Olugbenga Ogedegbe

Olugbenga Ogedegbe
Olugbenga Ogedegbe

Professor

Professional overview

Gbenga Ogedegbe, a physician, is Professor of Population Health & Medicine, Chief Division of Health & Behavior and Director Center for Healthful Behavior Change in the Department of Population Health at the School of Medicine. Gbenga is a leading expert on health disparities research; his work focuses on the implementation of evidence-based interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction in minority populations. He is Principal Investigator on numerous NIH projects, and has expanded his work globally to Sub-Saharan Africa where he is funded by the NIH to strengthen research capacity and reduce the burden of noncommunicable diseases. He has co-authored over 250 publications and his work has been recognized by receipt of several research and mentoring awards including the prestigious John M. Eisenberg Excellence in Mentorship Award from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the Daniel Savage Science Award. He has served on numerous scientific panels including the NIH, CDC, World Health Organization, and the European Union Research Council. Prior to joining NYU, he was faculty at Cornell Weill Medical School and Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. 

Education

MPH from Columbia University, 1999
Residency, Montefiore Medical Center, Internal Medicine, 1998
MD from Donetsk University, 1988

Areas of research and study

Access to Healthcare
Global Health
Health of Marginalized Population
Implementation and Impact of Public Health Regulations
Implementation science
Stroke and Cardiovascular Disease

Publications

Publications

Analysis of self-efficacy for stroke recognition and action from a cluster randomised trial evaluating the effects of stroke education pamphlets versus a 12-minute culturally tailored stroke film among Black and Hispanic churchgoers in New York

Ilunga Tshiswaka, D., Teresi, J., Eimicke, J. P., Kong, J., Noble, J. M., Ogedegbe, G., & Williams, O.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Health Education Journal
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Because early recognition of symptoms and timely treatment of stroke can reduce mortality and the long-term effects of such events, efforts to make many people both aware of these symptoms and knowledgeable about what to do when recognising them are critical for reducing impacts from stroke. Objectives: To assess the impact of a stroke preparedness film (intervention) and stroke preparedness pamphlets (usual care) on self-efficacy for stroke recognition and action. Design: Two-arm cluster randomised trial conducted between July 2013 and August 2018. Setting: A total of 13 church sites located in economically disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods in New York. Of the 883 churchgoers approached, 503 expressed interest, 375 completed eligibility screening and 312 were randomised. Participant inclusion criteria were Black or Hispanic churchgoers, aged 34 years or older, without stroke history, but at a high risk for stroke. The intervention consisted of two 12-minute stroke films: Gospel of Stroke, in English for Black participants, and Derrame Cerebral, in Spanish for Hispanic participants. Method: Participants were pre–post-tested (at baseline, 6-month follow-up and 12-month follow-up) for self-efficacy. Descriptive analysis, a linear mixed model and t tests were used to assess the effects of a stroke preparedness film and stroke preparedness pamphlets on self-efficacy. Results: Findings are based on intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 310 participants completed the study (99% retention rate). About half (53.8%) of participants were Black and 46.2% Hispanic in the intervention group; 48.3% were Black and 51.7% were Hispanic in the usual care group. Overall, both groups evidenced higher self-efficacy (i.e. lower predicted means) over time (p <.0001), although a significant benefit was not observed for the intervention relative to usual care. Conclusion: Both stroke preparedness films and stroke preparedness pamphlets improved self-efficacy with respect to stroke recognition and action among minority churchgoers.

Evidence-based interventions implemented in low-and middle-income countries for sickle cell disease management: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials

Interventions for Tobacco Smoking Cessation in Adults, Including Pregnant Persons: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

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Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA

Volume

325

Issue

3

Page(s)

