlled BP. Overall, 48.9% of participants taking antihypertensive medication at Visit 1 had persistent BP control. After multivariable adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, clinical, behavioral, and psychosocial factors, and access-to-care, participants were more likely to have persistent BP control if they were <65 years of age, women, had family income ≥$25,000 at each visit, and visited a health professional in the year prior to each visit. The multivariable adjusted HR (95% confidence interval) comparing participants with versus without persistent BP control was 0.71 (0.46–1.10) for CVD, 0.68 (0.34–1.34) for coronary heart disease, 0.65 (0.27–1.52) for stroke, and 0.55 (0.33–0.90) for heart failure. Conclusion Less than half of JHS participants taking antihypertensive medication had persistent BP control, putting them at increased risk for heart failure.

Proceedings From a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Workshop to Control Hypertension

Commodore-Mensah, Y., Loustalot, F., Himmelfarb, C. D., Desvigne-Nickens, P., Sachdev, V., Bibbins-Domingo, K., Clauser, S. B., Cohen, D. J., Egan, B. M., Fendrick, A. M., Ferdinand, K. C., Goodman, C., Graham, G. N., Jaffe, M. G., Krumholz, H. M., Levy, P. D., Mays, G. P., Mcnellis, R., Muntner, P., Ogedegbe, G., Milani, R. V., Polgreen, L. A., Reisman, L., Sanchez, E. J., Sperling, L. S., Wall, H. K., Whitten, L., Wright, J. T., Wright, J. S., & Fine, L. J. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

American Journal of Hypertension

Volume

35

Issue

3

Page(s)

232-243
Abstract
Abstract
Hypertension treatment and control prevent more cardiovascular events than management of other modifiable risk factors. Although the age-adjusted proportion of US adults with controlled blood pressure (BP) defined as <140/90 mm Hg, improved from 31.8% in 1999-2000 to 48.5% in 2007-2008, it remained stable through 2013-2014 and declined to 43.7% in 2017-2018. To address the rapid decline in hypertension control, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a virtual workshop with multidisciplinary national experts. Also, the group sought to identify opportunities to reverse the adverse trend and further improve hypertension control. The workshop immediately preceded the Surgeon General's Call to Action to Control Hypertension, which recognized a stagnation in progress with hypertension control. The presentations and discussions included potential reasons for the decline and challenges in hypertension control, possible "big ideas,"and multisector approaches that could reverse the current trend while addressing knowledge gaps and research priorities. The broad set of "big ideas"was comprised of various activities that may improve hypertension control, including: interventions to engage patients, promotion of self-measured BP monitoring with clinical support, supporting team-based care, implementing telehealth, enhancing community-clinical linkages, advancing precision population health, developing tailored public health messaging, simplifying hypertension treatment, using process and outcomes quality metrics to foster accountability and efficiency, improving access to high-quality health care, addressing social determinants of health, supporting cardiovascular public health and research, and lowering financial barriers to hypertension control.

Screening for Anxiety in Children and Adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Nicholson, W. K., Cabana, M., Coker, T. R., Davidson, K. W., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Jaén, C. R., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Ruiz, J. M., Silverstein, M., Stevermer, J., & Wong, J. B. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA

Volume

328

Issue

14

Page(s)

1438-1444
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Anxiety disorder, a common mental health condition in the US, comprises a group of related conditions characterized by excessive fear or worry that present as emotional and physical symptoms. The 2018-2019 National Survey of Children's Health found that 7.8% of children and adolescents aged 3 to 17 years had a current anxiety disorder. Anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence are associated with an increased likelihood of a future anxiety disorder or depression. Objective: The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review to evaluate the benefits and harms of screening for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. This is a new recommendation. Population: Children and adolescents 18 years or younger who do not have a diagnosed anxiety disorder or are not showing recognized signs or symptoms of anxiety. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that screening for anxiety in children and adolescents aged 8 to 18 years has a moderate net benefit. The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient on screening for anxiety in children 7 years or younger. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends screening for anxiety in children and adolescents aged 8 to 18 years. (B recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for anxiety in children 7 years or younger. (I statement).

