Olugbenga Ogedegbe

Olugbenga Ogedegbe
Olugbenga Ogedegbe

Professor

Professional overview

Gbenga Ogedegbe, a physician, is Professor of Population Health & Medicine, Chief Division of Health & Behavior and Director Center for Healthful Behavior Change in the Department of Population Health at the School of Medicine. Gbenga is a leading expert on health disparities research; his work focuses on the implementation of evidence-based interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction in minority populations. He is Principal Investigator on numerous NIH projects, and has expanded his work globally to Sub-Saharan Africa where he is funded by the NIH to strengthen research capacity and reduce the burden of noncommunicable diseases. He has co-authored over 250 publications and his work has been recognized by receipt of several research and mentoring awards including the prestigious John M. Eisenberg Excellence in Mentorship Award from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the Daniel Savage Science Award. He has served on numerous scientific panels including the NIH, CDC, World Health Organization, and the European Union Research Council. Prior to joining NYU, he was faculty at Cornell Weill Medical School and Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. 

Education

MPH from Columbia University, 1999
Residency, Montefiore Medical Center, Internal Medicine, 1998
MD from Donetsk University, 1988

Areas of research and study

Access to Healthcare
Global Health
Health of Marginalized Population
Implementation and Impact of Public Health Regulations
Implementation science
Stroke and Cardiovascular Disease

Publications

Publications

Application of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to examine nurses' perception of the task shifting strategy for hypertension control trial in Ghana

Gyamfi, J., Allegrante, J. P., Iwelunmor, J., Williams, O., Plange-Rhule, J., Blackstone, S., Ntim, M., Apusiga, K., Peprah, E., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

BMC health services research

Volume

20

Issue

1
Abstract
Abstract
Background: The burden of hypertension in many low-and middle-income countries is alarming and requires effective evidence-based preventative strategies that is carefully appraised and accepted by key stakeholders to ensure successful implementation and sustainability. We assessed nurses' perceptions of a recently completed Task Shifting Strategy for Hypertension control (TASSH) trial in Ghana, and facilitators and challenges to TASSH implementation. Methods: Focus group sessions and in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 community health nurses from participating health centers and district hospitals involved in the TASSH trial implemented in the Ashanti Region, Ghana, West Africa from 2012 to 2017. TASSH evaluated the comparative effectiveness of the WHO-PEN program versus provision of health insurance for blood pressure reduction in hypertensive adults. Qualitative data were analyzed using open and axial coding techniques with emerging themes mapped onto the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR). Results: Three themes emerged following deductive analysis using CFIR, including: (1) Patient health goal setting- relative priority and positive feedback from nurses, which motivated patients to make healthy behavior changes as a result of their health being a priority; (2) Leadership engagement (i.e., medical directors) which influenced the extent to which nurses were able to successfully implement TASSH in their various facilities, with most directors being very supportive; and (3) Availability of resources making it possible to implement the TASSH protocol, with limited space and personnel time to carry out TASSH duties, limited blood pressure (BP) monitoring equipment, and transportation, listed as barriers to effective implementation. Conclusion: Assessing stakeholders' perception of the TASSH implementation process guided by CFIR is crucial as it provides a platform for the nurses to thoroughly evaluate the task shifting program, while considering the local context in which the program is implemented. The feedback from the nurses informed barriers and facilitators to implementation of TASSH within the current healthcare system, and suggested system level changes needed prior to scale-up of TASSH to other regions in Ghana with potential for long-term sustainment of the task shifting intervention. Trial registration: Trial registration for parent TASSH study: NCT01802372. Registered February 27, 2013.

Assessment of Community-Level Disparities in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infections and Deaths in Large US Metropolitan Areas

Adhikari, S., Pantaleo, N. P., Feldman, J. M., Ogedegbe, O., Thorpe, L., & Troxel, A. B.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

JAMA network open

Volume

3

Issue

7

Page(s)

e2016938

Behavioral Counseling Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Krist, A. H., Davidson, K. W., Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Donahue, K., Doubeni, C. A., Epling, J. W., Kubik, M., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M. A., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

324

Issue

7

Page(s)

674-681
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Approximately 20 million new cases of bacterial or viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur each year in the US, and about one-half of these cases occur in persons aged 15 to 24 years. Rates of chlamydial, gonococcal, and syphilis infection continue to increase in all regions. Sexually transmitted infections are frequently asymptomatic, which may delay diagnosis and treatment and lead persons to unknowingly transmit STIs to others. Serious consequences of STIs include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, cancer, and AIDS. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a review of the evidence on the benefits and harms of behavioral counseling interventions for preventing STI acquisition. Population: This recommendation statement applies to all sexually active adolescents and to adults at increased risk for STIs. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that behavioral counseling interventions reduce the likelihood of acquiring STIs in sexually active adolescents and in adults at increased risk, including for example, those who have a current STI, do not use condoms, or have multiple partners, resulting in a moderate net benefit. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends behavioral counseling for all sexually active adolescents and for adults at increased risk for STIs. (B recommendation).

