Olugbenga Ogedegbe

Olugbenga Ogedegbe
Olugbenga Ogedegbe

Professor

Professional overview

Gbenga Ogedegbe, a physician, is Professor of Population Health & Medicine, Chief Division of Health & Behavior and Director Center for Healthful Behavior Change in the Department of Population Health at the School of Medicine. Gbenga is a leading expert on health disparities research; his work focuses on the implementation of evidence-based interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction in minority populations. He is Principal Investigator on numerous NIH projects, and has expanded his work globally to Sub-Saharan Africa where he is funded by the NIH to strengthen research capacity and reduce the burden of noncommunicable diseases. He has co-authored over 250 publications and his work has been recognized by receipt of several research and mentoring awards including the prestigious John M. Eisenberg Excellence in Mentorship Award from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the Daniel Savage Science Award. He has served on numerous scientific panels including the NIH, CDC, World Health Organization, and the European Union Research Council. Prior to joining NYU, he was faculty at Cornell Weill Medical School and Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. 

Education

MPH from Columbia University, 1999
Residency, Montefiore Medical Center, Internal Medicine, 1998
MD from Donetsk University, 1988

Areas of research and study

Access to Healthcare
Global Health
Health of Marginalized Population
Implementation and Impact of Public Health Regulations
Implementation science
Stroke and Cardiovascular Disease

Publications

Publications

A Social Media–Based Diabetes Intervention for Low-Income Mandarin-Speaking Chinese Immigrants in the United States: Feasibility Study

Hu, L., Islam, N., Trinh-Shevrin, C., Wu, B., Feldman, N., Tamura, K., Jiang, N., Lim, S., Wang, C., Bubu, O. M., Schoenthaler, A., Ogedegbe, G., & Sevick, M. A.

Publication year

2022

Journal title

JMIR Formative Research

Volume

6

Issue

5
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Chinese immigrants bear a high diabetes burden and face significant barriers to accessing diabetes self-management education (DSME) and counseling programs. Objective: The goal of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability and to pilot test the potential efficacy of a social media–based DSME intervention among low-income Chinese immigrants with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in New York City. Methods: This was a single group pretest and posttest study in 30 Chinese immigrants with T2D. The intervention included 24 culturally and linguistically tailored DSME videos, focusing on diabetes education and behavioral counseling techniques. Over 12 weeks, participants received 2 brief videos each week via WeChat, a free social media app popular among Chinese immigrants. Primary outcomes included the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. Feasibility was evaluated by recruitment processes, retention rates, and the video watch rate. Acceptability was assessed via a satisfaction survey at 3 months. Secondary outcomes, that is, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), self-efficacy, dietary intake, and physical activity, were measured at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Descriptive statistics and paired 2-sided t tests were used to summarize the baseline characteristics and changes before and after the intervention. Results: The sample population (N=30) consisted of mostly females (21/30, 70%) who were married (19/30, 63%), with limited English proficiency (30/30, 100%), and the mean age was 61 (SD 7) years. Most reported an annual household income of <US $25,000 (24/30, 80%) and a high school education or less (19/30, 63%). Thirty participants were recruited within 2 months (January and February 2020), and 97% (29/30) of the participants were retained at 6 months. A video watch rate of 92% (28/30) was achieved. The mean baseline HbA1c level was 7.3% (SD 1.3%), and this level declined by 0.5% (95% CI –0.8% to –0.2%; P=.003) at 6 months. The mean satisfaction score was 9.9 (SD 0.6) out of 10, indicating a high level of satisfaction with the program. All strongly agreed or agreed that they preferred this video-based DSME over face-to-face visits. Compared to baseline, there were significant improvements in self-efficacy, dietary, and physical activity behaviors at 6 months. Conclusions: This pilot study demonstrated that a social media–based DSME intervention is feasible, acceptable, and potentially efficacious in a low-income Chinese immigrant population with T2D. Future studies need to examine the efficacy in an adequately powered clinical trial.

Advancing Equity in Blood Pressure Control: A Response to the Surgeon General's Call-to-Action

Colvin, C. L., Kalejaiye, A., Ogedegbe, G., & Commodore-Mensah, Y.