Screening for Atrial Fibrillation: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Davidson, K. W., Barry, M. J., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Epling, J. W., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA

Volume

327

Issue

4

Page(s)

360-367
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. The prevalence of AF increases with age, from less than 0.2% in adults younger than 55 years to about 10% in those 85 years or older, with a higher prevalence in men than in women. It is uncertain whether the prevalence of AF differs by race and ethnicity. Atrial fibrillation is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke and is associated with a substantial increase in the risk of stroke. Approximately 20% of patients who have a stroke associated with AF are first diagnosed with AF at the time of the stroke or shortly thereafter. Objective: To update its 2018 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review on the benefits and harms of screening for AF in older adults, the accuracy of screening tests, the effectiveness of screening tests to detect previously undiagnosed AF compared with usual care, and the benefits and harms of anticoagulant therapy for the treatment of screen-detected AF in older adults. Population: Adults 50 years or older without a diagnosis or symptoms of AF and without a history of transient ischemic attack or stroke. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes that evidence is lacking, and the balance of benefits and harms of screening for AF in asymptomatic adults cannot be determined. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for AF. (I statement).

Screening for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: US Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement

Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Nicholson, W. K., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Chelmow, D., Coker, T. R., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Jaén, C. R., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Ruiz, J. M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

327

Issue

18

Page(s)

1806-1811
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an irreversible reduction of airflow in the lungs. Progression to severe disease can prevent participation in normal activities because of deterioration of lung function. In 2020 it was estimated that approximately 6% of US adults had been diagnosed with COPD. Chronic lower respiratory disease, composed mainly of COPD, is the sixth leading cause of death in the US. Objective: To update its 2016 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a reaffirmation evidence update that focused on targeted key questions for benefits and harms of screening for COPD in asymptomatic adults and treatment in screen-detected or screen-relevant adults. Population: Asymptomatic adults who do not recognize or report respiratory symptoms. Evidence Assessment: Using a reaffirmation process, the USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that screening for COPD in asymptomatic adults has no net benefit. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends against screening for COPD in asymptomatic adults. (D recommendation).

Screening for Depression and Suicide Risk in Children and Adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Nicholson, W. K., Cabana, M., Chelmow, D., Coker, T. R., Davidson, K. W., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Jaén, C. R., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Ruiz, J. M., Silverstein, M., Stevermer, J., & Wong, J. B. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA

Volume

328

Issue

15

Page(s)

1534-1542
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Depression is a leading cause of disability in the US. Children and adolescents with depression typically have functional impairments in their performance at school or work as well as in their interactions with their families and peers. Depression can also negatively affect the developmental trajectories of affected youth. Major depressive disorder (MDD) in children and adolescents is strongly associated with recurrent depression in adulthood; other mental disorders; and increased risk for suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide completion. Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among youth aged 10 to 19 years. Psychiatric disorders and previous suicide attempts increase suicide risk. Objective: To update its 2014 and 2016 recommendations, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review to evaluate the benefits and harms of screening, accuracy of screening, and benefits and harms of treatment of MDD and suicide risk in children and adolescents that would be applicable to primary care settings. Population: Children and adolescents who do not have a diagnosed mental health condition or are not showing recognized signs or symptoms of depression or suicide risk. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that screening for MDD in adolescents aged 12 to 18 years has a moderate net benefit. The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient on screening for MDD in children 11 years or younger. The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient on the benefit and harms of screening for suicide risk in children and adolescents owing to a lack of evidence. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends screening for MDD in adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. (B recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for MDD in children 11 years or younger. (I statement) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for suicide risk in children and adolescents. (I statement).