Building cardiovascular disease competence in an urban poor Ghanaian community: A social psychology of participation approach

De-Graft Aikins, A., Kushitor, M., Kushitor, S. B., Sanuade, O., Asante, P. Y., Sakyi, L., Agyei, F., Koram, K., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology

Volume

30

Issue

4

Page(s)

419-440
Abstract
Abstract
This paper describes conceptual, methodological, and practical insights from a longitudinal social psychological project that aims to build cardiovascular disease (CVD) competence in a poor community in Accra, Ghana's capital. Informed by a social psychology of participation approach, mixed method data included qualitative interviews and household surveys from over 500 community members, including people living with diabetes, hypertension, and stroke, their caregivers, health care providers, and GIS mapping of pluralistic health systems, food vending sites, bars, and physical activity spaces. Data analysis was informed by the diagnosis-psychosocial intervention-reflexivity framework proposed by Guareschi and Jovchelovitch. The community had a high prevalence of CVD and risk factors, and CVD knowledge was cognitive polyphasic. The environment was obesogenic, alcohol promoting, and medically pluralistic. These factors shaped CVD experiences and eclectic treatment seeking behaviours. Psychosocial interventions included establishing a self-help group and community screening and education. Applying the “AIDS-competent communities” model proposed by Campbell and colleagues, we outline the psychosocial features of CVD competence that are relatively easy to implement, albeit with funds and labour, and those that are difficult. We offer a reflexive analysis of four challenges that future activities will address: social protection, increasing men's participation, connecting national health policy to community needs, and sustaining the project.

Cardiovascular Disease Guideline Adherence: An RCT Using Practice Facilitation

Shelley, D. R., Gepts, T., Siman, N., Nguyen, A. M., Cleland, C., Cuthel, A. M., Rogers, E. S., Ogedegbe, O., Pham-Singer, H., Wu, W., & Berry, C. A.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

American journal of preventive medicine

Volume

58

Issue

5

Page(s)

683-690
Abstract
Abstract
Introduction: Practice facilitation is a promising practice transformation strategy, but further examination of its effectiveness in improving adoption of guidelines for multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors is needed. The objective of the study is to determine whether practice facilitation is effective in increasing the proportion of patients meeting the Million Hearts ABCS outcomes: (A) aspirin when indicated, (B) blood pressure control, (C) cholesterol management, and (S) smoking screening and cessation intervention. Study design: The study used a stepped-wedge cluster RCT design with 4 intervention waves. Data were extracted for 13 quarters between January 1, 2015 and March 31, 2018, which encompassed the control, intervention, and follow-up periods for all waves, and analyzed in 2019. Setting/participants: A total of 257 small independent primary care practices in New York City were randomized into 1 of 4 waves. Intervention: The intervention consisted of practice facilitators conducting at least 13 practice visits over 1 year, focused on capacity building and implementing system and workflow changes to meet cardiovascular disease care guidelines. Main outcome measures: The main outcomes were the Million Hearts’ ABCS measures. Two additional measures were created: (1) proportion of tobacco users who received a cessation intervention (smokers counseled) and (2) a composite measure that assessed the proportion of patients meeting treatment targets for A, B, and C (ABC composite). Results: The S measure improved when comparing follow-up with the control period (incidence rate ratio=1.152, 95% CI=1.072, 1.238, p<0.001) and when comparing follow-up with intervention (incidence rate ratio=1.060, 95% CI=1.013, 1.109, p=0.007). Smokers counseled improved when comparing the intervention period with control (incidence rate ratio=1.121, 95% CI=1.037, 1.211, p=0.002). Conclusions: Increasing the impact of practice facilitation programs that target multiple risk factors may require a longer, more intense intervention and greater attention to external policy and practice context. Trial registration: This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02646488.

Obstructive sleep apnea, cognition and Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review integrating three decades of multidisciplinary research

Bubu, O. M., Andrade, A. G., Umasabor-Bubu, O. Q., Hogan, M. M., Turner, A. D., De Leon, M. J., Ogedegbe, G., Ayappa, I., Jean-Louis G., G., Jackson, M. L., Varga, A. W., & Osorio, R. S.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

Sleep Medicine Reviews

Volume

50
Abstract
Abstract
Increasing evidence links cognitive-decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD) to various sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). With increasing age, there are substantial differences in OSA's prevalence, associated comorbidities and phenotypic presentation. An important question for sleep and AD researchers is whether OSA's heterogeneity results in varying cognitive-outcomes in older-adults compared to middle-aged adults. In this review, we systematically integrated research examining OSA and cognition, mild cognitive-impairment (MCI) and AD/AD biomarkers; including the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment, particularly focusing on characterizing the heterogeneity of OSA and its cognitive-outcomes. Broadly, in middle-aged adults, OSA is often associated with mild impairment in attention, memory and executive function. In older-adults, OSA is not associated with any particular pattern of cognitive-impairment at cross-section; however, OSA is associated with the development of MCI or AD with symptomatic patients who have a higher likelihood of associated disturbed sleep/cognitive-impairment driving these findings. CPAP treatment may be effective in improving cognition in OSA patients with AD. Recent trends demonstrate links between OSA and AD-biomarkers of neurodegeneration across all age-groups. These distinct patterns provide the foundation for envisioning better characterization of OSA and the need for more sensitive/novel sleep-dependent cognitive assessments to assess OSA-related cognitive-impairment.