265-279
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the US. In 2014, it was estimated that 480 000 deaths annually are attributed to cigarette smoking, including second hand smoke exposure. Smoking during pregnancy can increase the risk of numerous adverse pregnancy outcomes (eg, miscarriage and congenital anomalies) and complications in the offspring (including sudden infant death syndrome and impaired lung function in childhood). In 2019, an estimated 50.6 million US adults (20.8% of the adult population) used tobacco; 14.0% of the US adult population currently smoked cigarettes and 4.5% of the adult population used electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Among pregnant US women who gave birth in 2016, 7.2% reported smoking cigarettes while pregnant. Objective: To update its 2015 recommendation, the USPSTF commissioned a review to evaluate the benefits and harms of primary care interventions on tobacco use cessation in adults, including pregnant persons. Population: This recommendation statement applies to adults 18 years or older, including pregnant persons. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with high certainty that the net benefit of behavioral interventions and US Food and Drug Associated (FDA)-approved pharmacotherapy for tobacco smoking cessation, alone or combined, in nonpregnant adults who smoke is substantial. The USPSTF concludes with high certainty that the net benefit of behavioral interventions for tobacco smoking cessation on perinatal outcomes and smoking cessation in pregnant persons is substantial. The USPSTF concludes that the evidence on pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco smoking cessation in pregnant persons is insufficient because few studies are available, and the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. The USPSTF concludes that the evidence on the use of e-cigarettes for tobacco smoking cessation in adults, including pregnant persons, is insufficient, and the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. The USPSTF has identified the lack of well-designed, randomized clinical trials on e-cigarettes that report smoking abstinence or adverse events as a critical gap in the evidence. Recommendations: The USPSTF recommends that clinicians ask all adults about tobacco use, advise them to stop using tobacco, and provide behavioral interventions and FDA-approved pharmacotherapy for cessation to nonpregnant adults who use tobacco. (A recommendation) The USPSTF recommends that clinicians ask all pregnant persons about tobacco use, advise them to stop using tobacco, and provide behavioral interventions for cessation to pregnant persons who use tobacco. (A recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco cessation in pregnant persons. (I statement) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of e-cigarettes for tobacco cessation in adults, including pregnant persons. The USPSTF recommends that clinicians direct patients who use tobacco to other tobacco cessation interventions with proven effectiveness and established safety. (I statement).

Screening for Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

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Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

325

Issue

5

Page(s)

476-481
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Carotid artery stenosis is atherosclerotic disease that affects extracranial carotid arteries. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis refers to stenosis in persons without a history of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, or other neurologic symptoms referable to the carotid arteries. The prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis is low in the general population but increases with age. Objective: To determine if its 2014 recommendation should be reaffirmed, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a reaffirmation evidence review. The reaffirmation update focused on the targeted key questions on the potential benefits and harms of screening and interventions, including revascularization procedures designed to improve carotid artery blood flow, in persons with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Population: This recommendation statement applies to adults without a history of transient ischemic attack, stroke, or other neurologic signs or symptoms referable to the carotid arteries. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF found no new substantial evidence that could change its recommendation and therefore concludes with moderate certainty that the harms of screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis outweigh the benefits. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends against screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in the general adult population. (D recommendation).

Screening for Hearing Loss in Older Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Krist, A. H., Davidson, K. W., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Epling, J. W., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

325

Issue

12

Page(s)

1196-1201
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Age-related sensorineural hearing loss is a common health problem among adults. Nearly 16% of US adults 18 years or older report difficulty hearing. The prevalence of perceived hearing loss increases with age. Hearing loss can adversely affect an individual's quality of life and ability to function independently and has been associated with increased risk of falls, hospitalizations, social isolation, and cognitive decline. Objective: To update its 2012 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review on screening for hearing loss in adults 50 years or older. Population: Asymptomatic adults 50 years or older with age-related hearing loss. Evidence Assessment: Because of a lack of evidence, the USPSTF concludes that the benefits and harms of screening for hearing loss in asymptomatic older adults are uncertain and that the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. More research is needed. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for hearing loss in older adults. (I statement).

Screening for Lung Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Krist, A. H., Davidson, K. W., Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Kubik, M., Landefeld, C. S., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Owens, D. K., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

325

Issue

10

Page(s)