Publication year

2022

Journal title

American Journal of Hypertension

Volume

35

Issue

3

Page(s)

217-224
Abstract
Abstract
Hypertension is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Although controlling blood pressure reduces cardiovascular and stroke mortality and target organ damage, poor blood pressure control remains a clinical and public health challenge. Furthermore, racial and ethnic disparities in the outcomes of hypertension are well documented. In October of 2020, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services published The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Control Hypertension. The Call to Action emphasized, among other priorities, the need to eliminate disparities in the treatment and control of high blood pressure and to address social determinants as root causes of inequities in blood pressure control and treatment. In support of the goals set in the Call to Action, this review summarizes contemporary research on racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in hypertension and blood pressure control; describes interventions and policies that have improved blood pressure control in minoritized populations by addressing the social determinants of health; and proposes next steps for achieving equity in hypertension and blood pressure control.

Aspirin Use to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

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Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

327

Issue

16

Page(s)

1577-1584
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality in the US, accounting for more than 1 in 4 deaths. Each year, an estimated 605000 people in the US have a first myocardial infarction and an estimated 610000 experience a first stroke. Objective: To update its 2016 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review on the effectiveness of aspirin to reduce the risk of CVD events (myocardial infarction and stroke), cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality in persons without a history of CVD. The systematic review also investigated the effect of aspirin use on colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality in primary CVD prevention populations, as well as the harms (particularly bleeding) associated with aspirin use. The USPSTF also commissioned a microsimulation modeling study to assess the net balance of benefits and harms from aspirin use for primary prevention of CVD and CRC, stratified by age, sex, and CVD risk level. Population: Adults 40 years or older without signs or symptoms of CVD or known CVD (including history of myocardial infarction or stroke) who are not at increased risk for bleeding (eg, no history of gastrointestinal ulcers, recent bleeding, other medical conditions, or use of medications that increase bleeding risk). Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that aspirin use for the primary prevention of CVD events in adults aged 40 to 59 years who have a 10% or greater 10-year CVD risk has a small net benefit. The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that initiating aspirin use for the primary prevention of CVD events in adults 60 years or older has no net benefit. Recommendation: The decision to initiate low-dose aspirin use for the primary prevention of CVD in adults aged 40 to 59 years who have a 10% or greater 10-year CVD risk should be an individual one. Evidence indicates that the net benefit of aspirin use in this group is small. Persons who are not at increased risk for bleeding and are willing to take low-dose aspirin daily are more likely to benefit. (C recommendation) The USPSTF recommends against initiating low-dose aspirin use for the primary prevention of CVD in adults 60 years or older. (D recommendation).

Collaboration and Shared Decision-Making between Patients and Clinicians in Preventive Health Care Decisions and US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations

Davidson, K. W., Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Nicholson, W. K., Cabana, M. D., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

327

Issue

12

Page(s)

1171-1176
Abstract
Abstract
The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) works to improve the health of people nationwide by making evidence-based recommendations for preventive services. Patient-centered care is a core value in US health care. Shared decision-making (SDM), in which patients and clinicians make health decisions together, ensures patients' rights to be informed and involved in preventive care decisions and that these decisions are patient-centered. SDM has a role across the spectrum of USPSTF recommendations. For A or B recommendations (judged by the USPSTF to have high or moderate certainty of a moderate or substantial net benefit at the population level), SDM allows individual patients to decide whether to accept such services based on their personal values and preferences. For C recommendations (indicating at least moderate certainty of a small net benefit at the population level), SDM is critical for individual patients to decide whether the net benefit for them is worthwhile. For D recommendations (reflecting at least moderate certainty of a zero or negative net benefit) or I statements (low certainty of net benefit), clinicians should be prepared to discuss these services if patients ask. More evidence is needed to determine if, in addition to promoting patient-centeredness, SDM reduces inequities in preventive care, as well as to define new strategies to find time for discussion of preventive services in primary care.

Enhancing HIV Self-Testing Among Nigerian Youth: Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of the 4 Youth by Youth Study Using Crowdsourced Youth-Led Strategies

Iwelunmor, J., Ezechi, O., Obiezu-Umeh, C., Gbaja-Biamila, T., Musa, A. Z., Nwaozuru, U., Xian, H., Oladele, D., Airhihenbuwa, C. O., Muessig, K., Rosenberg, N., Conserve, D. F., Ong, J. J., Nkengasong, S., Day, S., Tahlil, K. M., Belue, R., Mason, S., Tang, W., Ogedegbe, G., & Tucker, J. D.