Primary Care Interventions for Prevention and Cessation of Tobacco Use in Children and Adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Owens, D. K., Davidson, K. W., Krist, A. H., Barry, M. J., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Curry, S. J., Donahue, K., Doubeni, C. A., Epling, J. W., Kubik, M., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M. A., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

323

Issue

16

Page(s)

1590-1598
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the US. An estimated annual 480000 deaths are attributable to tobacco use in adults, including from secondhand smoke. It is estimated that every day about 1600 youth aged 12 to 17 years smoke their first cigarette and that about 5.6 million adolescents alive today will die prematurely from a smoking-related illness. Although conventional cigarette use has gradually declined among children in the US since the late 1990s, tobacco use via electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is quickly rising and is now more common among youth than cigarette smoking. e-Cigarette products usually contain nicotine, which is addictive, raising concerns about e-cigarette use and nicotine addiction in children. Exposure to nicotine during adolescence can harm the developing brain, which may affect brain function and cognition, attention, and mood; thus, minimizing nicotine exposure from any tobacco product in youth is important. Objective: To update its 2013 recommendation, the USPSTF commissioned a review of the evidence on the benefits and harms of primary care interventions for tobacco use prevention and cessation in children and adolescents. The current systematic review newly included e-cigarettes as a tobacco product. Population: This recommendation applies to school-aged children and adolescents younger than 18 years. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that primary care-feasible behavioral interventions, including education or brief counseling, to prevent tobacco use in school-aged children and adolescents have a moderate net benefit. The USPSTF concludes that there is insufficient evidence to determine the balance of benefits and harms of primary care interventions for tobacco cessation among school-aged children and adolescents who already smoke, because of a lack of adequately powered studies on behavioral counseling interventions and a lack of studies on medications. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends that primary care clinicians provide interventions, including education or brief counseling, to prevent initiation of tobacco use among school-aged children and adolescents. (B recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of primary care-feasible interventions for the cessation of tobacco use among school-aged children and adolescents. (I statement).

Primary Care-Based Interventions to Prevent Illicit Drug Use in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Krist, A. H., Davidson, K. W., Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Donahue, K., Doubeni, C. A., Epling, J. W., Kubik, M., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M. A., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

323

Issue

20

Page(s)

2060-2066
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: In 2017, an estimated 7.9% of persons aged 12 to 17 years reported illicit drug use in the past month, and an estimated 50% of adolescents in the US had used an illicit drug by the time they graduated from high school. Young adults aged 18 to 25 years have a higher rate of current illicit drug use, with an estimated 23.2% currently using illicit drugs. Illicit drug use is associated with many negative health, social, and economic consequences and is a significant contributor to 3 of the leading causes of death among young persons (aged 10-24 years): unintentional injuries including motor vehicle crashes, suicide, and homicide. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the USPSTF commissioned a review of the evidence on the potential benefits and harms of interventions to prevent illicit drug use in children, adolescents, and young adults. Population: This recommendation applies to children (11 years and younger), adolescents (aged 12-17 years), and young adults (aged 18-25 years), including pregnant persons. Evidence Assessment: Because of limited and inadequate evidence, the USPSTF concludes that the benefits and harms of primary care-based interventions to prevent illicit drug use in children, adolescents, and young adults are uncertain and that the evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms. More research is needed. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of primary care-based behavioral counseling interventions to prevent illicit drug use, including nonmedical use of prescription drugs, in children, adolescents, and young adults. (I statement).

Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors and risk of covid-19

Reynolds, H. R., Adhikari, S., Pulgarin, C., Troxel, A. B., Iturrate, E., Johnson, S. B., Hausvater, A., Newman, J. D., Berger, J. S., Bangalore, S., Katz, S. D., Fishman, G. I., Kunichoff, D., Chen, Y., Ogedegbe, G., & Hochman, J. S.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

New England Journal of Medicine

Volume

382

Issue

25

Page(s)

2441-2448
Abstract
Abstract
BACKGROUND There is concern about the potential of an increased risk related to medications that act on the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system in patients exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), because the viral receptor is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). METHODS We assessed the relation between previous treatment with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, or thiazide diuretics and the likelihood of a positive or negative result on Covid-19 testing as well as the likelihood of severe illness (defined as intensive care, mechanical ventilation, or death) among patients who tested positive. Using Bayesian methods, we compared outcomes in patients who had been treated with these medications and in untreated patients, overall and in those with hypertension, after propensity-score matching for receipt of each medication class. A difference of at least 10 percentage points was prespecified as a substantial difference. RESULTS Among 12,594 patients who were tested for Covid-19, a total of 5894 (46.8%) were positive; 1002 of these patients (17.0%) had severe illness. A history of hypertension was present in 4357 patients (34.6%), among whom 2573 (59.1%) had a positive test; 634 of these patients (24.6%) had severe illness. There was no association between any single medication class and an increased likelihood of a positive test. None of the medications examined was associated with a substantial increase in the risk of severe illness among patients who tested positive. CONCLUSIONS We found no substantial increase in the likelihood of a positive test for Covid-19 or in the risk of severe Covid-19 among patients who tested positive in association with five common classes of antihypertensive medications.

Responsibility of Medical Journals in Addressing Racism in Health Care

Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

JAMA network open

Volume

3

Issue

8

Page(s)

e2016531

Screening for Bacterial Vaginosis in Pregnant Persons to Prevent Preterm Delivery: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Owens, D. K., Davidson, K. W., Krist, A. H., Barry, M. J., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Donahue, K., Doubeni, C. A., Epling, J. W., Kubik, M., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M. A., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

323

Issue

13

Page(s)

1286-1292
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Bacterial vaginosis is common and is caused by a disruption of the microbiological environment in the lower genital tract. In the US, reported prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among pregnant women ranges from 5.8% to 19.3% and is higher in some races/ethnicities. Bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy has been associated with adverse obstetrical outcomes including preterm delivery, early miscarriage, postpartum endometritis, and low birth weight. Objective: To update its 2008 recommendation, the USPSTF commissioned a review of the evidence on the accuracy of screening and the benefits and harms of screening for and treatment of bacterial vaginosis in asymptomatic pregnant persons to prevent preterm delivery. Population: This recommendation applies to pregnant persons without symptoms of bacterial vaginosis. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that screening for asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis in pregnant persons not at increased risk for preterm delivery has no net benefit in preventing preterm delivery. The USPSTF concludes that for pregnant persons at increased risk for preterm delivery, the evidence is conflicting and insufficient, and the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. Conclusions and Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends against screening for bacterial vaginosis in pregnant persons not at increased risk for preterm delivery. (D recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for bacterial vaginosis in pregnant persons at increased risk for preterm delivery. (I statement).