Screening for Eating Disorders in Adolescents and Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Davidson, K. W., Barry, M. J., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Chelmow, D., Coker, T. R., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Jaén, C. R., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Ruiz, J. M., Silverstein, M., Stevermer, J., & Wong, J. B. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA

Volume

327

Issue

11

Page(s)

1061-1067
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Eating disorders (eg, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa) are a group of psychiatric conditions defined as a disturbance in eating or eating-related behaviors that impair physical or psychosocial functioning. According to large US cohort studies, estimated lifetime prevalences for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder in adult women are 1.42%, 0.46%, and 1.25%, respectively, and are lower in adult men (anorexia nervosa, 0.12%; bulimia nervosa, 0.08%; binge eating disorder, 0.42%). Eating disorder prevalence ranges from 0.3% to 2.3% in adolescent females and 0.3% to 1.3% in adolescent males. Eating disorders are associated with short-term and long-term adverse health outcomes, including physical, psychological, and social problems. Objective: The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review to evaluate the benefits and harms of screening for eating disorders in adolescents and adults with a normal or high body mass index. Evidence limited to populations who are underweight or have other physical signs or symptoms of eating disorders was not considered. The USPSTF has not previously made a recommendation on this topic. Population: Adolescents and adults (10 years or older) who have no signs or symptoms of eating disorders (eg, rapid weight loss, weight gain, or pronounced deviation from growth trajectory; pubertal delay; bradycardia; oligomenorrhea; and amenorrhea). Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for eating disorders in adolescents and adults. The evidence is limited and the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for eating disorders in adolescents and adults. (I statement).

Screening for Impaired Visual Acuity in Older Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Nicholson, W. K., Cabana, M., Chelmow, D., Coker, T. R., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Epling, J. W., Jaén, C. R., Krist, A. H., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Ruiz, J. M., Simon, M. A., Stevermer, J., & Wong, J. B. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

327

Issue

21

Page(s)

2123-2128
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Impairment of visual acuity is a serious public health problem in older adults. The number of persons 60 years or older with impaired visual acuity (defined as best corrected visual acuity worse than 20/40 but better than 20/200) was estimated at 2.91 million in 2015, and the number who are blind (defined as best corrected visual acuity of 20/200 or worse) was estimated at 760000. Impaired visual acuity is consistently associated with decreased quality of life in older persons, including reduced ability to perform activities of daily living, work, and drive safely, as well as increased risk of falls and other unintentional injuries. Objective: To update its 2016 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review to evaluate the benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in older adults. Population: Asymptomatic adults 65 years or older who present in primary care without known impaired visual acuity and are not seeking care for vision problems. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in asymptomatic older adults. The evidence is lacking, and the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. More research is needed. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in older adults. (I statement).

Screening for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Nicholson, W. K., Cabana, M., Chelmow, D., Rucker Coker, T., Davidson, K. W., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Jaén, C. R., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Ruiz, J. M., Stevermer, J., & Wong, J. B. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA

Volume

328

Issue

19

Page(s)

1945-1950
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Current prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in the US is not well established; however, based on cohort and survey data, in 2007-2010 the estimated prevalence of at least mild OSA (defined as an apnea-hypoxia index [AHI] ≥5) plus symptoms of daytime sleepiness among adults aged 30 to 70 years was 14% for men and 5% for women, and the estimated prevalence of moderate to severe OSA (defined as AHI ≥15) was 13% for men and 6% for women. Severe OSA is associated with increased all-cause mortality. Other adverse health outcomes associated with untreated OSA include cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular events, type 2 diabetes, cognitive impairment, decreased quality of life, and motor vehicle crashes. Objective: To update its 2017 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review to evaluate the benefits and harms of screening for OSA in adults. Population: Asymptomatic adults (18 years or older) and adults with unrecognized symptoms of OSA. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for OSA in the general adult population. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for OSA in the general adult population. (I statement).

Screening for Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

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Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA

Volume

328

Issue

10

Page(s)

963-967
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 210 000 children and adolescents younger than 20 years had diabetes as of 2018; of these, approximately 23 000 had type 2 diabetes. Youth with type 2 diabetes have an increased prevalence of associated chronic comorbid conditions, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Data indicate that the incidence of type 2 diabetes is rising; from 2002-2003 to 2014-2015, incidence increased from 9.0 cases per 100 000 children and adolescents to 13.8 cases per 100 000 children and adolescents. Objective: The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a review of the evidence on screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in asymptomatic, nonpregnant persons younger than 18 years. This is a new recommendation. Population: Children and adolescents younger than 18 years without known diabetes or prediabetes or symptoms of diabetes or prediabetes. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. There is a lack of evidence on the effect of screening for, and early detection and treatment of, type 2 diabetes on health outcomes in youth, and the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. (I statement).