Publication year

2022

Journal title

AIDS patient care and STDs

Volume

36

Issue

2

Page(s)

64-72
Abstract
Abstract
Although HIV self-testing (HIVST) has expanded in many regions, a few HIVST services have been tailored for and organized by youth. Innovative HIVST models are needed to differentiate testing services and generate local demand for HIVST among youth. The current pilot study aimed at examining the feasibility and efficacy of crowdsourced youth-led strategies to enhance HIVST as well as sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing. Teams of youth iteratively developed HIVST interventions using crowdsourcing approaches and apprenticeship training. Five interventions were selected and then evaluated among youth (ages 14-24) from September 2019 to March 2020. Given the similar outcomes and approaches, we present cumulative data from the completed interventions. We assessed HIVST uptake (self-report), STI uptake (facility reports for gonorrhea, syphilis, hepatitis B, and chlamydia testing), and quality of youth participation. Mixed-effect logistic regression models estimated intervention effects at baseline and 6 months. Of the 388 youths enrolled, 25.3% were aged 14-19, 58.0% were male, and 54.1% had completed secondary education. We observed a significant increase in HIVST from 3 months compared with 6 months (20% vs. 90%; p < 0.001). Among those who received an HIVST at 3 months, 324 out of 388 were re-tested at 6 months. We also observed significant increases in testing for all four STIs: syphilis (5-48%), gonorrhea (5-43%), chlamydia (1-45%), and hepatitis B testing (14-55%) from baseline to the 6-month follow-up. Youth participation in the intervention was robust. Youth-led HIVST intervention approaches were feasible and resulted in increased HIV/STI test uptake. Further research on the effectiveness of these HIVST services is needed.

Proceedings From a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Workshop to Control Hypertension

Commodore-Mensah, Y., Loustalot, F., Himmelfarb, C. D., Desvigne-Nickens, P., Sachdev, V., Bibbins-Domingo, K., Clauser, S. B., Cohen, D. J., Egan, B. M., Fendrick, A. M., Ferdinand, K. C., Goodman, C., Graham, G. N., Jaffe, M. G., Krumholz, H. M., Levy, P. D., Mays, G. P., Mcnellis, R., Muntner, P., Ogedegbe, G., Milani, R. V., Polgreen, L. A., Reisman, L., Sanchez, E. J., Sperling, L. S., Wall, H. K., Whitten, L., Wright, J. T., Wright, J. S., & Fine, L. J.

Publication year

2022

Journal title

American Journal of Hypertension

Volume

35

Issue

3

Page(s)

232-243
Abstract
Abstract
Hypertension treatment and control prevent more cardiovascular events than management of other modifiable risk factors. Although the age-adjusted proportion of US adults with controlled blood pressure (BP) defined as <140/90 mm Hg, improved from 31.8% in 1999-2000 to 48.5% in 2007-2008, it remained stable through 2013-2014 and declined to 43.7% in 2017-2018. To address the rapid decline in hypertension control, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a virtual workshop with multidisciplinary national experts. Also, the group sought to identify opportunities to reverse the adverse trend and further improve hypertension control. The workshop immediately preceded the Surgeon General's Call to Action to Control Hypertension, which recognized a stagnation in progress with hypertension control. The presentations and discussions included potential reasons for the decline and challenges in hypertension control, possible "big ideas,"and multisector approaches that could reverse the current trend while addressing knowledge gaps and research priorities. The broad set of "big ideas"was comprised of various activities that may improve hypertension control, including: interventions to engage patients, promotion of self-measured BP monitoring with clinical support, supporting team-based care, implementing telehealth, enhancing community-clinical linkages, advancing precision population health, developing tailored public health messaging, simplifying hypertension treatment, using process and outcomes quality metrics to foster accountability and efficiency, improving access to high-quality health care, addressing social determinants of health, supporting cardiovascular public health and research, and lowering financial barriers to hypertension control.

Screening for Atrial Fibrillation: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Screening for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: US Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement

Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Nicholson, W. K., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Chelmow, D., Coker, T. R., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Jaén, C. R., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Ruiz, J. M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

327

Issue

18

Page(s)

1806-1811
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an irreversible reduction of airflow in the lungs. Progression to severe disease can prevent participation in normal activities because of deterioration of lung function. In 2020 it was estimated that approximately 6% of US adults had been diagnosed with COPD. Chronic lower respiratory disease, composed mainly of COPD, is the sixth leading cause of death in the US. Objective: To update its 2016 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a reaffirmation evidence update that focused on targeted key questions for benefits and harms of screening for COPD in asymptomatic adults and treatment in screen-detected or screen-relevant adults. Population: Asymptomatic adults who do not recognize or report respiratory symptoms. Evidence Assessment: Using a reaffirmation process, the USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that screening for COPD in asymptomatic adults has no net benefit. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends against screening for COPD in asymptomatic adults. (D recommendation).