Screening for Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Adolescents and Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Owens, D. K., Davidson, K. W., Krist, A. H., Barry, M. J., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Donahue, K., Doubeni, C. A., Epling, J. W., Kubik, M., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M. A., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

323

Issue

10

Page(s)

970-975
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common chronic blood-borne pathogen in the US and a leading cause of complications from chronic liver disease. HCV is associated with more deaths than the top 60 other reportable infectious diseases combined, including HIV. Cases of acute HCV infection have increased approximately 3.8-fold over the last decade because of increasing injection drug use and improved surveillance. Objective: To update its 2013 recommendation, the USPSTF commissioned a review of the evidence on screening for HCV infection in adolescents and adults. Population: This recommendation applies to all asymptomatic adults aged 18 to 79 years without known liver disease. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that screening for HCV infection in adults aged 18 to 79 years has substantial net benefit. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends screening for HCV infection in adults aged 18 to 79 years. (B recommendation).

Screening for Unhealthy Drug Use: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Krist, A. H., Davidson, K. W., Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Curry, S. J., Donahue, K., Doubeni, C. A., Epling, J. W., Kubik, M., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M. A., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

323

Issue

22

Page(s)

2301-2309
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: An estimated 12% of adults 18 years or older and 8% of adolescents aged 12 to 17 years report unhealthy use of prescription or illegal drugs in the US. Objective: To update its 2008 recommendation, the USPSTF commissioned reviews of the evidence on screening by asking questions about drug use and interventions for unhealthy drug use in adults and adolescents. Population: This recommendation statement applies to adults 18 years or older, including pregnant and postpartum persons, and adolescents aged 12 to 17 years in primary care settings. This statement does not apply to adolescents or adults who have a currently diagnosed drug use disorder or are currently undergoing or have been referred for drug use treatment. This statement applies to settings and populations for which services for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and appropriate care can be offered or referred. Evidence Assessment: In adults, the USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that screening by asking questions about unhealthy drug use has moderate net benefit when services for accurate diagnosis of unhealthy drug use or drug use disorders, effective treatment, and appropriate care can be offered or referred. In adolescents, because of the lack of evidence, the USPSTF concludes that the benefits and harms of screening for unhealthy drug use are uncertain and that the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends screening by asking questions about unhealthy drug use in adults 18 years or older. Screening should be implemented when services for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and appropriate care can be offered or referred. (Screening refers to asking questions about unhealthy drug use, not testing biological specimens.) (B recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for unhealthy drug use in adolescents. (I statement).

Self-monitoring of Blood Pressure in Patients with Hypertension-Related Multi-morbidity: Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis

Sheppard, J. P., Tucker, K. L., Davison, W. J., Stevens, R., Aekplakorn, W., Bosworth, H. B., Bove, A., Earle, K., Godwin, M., Green, B. B., Hebert, P., Heneghan, C., Hill, N., Hobbs, F. D., Kantola, I., Kerry, S. M., Leiva, A., Magid, D. J., Mant, J., Margolis, K. L., Mckinstry, B., Mclaughlin, M. A., Mcnamara, K., Omboni, S., Ogedegbe, O., Parati, G., Varis, J., Verberk, W. J., Wakefield, B. J., & Mcmanus, R. J.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

American Journal of Hypertension

Volume

33

Issue

3

Page(s)

243-251
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Studies have shown that self-monitoring of blood pressure (BP) is effective when combined with co-interventions, but its efficacy varies in the presence of some co-morbidities. This study examined whether self-monitoring can reduce clinic BP in patients with hypertension-related co-morbidity. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of articles published in Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library up to January 2018. Randomized controlled trials of self-monitoring of BP were selected and individual patient data (IPD) were requested. Contributing studies were prospectively categorized by whether they examined a low/high-intensity co-intervention. Change in BP and likelihood of uncontrolled BP at 12 months were examined according to number and type of hypertension-related co-morbidity in a one-stage IPD meta-analysis. Results: A total of 22 trials were eligible, 16 of which were able to provide IPD for the primary outcome, including 6,522 (89%) participants with follow-up data. Self-monitoring was associated with reduced clinic systolic BP compared to usual care at 12-month follow-up, regardless of the number of hypertension-related co-morbidities (-3.12 mm Hg, [95% confidence intervals -4.78, -1.46 mm Hg]; P value for interaction with number of morbidities = 0.260). Intense interventions were more effective than low-intensity interventions in patients with obesity (P < 0.001 for all outcomes), and possibly stroke (P < 0.004 for BP control outcome only), but this effect was not observed in patients with coronary heart disease, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease. Conclusions: Self-monitoring lowers BP regardless of the number of hypertension-related co-morbidities, but may only be effective in conditions such obesity or stroke when combined with high-intensity co-interventions.