Screening for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Nicholson, W. K., Cabana, M., Chelmow, D., Coker, T. R., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Epling, J. W., Jaén, C. R., Krist, A. H., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Ruiz, J. M., Simon, M. A., Stevermer, J., & Wong, J. B. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

327

Issue

20

Page(s)

1992-1997
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Glaucoma affects an estimated 2.7 million people in the US. It is the second-leading cause of irreversible blindness in the US and the leading cause of blindness in Black and Hispanic/Latino persons. Objective: To update its 2013 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review to evaluate the benefits and harms of screening for glaucoma in adults. Population: Adults 40 years or older who present in primary care and do not have signs or symptoms of open-angle glaucoma. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for glaucoma in adults. The benefits and harms of screening for glaucoma in adults are uncertain. More research is needed. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for primary open-angle glaucoma in adults. (I statement).

Screening for Syphilis Infection in Nonpregnant Adolescents and Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement

Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Nicholson, W. K., Cabana, M., Chelmow, D., Coker, T. R., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Jaén, C. R., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Ruiz, J. M., Stevermer, J., & Wong, J. B. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA

Volume

328

Issue

12

Page(s)

1243-1249
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that can progress through different stages (primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary) and cause serious health problems if left untreated. Reported cases of primary and secondary syphilis in the US increased from a record low of 2.1 cases per 100000 population in 2000 and 2001 to 11.9 cases per 100000 population in 2019. Men account for the majority of cases (83% of primary and secondary syphilis cases in 2019), and rates among women nearly tripled from 2015 to 2019. Objective: To reaffirm its 2016 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a reaffirmation evidence update focusing on targeted key questions evaluating the performance of risk assessment tools and the benefits and harms of screening for syphilis in nonpregnant adolescents and adults. Population: Asymptomatic, nonpregnant adolescents and adults who have ever been sexually active and are at increased risk for syphilis infection. Evidence Assessment: Using a reaffirmation process, the USPSTF concludes with high certainty that there is a substantial net benefit of screening for syphilis infection in nonpregnant persons who are at increased risk for infection. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends screening for syphilis infection in persons who are at increased risk for infection. (A recommendation).

Smoking reduction among homeless smokers in a randomized controlled trial targeting cessation

Bhattacharya, M., Ojo-Fati, O., Everson-Rose, S. A., Thomas, J. L., Miller, J. M., Ogedegbe, G., Jean-Louis, G., Joseph, A. M., & Okuyemi, K. S. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

Addictive Behaviors

Volume

133
Abstract
Abstract
Introduction: Homeless populations have high rates of smoking and unique barriers to quitting. General cessation strategies have been unsuccessful in this population. Smoking reduction may be a good intermediate goal. We conducted a secondary analysis to identify predictors of smoking reduction in a cohort of homeless smokers enrolled in a 26-week randomized clinical trial (RCT) targeting smoking cessation. Methods: Data are from an RCT comparing motivational interviewing counseling plus nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) to brief advice to quit (standard care) plus NRT among homeless smokers. Using bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression, we compared demographics, health and psychosocial variables, tobacco use, substance use, and NRT adherence among those who reported: quitting; reducing smoking by 50-99%; and not reducing smoking by 50%. Results: Of 324 participants who completed 26-week follow-up, 18.8% and 63.9% self-reported quitting and reducing, respectively. Compared to those who did not reduce smoking, participants reporting reducing indicated higher baseline cigarette use (OR=1.08; CI:1.04-1.12) and menthol use (OR=2.24; CI:1.05-4.77). Compared to participants who reduced, participants reporting quitting were more likely to be male (OR=1.998; CI:1.00-3.98), experience more housing instability (OR=1.97; CI:1.08-3.59), indicate higher importance of quitting (OR=1.27; CI:1.041.55), have higher NRT adherence (OR=1.75; CI:1.00-3.06), and lower odds of reported illicit drug use (OR=0.48; CI:0.24-0.95). Conclusions: Over half of participants reduced smoking by at least 50%, indicating reduction is feasible among homeless smokers. Further research is required to understand the impact of reduction on future cessation attempts in homeless smokers. This study shows that reduction is achievable and may be a valid intermediate goal.