Screening for Eating Disorders in Adolescents and Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Davidson, K. W., Barry, M. J., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Chelmow, D., Coker, T. R., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Jaén, C. R., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Ruiz, J. M., Silverstein, M., Stevermer, J., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

327

Issue

11

Page(s)

1061-1067
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Eating disorders (eg, binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and anorexia nervosa) are a group of psychiatric conditions defined as a disturbance in eating or eating-related behaviors that impair physical or psychosocial functioning. According to large US cohort studies, estimated lifetime prevalences for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder in adult women are 1.42%, 0.46%, and 1.25%, respectively, and are lower in adult men (anorexia nervosa, 0.12%; bulimia nervosa, 0.08%; binge eating disorder, 0.42%). Eating disorder prevalence ranges from 0.3% to 2.3% in adolescent females and 0.3% to 1.3% in adolescent males. Eating disorders are associated with short-term and long-term adverse health outcomes, including physical, psychological, and social problems. Objective: The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review to evaluate the benefits and harms of screening for eating disorders in adolescents and adults with a normal or high body mass index. Evidence limited to populations who are underweight or have other physical signs or symptoms of eating disorders was not considered. The USPSTF has not previously made a recommendation on this topic. Population: Adolescents and adults (10 years or older) who have no signs or symptoms of eating disorders (eg, rapid weight loss, weight gain, or pronounced deviation from growth trajectory; pubertal delay; bradycardia; oligomenorrhea; and amenorrhea). Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for eating disorders in adolescents and adults. The evidence is limited and the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for eating disorders in adolescents and adults. (I statement).

Screening for Impaired Visual Acuity in Older Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Nicholson, W. K., Cabana, M., Chelmow, D., Coker, T. R., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Epling, J. W., Jaén, C. R., Krist, A. H., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Ruiz, J. M., Simon, M. A., Stevermer, J., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2022

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

327

Issue

21

Page(s)

2123-2128
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Impairment of visual acuity is a serious public health problem in older adults. The number of persons 60 years or older with impaired visual acuity (defined as best corrected visual acuity worse than 20/40 but better than 20/200) was estimated at 2.91 million in 2015, and the number who are blind (defined as best corrected visual acuity of 20/200 or worse) was estimated at 760000. Impaired visual acuity is consistently associated with decreased quality of life in older persons, including reduced ability to perform activities of daily living, work, and drive safely, as well as increased risk of falls and other unintentional injuries. Objective: To update its 2016 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review to evaluate the benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in older adults. Population: Asymptomatic adults 65 years or older who present in primary care without known impaired visual acuity and are not seeking care for vision problems. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in asymptomatic older adults. The evidence is lacking, and the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. More research is needed. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for impaired visual acuity in older adults. (I statement).

Screening for Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

The 4 Youth by Youth (4YBY) pragmatic trial to enhance HIV self-testing uptake and sustainability: Study protocol in Nigeria

Iwelunmor, J., Tucker, J. D., Obiezu-Umeh, C., Gbaja-Biamila, T., Oladele, D., Nwaozuru, U., Musa, A. Z., Airhihenbuwa, C. O., Muessig, K., Rosenberg, N., BeLue, R., Xian, H., Conserve, D. F., Ong, J. J., Zhang, L., Curley, J., Nkengasong, S., Mason, S., Tang, W., Bayus, B., Ogedegbe, G., & Ezechi, O.

Publication year

2022

Journal title

Contemporary Clinical Trials

Volume

114
Abstract
Abstract
Background: The World Health Organization recommends HIV self-testing (HIVST) as an additional approach to HIV testing and the Nigerian government is supportive of this policy recommendation. However, effectively increasing uptake and sustainability among Nigerian youth is unknown. The goal of this study is to conduct a full-powered type I hybrid effectiveness-implementation trial to test the effectiveness of youth-friendly implementation science strategies in increasing uptake and sustainability of HIVST led by and for Nigerian youth. Methods: Our 4 Youth by Youth (4YBY) strategy combines four core elements: 1) HIVST bundle consisting of HIVST kits and photo verification system; 2) a participatory learning community; 3) peer to peer support and technical assistance; and 4) on-site supervision and performance feedback to improve uptake and sustainability of HIVST and enhance linkage to youth-friendly health clinics for confirmatory HIV testing where needed, sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing (i.e. syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and hepatitis, STI treatment, and PrEP referral. Utilizing a stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized controlled trial, a national cohort of youth aged 14–24 recruited from 32 local government areas across 14 states and four geo-political zones in Nigeria will receive the 4YBY implementation strategy. In addition, an economic evaluation will explore the incremental cost per quality adjusted life year gained. Discussion: This study will add to the limited “how-to-do it literature” on implementation science strategies in a resource-limited setting targeting youth population traditionally underrepresented in implementation science literature. Study findings will also optimize uptake and sustainability of HIVST led by and for young people themselves. Trial registration: This study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04710784 (on January 15, 2021).