Tailored approach to sleep health education (TASHE): A randomized controlled trial of a web-based application

Jean-Louis, G., Robbins, R., Williams, N. J., Allegrante, J. P., Rapoport, D. M., Cohall, A., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine

Volume

16

Issue

8

Page(s)

1331-1341
Abstract
Abstract
Study Objectives: In a randomized controlled trial, we compared the effect of the Tailored Approach to Sleep Health Education (TASHE) on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) self-efficacy among community-dwelling blacks in New York City. Methods: Study participants were 194 blacks at high risk for OSA based on the Apnea Risk Evaluation System. TASHE intervention was delivered via a Wi-Fi-enabled tablet, programmed to provide online access to culturally and linguistically tailored information designed to address unique barriers to OSA care among blacks. Blacks in the attention-controlled arm received standard sleep information via the National Sleep Foundation website. Blacks in both arms accessed online sleep information for 2 months. Outcomes (OSA health literacy, self-efficacy, knowledge and beliefs, and sleep hygiene) were assessed at baseline, at 2 months, and at 6 months. Results: We compared outcomes in both arms based on intention-to-treat analysis using adjusted Generalized Linear Mixed Modeling. TASHE exposure significantly increased OSA self-efficacy (OSA outcome expectation [β =.5; 95% CI:.1-.9] and OSA treatment efficacy [β = 0.4; 95% CI:.0-.8]) at 2 months but not at 6 months. Additionally, TASHE exposure improved sleep hygiene at 6 months (β = 6.7; 95% CI: 2.2-11.3) but not at 2 months. Conclusions: Community-dwelling blacks exposed to TASHE materials reported increased OSA self-efficacy compared with standard sleep health education. Stakeholder-engaged, theory-based approaches, as demonstrated in the TASHE intervention, can be used successfully to deliver effective sleep health messages. Clinical Trial Registration: Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02507089; Identifier: NCT02507089.

Underutilization of treatment for black adults with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension: JHS and the REGARDS study

Langford, A. T., Akinyelure, O. P., Moore, T. L., Howard, G., Min, Y. I., Hillegass, W. B., Bress, A. P., Tajeu, G. S., Butler, M., Jaeger, B. C., Yano, Y., Shimbo, D., Ogedegbe, G., Calhoun, D., Booth, J. N., & Muntner, P.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

Hypertension

Page(s)

1600-1607
Abstract
Abstract
Resistant hypertension, defined as blood pressure levels above goal while taking ≥3 classes of antihypertensive medication or ≥4 classes regardless of blood pressure level, is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. The 2018 American Heart Association Scientific Statement on Resistant Hypertension recommends healthy lifestyle habits and thiazide-like diuretics and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists for adults with resistant hypertension. The term apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) is used when pseudoresistance cannot be excluded. We estimated the use of healthy lifestyle factors and recommended antihypertensive medication classes among US Black adults with aTRH. Data were pooled for Black participants in the JHS (Jackson Heart Study) in 2009 to 2013 (n=2496) and the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) in 2013 to 2016 (n=3786). Outcomes included lifestyle factors (not smoking, not consuming alcohol, ≥75 minutes of vigorous-intensity or ≥150 minutes of moderate or vigorous physical activity per week, and body mass index <25 kg/m2) and recommended antihypertensive medications (thiazide-like diuretics and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists). Overall, 28.3% of participants who reported taking antihypertensive medication had aTRH. Among participants with aTRH, 14.5% and 1.2% had ideal levels of 3 and 4 of the lifestyle factors, respectively. Also, 5.9% of participants with aTRH reported taking a thiazide-like diuretic, and 9.8% reported taking a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. In conclusion, evidence-based lifestyle factors and recommended pharmacological treatment are underutilized in Black adults with aTRH. Increased use of lifestyle recommendations and antihypertensive medication classes specifically recommended for aTRH may improve blood pressure control and reduce cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality among US Black adults. Graphic Abstract A graphic abstract is available for this article.

Uptake of Task-Strengthening Strategy for Hypertension (TASSH) control within Community-Based Health Planning Services in Ghana: Study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

Asante, K. P., Iwelunmor, J., Apusiga, K., Gyamfi, J., Nyame, S., Adjei, K. G. A., Aifah, A., Adjei, K., Onakomaiya, D., Chaplin, W. F., Ogedegbe, G., & Plange-Rhule, J.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

Trials

Volume

21

Issue

1
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Physician shortage is a major barrier to hypertension (HTN) control in Ghana, with only one physician to 10,000 patients in 2015, thus limiting its capacity for HTN control at the primary care level such as the Community Health Planning and Services (CHPS) compounds, where most Ghanaians receive care. A Task-Shifting Strategy for HTN control (TASSH) based on the WHO Cardiovascular (CV) Risk Package is an evidence-based strategy for mitigating provider-and systems-level barriers to optimal HTN control. Despite its effectiveness, TASSH remains untested in CHPS zones. Additionally, primary care practices in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) lack resources and expertise needed to coordinate multilevel system changes without assistance. The proposed study will evaluate the effectiveness of practice facilitation (PF) as a quality improvement strategy for implementing TASSH within CHPS zones in Ghana. Methods: Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance framework, we will evaluate, in a hybrid clinical effectiveness-implementation design, the effect of PF on the uptake of an evidence-based TASSH, among 700 adults who present to 70 CHPS zones with uncontrolled HTN. Components of the PF strategy include (a) an advisory board that provides leadership support for implementing the intervention within the CHPS zones and (b) trained task-strengthening facilitators (TSFs) who serve as practice coaches to provide training, and performance feedback to community health officers (CHOs) who will deliver TASSH at the CHPS zones. For this purpose, the TSFs are trained to identify, counsel, and refer adults with uncontrolled HTN to community health centers in Bono East Region of Ghana. Discussion: Uptake of community-based evidence-supported interventions for hypertension control in Ghana is urgently needed to address the CVD epidemic and its associated morbidity, mortality, and societal costs. Findings from this study will provide policymakers and other stakeholders the "how to do it"empirical literature on the uptake of evidence-based task-strengthening interventions for HTN control in Ghana and will serve as a model for similar action in other low, middle-income countries. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03490695. Registered on 6 April 2018. Protocol version and date: Version 1, date: 21 August, 2019.