US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement on Screening for Atrial Fibrillation - Reply

Davidson, K. W., Mangione, C., & Ogedegbe, G. In JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association.

Publication year

2022

Volume

327

Issue

20

Page(s)

2022

Actions to Transform US Preventive Services Task Force Methods to Mitigate Systemic Racism in Clinical Preventive Services

Davidson, K. W., Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Cabana, M. D., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Krist, A. H., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

326

Issue

23

Page(s)

2405-2411
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: US life expectancy and health outcomes for preventable causes of disease have continued to lag in many populations that experience racism. Objective: To propose iterative changes to US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) processes, methods, and recommendations and enact a commitment to eliminate health inequities for people affected by systemic racism. Design and Evidence: In February 2021, the USPSTF began operational steps in its work to create preventive care recommendations to address the harmful effects of racism. A commissioned methods report was conducted to inform this process. Key findings of the report informed proposed updates to the USPSTF methods to address populations adversely affected by systemic racism and proposed pilots on implementation of the proposed changes. Findings: The USPSTF proposes to consider the opportunity to reduce health inequities when selecting new preventive care topics and prioritizing current topics; seek evidence about the effects of systemic racism and health inequities in all research plans and public comments requested, and integrate available evidence into evidence reviews; and summarize the likely effects of systemic racism and health inequities on clinical preventive services in USPSTF recommendations. The USPSTF will elicit feedback from its partners and experts and proposed changes will be piloted on selected USPSTF topics. Conclusions and Relevance: The USPSTF has developed strategies intended to mitigate the influence of systemic racism in its recommendations. The USPSTF seeks to reduce health inequities and other effects of systemic racism through iterative changes in methods of developing evidence-based recommendations, with partner and public input in the activities to implement the advancements..

Analysis of self-efficacy for stroke recognition and action from a cluster randomised trial evaluating the effects of stroke education pamphlets versus a 12-minute culturally tailored stroke film among Black and Hispanic churchgoers in New York

Ilunga Tshiswaka, D., Teresi, J., Eimicke, J. P., Kong, J., Noble, J. M., Ogedegbe, G., & Williams, O.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Health Education Journal

Volume

80

Issue

7

Page(s)

844-850
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Because early recognition of symptoms and timely treatment of stroke can reduce mortality and the long-term effects of such events, efforts to make many people both aware of these symptoms and knowledgeable about what to do when recognising them are critical for reducing impacts from stroke. Objectives: To assess the impact of a stroke preparedness film (intervention) and stroke preparedness pamphlets (usual care) on self-efficacy for stroke recognition and action. Design: Two-arm cluster randomised trial conducted between July 2013 and August 2018. Setting: A total of 13 church sites located in economically disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods in New York. Of the 883 churchgoers approached, 503 expressed interest, 375 completed eligibility screening and 312 were randomised. Participant inclusion criteria were Black or Hispanic churchgoers, aged 34 years or older, without stroke history, but at a high risk for stroke. The intervention consisted of two 12-minute stroke films: Gospel of Stroke, in English for Black participants, and Derrame Cerebral, in Spanish for Hispanic participants. Method: Participants were pre–post-tested (at baseline, 6-month follow-up and 12-month follow-up) for self-efficacy. Descriptive analysis, a linear mixed model and t tests were used to assess the effects of a stroke preparedness film and stroke preparedness pamphlets on self-efficacy. Results: Findings are based on intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 310 participants completed the study (99% retention rate). About half (53.8%) of participants were Black and 46.2% Hispanic in the intervention group; 48.3% were Black and 51.7% were Hispanic in the usual care group. Overall, both groups evidenced higher self-efficacy (i.e. lower predicted means) over time (p <.0001), although a significant benefit was not observed for the intervention relative to usual care. Conclusion: Both stroke preparedness films and stroke preparedness pamphlets improved self-efficacy with respect to stroke recognition and action among minority churchgoers.