Adopting Task-Shifting Strategies for Hypertension Control in Ghana: Insights From a Realist Synthesis of Stakeholder Perceptions

Iwelunmor, J., Onakomaiya, D., Gyamfi, J., Nyame, S., Apusiga, K., Adjei, K., Mantey, K., Plange-Rhule, J., Asante, K. P., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2019

Journal title

Global Heart

Volume

14

Issue

2

Page(s)

119-127
Abstract
Abstract
Background: The adoption, intention, initial decision or action to implement evidence-based strategies for hypertension control in real-world settings is a challenge in low- and middle-income countries. Although stakeholders are essential for the adoption of evidence-based interventions, data on how to engage them to improve uptake of these strategies is lacking. Using a realist synthesis of stakeholder perspectives, the authors describe a process for engaging stakeholders to identify facilitators and barriers to the adoption of an evidence-based task-strengthening strategy for hypertension control in Ghana. Objectives: To identify stakeholder perceptions of the factors influencing the adoption of evidence-based task-shifting strategies for hypertension control in Ghana. Methods: A realist evaluation of interviews, focus groups, and brainstorming activities was conducted to evaluate stakeholder perceptions of an evidence-based strategy designed to identify, counsel, and refer patients with hypertension for care in community health centers. Stakeholders included community health officers, administrators, and policymakers from the Ghana Health Service, researchers, and community health officers in community-based health planning services in the Kintampo region of Ghana. The study used a realist synthesis approach to thematically analyze the qualitative data generated. Results: Sixty-two stakeholders participated in the study. They identified inner contextual characteristics such as the provision of resources, training, supervision, and monitoring as well as community outreach as important for the adoption of an evidence-based strategy in Ghana. The findings highlight how stakeholders are faced with multiple and often competing system strains when contemplating uptake of evidence-based strategies for hypertension control. Conclusions: Through the application of a realist synthesis of stakeholder perceptions, the study identified factors likely to enhance the adoption of an evidence-based strategy for hypertension control in Ghana. The lessons learned will help shape the translation of evidence in real-world settings, and could be valuable in future planning to enhance the adoption of evidence-based strategies for hypertension control in LMICs.

Association Between High Perceived Stress Over Time and Incident Hypertension in Black Adults: Findings From the Jackson Heart Study

Spruill, T. M., Butler, M. J., Thomas, S. J., Tajeu, G. S., Kalinowski, J., Castañeda, S. F., Langford, A. T., Abdalla, M., Blackshear, C., Allison, M., Ogedegbe, G., Sims, M., & Shimbo, D.

Publication year

2019

Journal title

Journal of the American Heart Association

Volume

8

Issue

21
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Chronic psychological stress has been associated with hypertension, but few studies have examined this relationship in blacks. We examined the association between perceived stress levels assessed annually for up to 13 years and incident hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, a community-based cohort of blacks. Methods and Results: Analyses included 1829 participants without hypertension at baseline (Exam 1, 2000–2004). Incident hypertension was defined as blood pressure≥140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication use at Exam 2 (2005–2008) or Exam 3 (2009–2012). Each follow-up interval at risk of hypertension was categorized as low, moderate, or high perceived stress based on the number of annual assessments between exams in which participants reported “a lot” or “extreme” stress over the previous year (low, 0 high stress ratings; moderate, 1 high stress rating; high, ≥2 high stress ratings). During follow-up (median, 7.0 years), hypertension incidence was 48.5%. Hypertension developed in 30.6% of intervals with low perceived stress, 34.6% of intervals with moderate perceived stress, and 38.2% of intervals with high perceived stress. Age-, sex-, and time-adjusted risk ratios (95% CI) associated with moderate and high perceived stress versus low perceived stress were 1.19 (1.04–1.37) and 1.37 (1.20–1.57), respectively (P trend<0.001). The association was present after adjustment for demographic, clinical, and behavioral factors and baseline stress (P trend=0.001). Conclusions: In a community-based cohort of blacks, higher perceived stress over time was associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension. Evaluating stress levels over time and intervening when high perceived stress is persistent may reduce hypertension risk.

Association of Daytime and Nighttime Blood Pressure with Cardiovascular Disease Events among African American Individuals

Yano, Y., Tanner, R. M., Sakhuja, S., Jaeger, B. C., Booth, J. N., Abdalla, M., Pugliese, D., Seals, S. R., Ogedegbe, G., Jones, D. W., Muntner, P., & Shimbo, D.