Analysis of Therapeutic Inertia and Race and Ethnicity in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial

Zheutlin, A. R., Mondesir, F. L., Derington, C. G., King, J. B., Zhang, C., Cohen, J. B., Berlowitz, D. R., Anstey, D. E., Cushman, W. C., Greene, T. H., Ogedegbe, O., & Bress, A. P.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA network open
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Therapeutic inertia may contribute to racial and ethnic differences in blood pressure (BP) control. Objective: To determine the association between race and ethnicity and therapeutic inertia in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was a secondary analysis of data from SPRINT, a randomized clinical trial comparing intensive (<120 mm Hg) vs standard (<140 mm Hg) systolic BP treatment goals. Participants were enrolled between November 8, 2010, and March 15, 2013, with a median follow-up 3.26 years. Participants included adults aged 50 years or older at high risk for cardiovascular disease but without diabetes, previous stroke, or heart failure. The present analysis was restricted to participant visits with measured BP above the target goal. Analyses for the present study were performed in from October 2020 through March 2021. Exposures: Self-reported race and ethnicity, mutually exclusively categorized into groups of Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, or non-Hispanic White participants. Main Outcomes and Measures: Therapeutic inertia, defined as no antihypertensive medication intensification at each study visit where the BP was above target goal. The association between self-reported race and ethnicity and therapeutic inertia was estimated using generalized estimating equations and stratified by treatment group. Antihypertensive medication use was assessed with pill bottle inventories at each visit. Blood pressure was measured using an automated device. Results: A total of 8556 participants, including 4141 in the standard group (22844 participant-visits; median age, 67.0 years [IQR, 61.0-76.0 years]; 1467 women [35.4%]) and 4415 in the intensive group (35453 participant-visits; median age, 67.0 years [IQR, 61.0-76.0 years]; 1584 women [35.9%]) with at least 1 eligible study visit were included in the present analysis. Among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic participants, the overall prevalence of therapeutic inertia in the standard vs intensive groups was 59.8% (95% CI, 58.9%-60.7%) vs 56.0% (95% CI, 55.2%-56.7%), 56.8% (95% CI, 54.4%-59.2%) vs 54.5% (95% CI, 52.4%-56.6%), and 59.7% (95% CI, 56.5%-63.0%) vs 51.0% (95% CI, 47.4%-54.5%), respectively. The adjusted odds ratios in the standard and intensive groups for therapeutic inertia associated with non-Hispanic Black vs non-Hispanic White participants were 0.85 (95% CI, 0.79-0.92) and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.88-1.01), respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for therapeutic inertia comparing Hispanic vs non-Hispanic White participants were 1.00 (95% CI, 0.90-1.13) and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.79-1.00) in the standard and intensive groups, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: Among SPRINT participants above BP target goal, this cross-sectional study found that therapeutic inertia prevalence was similar or lower for non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic participants compared with non-Hispanic White participants. These findings suggest that a standardized approach to BP management, as used in SPRINT, may help ensure equitable care and could reduce the contribution of therapeutic inertia to disparities in hypertension. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01206062.

Aspirin Use to Prevent Preeclampsia and Related Morbidity and Mortality: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Assessment of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to COVID-19 Vaccination Sites in Brooklyn, New York

Williams, N., Tutrow, H., Pina, P., Belli, H. M., Ogedegbe, G., & Schoenthaler, A.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Annual Review of Plant Biology

Volume

4

Issue

6

Association between Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Coronary Artery Calcification: The JHS

Zhang, Y., Schwartz, J. E., Jaeger, B. C., An, J., Bellows, B. K., Clark, D., Langford, A. T., Kalinowski, J., Ogedegbe, O., Carr, J. J., Terry, J. G., Min, Y. I., Reynolds, K., Shimbo, D., Moran, A. E., & Muntner, P.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Hypertension

Volume

77

Issue

6

Page(s)