Publication year

2019

Journal title

JAMA Cardiology

Volume

4

Issue

9

Page(s)

910-917
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Little is known regarding health outcomes associated with higher blood pressure (BP) levels measured outside the clinic among African American individuals. Objective: To examine whether daytime and nighttime BP levels measured outside the clinic among African American individuals are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality independent of BP levels measured inside the clinic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study analyzed data from 1034 African American participants in the Jackson Heart Study who completed ambulatory BP monitoring at baseline (September 26, 2000, to March 31, 2004). Mean daytime and nighttime BPs were calculated based on measurements taken while participants were awake and asleep, respectively. Data were analyzed from July 1, 2017, to April 30, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Cardiovascular disease events, including coronary heart disease and stroke, experienced through December 31, 2014, and all-cause mortality experienced through December 31, 2016, were adjudicated. The associations of daytime BP and nighttime BP, separately, with CVD events and all-cause mortality were determined using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: A total of 1034 participants (mean [SD] age, 58.9 [10.9] years; 337 [32.6%] male; and 583 [56.4%] taking antihypertensive medication) were included in the study. The mean daytime systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) was 129.4/77.6 mm Hg, and the mean nighttime SBP/DBP was 121.3/68.4 mm Hg. During follow-up (median [interquartile range], 12.5 [11.1-13.6] years for CVD and 14.8 [13.7-15.6] years for all-cause mortality), 113 CVD events and 194 deaths occurred. After multivariable adjustment, including in-clinic SBP and DBP, the hazard ratios (HRs) for CVD events for each SD higher level were 1.53 (95% CI, 1.24-1.88) for daytime SBP (per 13.5 mm Hg), 1.48 (95% CI, 1.22-1.80) for nighttime SBP (per 15.5 mm Hg), 1.25 (95% CI, 1.02-1.51) for daytime DBP (per 9.3 mm Hg), and 1.30 (95% CI, 1.06-1.59) for nighttime DBP (per 9.5 mm Hg). Nighttime SBP was associated with all-cause mortality (HR per 1-SD higher level, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06-1.45), but no association was present for daytime SBP (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.97-1.33) and daytime (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.81-1.10) and nighttime (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.90-1.24) DBP. Conclusions and Relevance: Among African American individuals, higher daytime and nighttime SBPs were associated with an increased risk for CVD events and all-cause mortality independent of BP levels measured in the clinic. Measurement of daytime and nighttime BP using ambulatory monitoring during a 24-hour period may help identify African American individuals who have an increased cardiovascular disease risk.

Capabilities, opportunities and motivations for integrating evidence-based strategy for hypertension control into HIV clinics in Southwest Nigeria

Iwelunmor, J., Ezechi, O., Obiezu-Umeh, C., Gbajabiamila, T., Musa, A. Z., Oladele, D., Idigbe, I., Ohihoin, A., Gyamfi, J., Aifah, A., Salako, B., & Ogedegbe, O.

Publication year

2019

Journal title

PloS one

Volume

14

Issue

6
Abstract
Abstract
Background Given the growing burden of cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa, global donors and governments are exploring strategies for integrating evidence-based cardiovascular diseases prevention into HIV clinics. We assessed the capabilities, motivations and opportunities that exist for HIV clinics to apply evidence-based strategies for hypertension control among people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Nigeria. Methods We used a concurrent Quan-Qual- study approach (a quantitative first step using structured questionnaires followed by a qualitative approach using stakeholder meetings).We invited key stakeholders and representatives of HIV and non-communicable disease organizations in Lagos, Nigeria to 1) assess the capacity of HIV clinics (n = 29) to, and; 2) explore their attitudes and perceptions towards implementing evidence-based strategies for hypertension management in Lagos, Nigeria (n = 19)The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS whereas responses from the stakeholders meeting were coded and analyzed using thematic approach and an implementation science framework, the COM-B (Capabilities, Opportunities, Motivations and Behavior) model, guided the mapping and interpretation of the data. Results Out of the 29 HIV clinics that participated in the study, 28 clinics were public, government-owned facilities with 394 HIV patients per month with varying capabilities, opportunities and motivations for integrating evidence-based hypertension interventions within their services for PLHIV. Majority of the clinics (n = 26) rated medium-to-low on the psychological capability domains, while most of the clinics (n = 25) rated low on the physical capabilities of integrating evidence-based hypertension interventions within HIV clinics. There was high variability in the ratings for the opportunity domains, with physical opportunities rated high in only eight HIV clinics, two clinics with a medium rating and nineteen clinics with a low rating. Social opportunity domain tended to be rated low in majority of the HIV clinics (n = 21). Lastly, almost all the HIV clinics (n = 23) rated high on the reflective motivation domain although automatic motivations tended to be rated low across the HIV clinics. Conclusion In this study, we found that with the exception of motivations, the relative capabilities whether physical or psychological and the relative opportunities for integrating evidence-based hypertension intervention within HIV clinics in Nigeria were minimal. Thus, there is need to strengthen the HIV clinics in Lagos for the implementation of evidence-based hypertension interventions within HIV clinics to improve patient outcomes and service delivery in Southwest Nigeria.

Capacity and Readiness for Implementing Evidence-Based Task-Strengthening Strategies for Hypertension Control in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study

Nyame, S., Iwelunmor, J., Ogedegbe, G., Adjei, K. G. A., Adjei, K., Apusiga, K., Gyamfi, J., Asante, K. P., & Plange-Rhule, J.

Publication year

2019

Journal title

Global Heart

Volume

14

Issue

2

Page(s)

129-134
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Assessing the practice capacity for hypertension management and control within community-based health planning and services system is an important step toward implementing evidence-based interventions to reduce uncontrolled hypertension at the community level. Objectives: To assess the capacity and readiness of community health workers to implement a task-strengthening strategy for hypertension control (TASSH) at the community level. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research conducted among community health workers in 6 contiguous districts within the Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana. Study variables were described using frequency tables. Results: A total of 179 community health officers (CHOs) were interviewed. The majority of respondents knew lifestyle-related messages to be provided to their clients such as heart-healthy diets (91.6%, n = 164), physical activity (90.5%, n = 162), and low sodium intake (88.3%, n = 158), but not about other lifestyle-modifying messages such as caffeine reduction (46.4%, n = 83). The majority (79%) of the respondents did not know the names of the first-line hypertension medications. Fifty-one percent of respondents did not know about the blood pressure threshold for initiation of blood pressure management. About 90% of respondents had not been trained on hypertension management. More than 80% are however motivated to implement the TASSH intervention. Conclusions: The majority of CHOs in this study were aware of lifestyle modifications such as diet modifications and increase in physical activity. However, their knowledge was limited in the blood pressure threshold for initiating treatment and in the knowledge of first-line hypertension medication, irrespective of the number of years practiced. Training on hypertension is also low. However, CHOs are motivated to control hypertension at the community level. Community-level interventions such as TASSH can leverage on their motivation to demonstrate an impact on hypertension control.

Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality in Adults Aged ≥60 Years According to Recommendations by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American College of Physicians/American Academy of Family Physicians

Jaeger, B. C., Anstey, D. E., Bress, A. P., Booth, J. N., Butler, M., Clark, D., Howard, G., Kalinowski, J., Long, D. L., Ogedegbe, G., Plante, T. B., Shimbo, D., Sims, M., Supiano, M. A., Whelton, P. K., & Muntner, P.

Publication year

2019

Journal title

Hypertension

Volume

73

Issue

2

Page(s)

327-334
Abstract
Abstract
In 2017, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and the American College of Physicians/American Academy of Family Physicians (ACP/AAFP) published blood pressure guidelines. Adults recommended antihypertensive medication initiation or intensification by the ACP/AAFP guideline receive the same recommendation from the ACC/AHA guideline. However, many adults ≥60 years old are recommended to initiate or intensify antihypertensive medication by the ACC/AHA but not the ACP/AAFP guideline. We compared atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease event rates according to antihypertensive treatment recommendations in the ACC/AHA and ACP/AAFP guidelines among adults ≥60 years old with systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mm Hg in the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) and the JHS (Jackson Heart Study). Among 4311 participants not taking antihypertensive medication at baseline, 11.4%, 61.2%, and 27.4% were recommended antihypertensive medication initiation by neither guideline, the ACC/AHA but not the ACP/AAFP guideline, and both guidelines, respectively. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease event rates (95% CI) for these groups were 3.4 (1.6-5.2), 18.0 (16.1-19.8), and 25.3 (21.9-28.6) per 1000 person-years, respectively. Among 7281 participants taking antihypertensive medication at baseline, 57.9% and 42.1% were recommended antihypertensive medication intensification by the ACC/AHA but not the ACP/AAFP guideline and both guidelines, respectively. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease event rates (95% CI) for these groups were 18.2 (16.7-19.7) and 33.0 (30.5-35.4) per 1000 person-years, respectively. In conclusion, adults recommended initiation or intensification of antihypertensive medication by the ACC/AHA but not the ACP/AAFP guideline have high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk that may be reduced through treatment initiation or intensification.

Comprehensive examination of the multilevel adverse risk and protective factors for cardiovascular disease among hypertensive African Americans

Schoenthaler, A., Fei, K., Ramos, M. A., Richardson, L. D., Ogedegbe, G., & Horowitz, C. R.

Publication year

2019

Journal title

Journal of Clinical Hypertension

Volume

21

Issue

6

Page(s)

794-803
Abstract
Abstract
This paper describes the multilevel factors that contribute to hypertension disparities in 2052 hypertensive African Americans (mean age 52.9 ± 9.9 years; 66.3% female) who participated in a clinical trial. At the family level, participants reported average levels of life chaos and high social support. However, at the individual level, participants exhibited several adverse clinical and behavioral factors including poor blood pressure control (45% of population), obesity (61%), medication non-adherence (48%), smoking (32%), physical inactivity (45%), and poor diet (71%). While participants rated their provider as trustworthy, they reported high levels of discrimination in the health care system. Finally, community-level data indicate that participants reside in areas characterized by poor socio-economic and neighborhood conditions (eg, segregation). In the context of our trial, hypertensive African Americans exhibited several adverse risks and protective factors at multiple levels of influence. Future research should evaluate the impact of these factors on cardiovascular outcomes using a longitudinal design.

Developing a Tailored Website for Promoting Awareness about Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Among Blacks in Community-Based Settings

Robbins, R., Senathirajah, Y., Williams, N. J., Hutchinson, C., Rapoport, D. M., Allegrante, J. P., Cohall, A., Rogers, A., Ogedegbe, O., & Jean-Louis, G.

Publication year

2019

Journal title

Health Communication

Volume

34

Issue

5

Page(s)

567-575
Abstract
Abstract
Blacks are at greater risk for lower sleep quality and higher risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) than other racial groups. In this study, we summarize the development of a tailored website including visuals, key messages, and video narratives, to promote awareness about sleep apnea among community-dwelling blacks. We utilized mixed methods, including in-depth interviews, usability-testing procedures, and brief surveys (n = 9, 55% female, 100% black, average age 38.5 years). Themes from the qualitative analysis illuminated varied knowledge regarding OSA symptoms and prevalent self-reported experience with sleep disturbance and OSA symptoms (e.g., snoring). On a scale from 1 (not at all) to 5 (very high), participants provided favorable ratings of website usefulness (mean = 4.9), user friendliness (mean = 4.9) and attractiveness (mean = 4.3). Our findings suggest although tailored health communication has potential for serving as a tool for advancing health equity, usability-testing of health materials is critical to ensure that culturally and linguistically tailored messages are acceptable and actionable in the intended population.