1886-1894
Abstract
Abstract
High blood pressure (BP) based on measurements obtained in the office setting has been associated with the presence and level of coronary artery calcification (CAC) - a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. We studied the association between out-of-office BP and CAC among 557 participants who underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring at visit 1 in 2000-2004 and a computed tomography scan at visit 2 in 2005-2008 as part of the JHS (Jackson Heart Study) - a community-based cohort of African American adults. Mean awake, asleep, and 24-hour BP were calculated for each participant. Among participants included in this analysis, 279 (50%) had any CAC defined by an Agatston score >0. After multivariable adjustment including office systolic BP (SBP), the prevalence ratios for any CAC comparing the highest versus the lowest quartiles of SBP on ambulatory BP monitoring were 1.08 (95% CI, 0.84-1.39) for awake SBP, 1.32 (95% CI, 1.01-1.74) for asleep SBP, and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.91-1.55) for 24-hour SBP. After multivariable adjustment including office diastolic BP, the prevalence ratios for any CAC comparing the highest versus the lowest quartiles of awake, asleep, and 24-hour diastolic BP were 1.27 (95% CI, 1.02-1.59), 1.29 (95% CI, 1.02-1.64), and 1.25 (95% CI, 0.99-1.59), respectively. The current results suggest that higher asleep SBP and higher awake and asleep diastolic BP may be risk factors for subclinical atherosclerosis and underscore the potential role of ambulatory BP monitoring in identifying individuals at high risk for coronary artery disease.

Behavioral Counseling Interventions for Healthy Weight and Weight Gain in Pregnancy: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Davidson, K. W., Barry, M. J., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Krist, A. H., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

325

Issue

20

Page(s)

2087-2093
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing among persons of childbearing age and pregnant persons. In 2015, almost half of all persons began pregnancy with overweight (24%) or obesity (24%). Reported rates of overweight and obesity are higher among Black, Alaska Native/American Indian, and Hispanic women and lower among White and Asian women. Excess weight at the beginning of pregnancy and excess gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant health outcomes such as a large for gestational age infant, cesarean delivery, or preterm birth. Objective: The USPSTF commissioned a systematic review to evaluate the benefits and harms of behavioral counseling interventions to prevent adverse health outcomes associated with obesity during pregnancy and to evaluate intermediate outcomes, including excess gestational weight gain. This is a new recommendation. Population: Pregnant adolescents and adults in primary care settings. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that behavioral counseling interventions aimed at promoting healthy weight gain and preventing excess gestational weight gain in pregnancy have a moderate net benefit for pregnant persons. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends that clinicians offer pregnant persons effective behavioral counseling interventions aimed at promoting healthy weight gain and preventing excess gestational weight gain in pregnancy. (B recommendation).

COVID-19 and Social Determinants of Health in Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Evidence-based interventions implemented in low-and middle-income countries for sickle cell disease management: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials

Gyamfi, J., Ojo, T., Epou, S., Diawara, A., Dike, L., Adenikinju, D., Enechukwu, S., Vieira, D., Nnodu, O., Ogedegbe, G., & Peprah, E.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

PloS one

Volume

16

Issue

2
Abstract
Abstract
Background Despite ~90% of sickle cell disease (SCD) occurring in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), the vast majority of people are not receiving evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to reduce SCD-related adverse outcomes and mortality, and data on implementation research outcomes (IROs) and SCD is limited. This study aims to synthesize available data on EBIs for SCD and assess IROs. Methods We conducted a systematic review of RCTs reporting on EBIs for SCD management implemented in LMICs. We identified articles from PubMed/Medline, Global Health, PubMed Central, Embase, Web of Science medical subject heading (MeSH and Emtree) and keywords, published from inception through February 23, 2020, and conducted an updated search through December 24, 2020. We provide intervention characteristics for each study, EBI impact on SCD, and evidence of reporting on IROs. Main results 29 RCTs were analyzed. EBIs identified included disease modifying agents, supportive care agents/analgesics, anti-malarials, systemic treatments, patient/ provider education, and nutritional supplements. Studies using disease modifying agents, nutritional supplements, and anti-malarials reported improvements in pain crisis, hospitalization, children’s growth and reduction in severity and prevalence of malaria. Two studies reported on the sustainability of supplementary arginine, citrulline, and daily chloroquine and hydroxyurea for SCD patients. Only 13 studies (44.8%) provided descriptions that captured at least three of the eight IROs. There was limited reporting of acceptability, feasibility, fidelity, cost and sustainability. Conclusion EBIs are effective for SCD management in LMICs; however, measurement of IROs is scarce. Future research should focus on penetration of EBIs to inform evidence-based practice and sustainability in the context of LMICs.

Injustice in health: Now is the time to change the story

Integration of a task strengthening strategy for hypertension management into HIV care in Nigeria: a cluster randomized controlled trial study protocol

Aifah, A. A., Odubela, O., Rakhra, A., Onakomaiya, D., Hu, J., Nwaozuru, U., Oladele, D. A., Odusola, A. O., Idigbe, I., Musa, A. Z., Akere, A., Tayo, B., Ogedegbe, G., Iwelunmor, J., & Ezechi, O.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Implementation Science

Volume

16

Issue

1
Abstract
Abstract
Background: In regions with weak healthcare systems, critical shortages of the healthcare workforce, and increasing prevalence of dual disease burdens, there is an urgent need for the implementation of proven effective interventions and strategies to address these challenges. Our mixed-methods hybrid type II effectiveness-implementation study is designed to fill this evidence-to-practice gap. This study protocol describes a cluster randomized controlled trial which evaluates the effectiveness of an implementation strategy, practice facilitation (PF), on the integration, adoption, and sustainability of a task-strengthening strategy for hypertension control (TASSH) intervention within primary healthcare centers (PHCs) in Lagos State, Nigeria. Design: Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM), this study tests the impact of a proven effective implementation strategy to integrate hypertension management into the HIV care cascade, across 30 PHCs. The study will be conducted in three phases: (1) a pre-implementation phase that will use CFIR to develop a tailored PF intervention for integrating TASSH into HIV clinics; (2) an implementation phase that will use RE-AIM to compare the clinical effectiveness of PF vs. a self-directed condition (receipt of information on TASSH without PF) on BP reduction; and (3) a post-implementation phase that will use RE-AIM to evaluate the effect of PF vs. self-directed condition on adoption and sustainability of TASSH. The PF intervention components comprise (a) an advisory board to provide leadership support for implementing TASSH in PHCs; (b) training of the HIV nurses on TASSH protocol; and (c) training of practice facilitators, who will serve as coaches, provide support, and performance feedback to the HIV nurses. Discussion: This study is one of few, if any trials, to evaluate the impact of an implementation strategy for integrating hypertension management into HIV care, on clinical and implementation outcomes. Findings from this study will advance implementation science research on the effectiveness of tailoring an implementation strategy for the integration of an evidence-based, system-level hypertension control intervention into HIV care and treatment. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04704336). Registered on 11 January 2021.

Interactive Associations of Neuropsychiatry Inventory-Questionnaire Assessed Sleep Disturbance and Vascular Risk on Alzheimer’s Disease Stage Progression in Clinically Normal Older Adults

Bubu, O. M., Williams, E. T., Umasabor-Bubu, O. Q., Kaur, S. S., Turner, A. D., Blanc, J., Cejudo, J. R., Mullins, A. E., Parekh, A., Kam, K., Osakwe, Z. T., Nguyen, A. W., Trammell, A. R., Mbah, A. K., De Leon, M., Rapoport, D. M., Ayappa, I., Ogedegbe, G., Jean-Louis, G., Masurkar, A. V., Varga, A. W., & Osorio, R. S.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

Volume

13
Abstract
Abstract
Background: To determine whether sleep disturbance (SD) and vascular-risk interact to promote Alzheimer’s disease (AD) stage-progression in normal, community-dwelling older adults and evaluate their combined risk beyond that of established AD biomarkers. Methods: Longitudinal data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center Uniform-Dataset. SD data (i.e., SD+ vs. SD-), as characterized by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire, were derived from 10,600 participants at baseline, with at-least one follow-up visit. A subset (n = 361) had baseline cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and MRI data. The Framingham heart study general cardiovascular disease (FHS-CVD) risk-score was used to quantify vascular risk. Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) diagnosis during follow-up characterized AD stage-progression. Logistic mixed-effects models with random intercept and slope examined the interaction of SD and vascular risk on prospective aMCI diagnosis. Results: Of the 10,600 participants, 1,017 (9.6%) reported SD and 6,572 (62%) were female. The overall mean (SD) age was 70.5 (6.5), and follow-up time was 5.1 (2.7) years. SD and the FHS-CVD risk-score were each associated with incident aMCI (aOR: 1.42 and aOR: 2.11, p < 0.01 for both). The interaction of SD and FHS-CVD risk-score with time was significant (aOR: 2.87, p < 0.01), suggesting a synergistic effect. SD and FHS-CVD risk-score estimates remained significantly associated with incident aMCI even after adjusting for CSF (Aβ, T-tau, P-tau) and hippocampal volume (n = 361) (aOR: 2.55, p < 0.01), and approximated risk-estimates of each biomarker in the sample where data was available. Conclusions: Clinical measures of sleep and vascular risk may complement current AD biomarkers in assessing risk of cognitive decline in older adults.