962-970
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Lung cancer is the second most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in the US. In 2020, an estimated 228820 persons were diagnosed with lung cancer, and 135720 persons died of the disease. The most important risk factor for lung cancer is smoking. Increasing age is also a risk factor for lung cancer. Lung cancer has a generally poor prognosis, with an overall 5-year survival rate of 20.5%. However, early-stage lung cancer has a better prognosis and is more amenable to treatment. Objective: To update its 2013 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review on the accuracy of screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) and on the benefits and harms of screening for lung cancer and commissioned a collaborative modeling study to provide information about the optimum age at which to begin and end screening, the optimal screening interval, and the relative benefits and harms of different screening strategies compared with modified versions of multivariate risk prediction models. Population: This recommendation statement applies to adults aged 50 to 80 years who have a 20 pack-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that annual screening for lung cancer with LDCT has a moderate net benefit in persons at high risk of lung cancer based on age, total cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke, and years since quitting smoking. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends annual screening for lung cancer with LDCT in adults aged 50 to 80 years who have a 20 pack-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. Screening should be discontinued once a person has not smoked for 15 years or develops a health problem that substantially limits life expectancy or the ability or willingness to have curative lung surgery. (B recommendation) This recommendation replaces the 2013 USPSTF statement that recommended annual screening for lung cancer with LDCT in adults aged 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years.

Screening for Vitamin D Deficiency in Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Krist, A. H., Davidson, K. W., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Epling, J. W., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Owens, D. K., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

325

Issue

14

Page(s)

1436-1442
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that performs an important role in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism and also affects many other cellular regulatory functions outside the skeletal system. Vitamin D requirements may vary by individual; thus, no one serum vitamin D level cutpoint defines deficiency, and no consensus exists regarding the precise serum levels of vitamin D that represent optimal health or sufficiency. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review on screening for vitamin D deficiency, including the benefits and harms of screening and early treatment. Population: Community-dwelling, nonpregnant adults who have no signs or symptoms of vitamin D deficiency or conditions for which vitamin D treatment is recommended. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes that the overall evidence on the benefits of screening for vitamin D deficiency is lacking. Therefore, the balance of benefits and harms of screening for vitamin D deficiency in asymptomatic adults cannot be determined. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for vitamin D deficiency in asymptomatic adults. (I statement).

Understanding the causes of breast cancer treatment delays at a teaching hospital in Ghana

Sanuade, O. A., Ayettey, H., Hewlett, S., Dedey, F., Wu, L., Akingbola, T., Ogedegbe, G., & De-Graft Aikins, A.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Journal of health psychology

Volume

26

Issue

3

Page(s)

357-366
Abstract
Abstract
Poor outcomes for breast cancer in Ghana have been attributed to late presentation of symptoms at biomedical facilities. This study explored factors accounting for delays in initiation of breast cancer treatment at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra. Focus group discussions were conducted with 20 women with breast cancer. A theory-driven thematic analysis identified three multilevel factors influencing treatment seeking delays: (1) patient (e.g. misinterpretation of symptoms, fear), (2) healthcare provider (e.g. negative attitudes) and (3) health systems (e.g. shortage of medicines). Addressing treatment delays will require multilevel interventions, including culturally congruent education, psychosocial counselling/support and strengthening health systems.

Why the global health community should support the EndSARS movement in Nigeria

Mmonu, N. A., Aifah, A., Onakomaiya, D., & Ogedegbe, G. In The Lancet.

Publication year

2021

Volume

397

Issue

10275

Page(s)

666-667

Addressing Stroke Literacy in Nigeria Through Music: A Qualitative Study of Community Perspectives

Nwaozuru, U., Ezepue, C., Iwelunmor, J., Obiezu-Umeh, C., Uzoaru, F., Tshiswaka, D. I., Okubadejo, N., Edgell, R., Ezechi, O., Gbajabiamila, T., Musa, A. Z., Oladele, D., Ogedegbe, O., & Williams, O.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases

Volume

29

Issue

12
Abstract
Abstract
Background: The incidence of stroke in Nigeria is unknown, but stroke literacy, defined here as awareness of stroke warning symptoms and risk factors may be poor in high-risk communities. Although there is growing recognition of the use of music as a conduit to promote health literacy, African music is often overlooked as a source of health information. We sought to understand community-level perspectives on using African music to promote acute stroke literacy. Methods: A purposive sample of education, health and music professionals, high school and university students were recruited to participate in the qualitative study. Study participants completed a brainstorming exercise that elicited their perceptions of potential barriers and facilitators to the use of music to promote acute stroke literacy in Nigeria. Content analysis was used to identify key themes emerging from the brainstorming exercise. Results: A total of 44 individuals, comprising of 25 students with a mean age of 15.9 ± 1.6 years (52% females) and 19 professionals with a mean age of 39 ± 7.7 years (57.9% males) participated in the brainstorming exercise. Facilitators to the use of music to promote acute stroke literacy in Nigeria include the cultural relevance of music, the ubiquity of music, and government involvement. Key barriers include religious beliefs that discourage the use of “secular” music, cost-related barriers, and limited government support. Conclusions: Findings from this study provide guidance aimed at improving acute stroke literacy in Nigeria, particularly the importance of government involvement in the development and implementation of stroke literacy interventions guided by African music. Future work should consider implementing interventions that leverage the cultural elements of African music and further assess the extent to which these identified facilitators and/or barriers may influence stroke literacy.

Application of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research to examine nurses' perception of the task shifting strategy for hypertension control trial in Ghana

Assessment of Community-Level Disparities in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infections and Deaths in Large US Metropolitan Areas

Adhikari, S., Pantaleo, N. P., Feldman, J. M., Ogedegbe, O., Thorpe, L., & Troxel, A. B.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

JAMA network open

Volume

3

Issue

7

Page(s)

e2016938

Assessment of Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Hospitalization and Mortality in Patients With COVID-19 in New York City

Ogedegbe, G., Ravenell, J., Adhikari, S., Butler, M., Cook, T., Francois, F., Iturrate, E., Jean-Louis, G., Jones, S. A., Onakomaiya, D., Petrilli, C. M., Pulgarin, C., Regan, S., Reynolds, H., Seixas, A., Volpicelli, F. M., & Horwitz, L. I.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

JAMA network open

Volume

3

Issue

12

Page(s)

e2026881
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Black and Hispanic populations have higher rates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalization and mortality than White populations but lower in-hospital case-fatality rates. The extent to which neighborhood characteristics and comorbidity explain these disparities is unclear. Outcomes in Asian American populations have not been explored. Objective: To compare COVID-19 outcomes based on race and ethnicity and assess the association of any disparities with comorbidity and neighborhood characteristics. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study was conducted within the New York University Langone Health system, which includes over 260 outpatient practices and 4 acute care hospitals. All patients within the system's integrated health record who were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 between March 1, 2020, and April 8, 2020, were identified and followed up through May 13, 2020. Data were analyzed in June 2020. Among 11 547 patients tested, outcomes were compared by race and ethnicity and examined against differences by age, sex, body mass index, comorbidity, insurance type, and neighborhood socioeconomic status. Exposures: Race and ethnicity categorized using self-reported electronic health record data (ie, non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, Asian, and multiracial/other patients). Main Outcomes and Measures: The likelihood of receiving a positive test, hospitalization, and critical illness (defined as a composite of care in the intensive care unit, use of mechanical ventilation, discharge to hospice, or death). Results: Among 9722 patients (mean [SD] age, 50.7 [17.5] years; 58.8% women), 4843 (49.8%) were positive for COVID-19; 2623 (54.2%) of those were admitted for hospitalization (1047 [39.9%] White, 375 [14.3%] Black, 715 [27.3%] Hispanic, 180 [6.9%] Asian, 207 [7.9%] multiracial/other). In fully adjusted models, Black patients (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6) and Hispanic patients (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.7) were more likely than White patients to test positive. Among those who tested positive, odds of hospitalization were similar among White, Hispanic, and Black patients, but higher among Asian (OR, 1.6, 95% CI, 1.1-2.3) and multiracial patients (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.0-1.9) compared with White patients. Among those hospitalized, Black patients were less likely than White patients to have severe illness (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8) and to die or be discharged to hospice (hazard ratio, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.6-0.9). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of patients in a large health system in New York City, Black and Hispanic patients were more likely, and Asian patients less likely, than White patients to test positive; once hospitalized, Black patients were less likely than White patients to have critical illness or die after adjustment for comorbidity and neighborhood characteristics. This supports the assertion that existing structural determinants pervasive in Black and Hispanic communities may explain the disproportionately higher out-of-hospital deaths due to COVID-19 infections in these populations.

Association of Race/Ethnicity-Specific Changes in Antihypertensive Medication Classes Initiated Among Medicare Beneficiaries With the Eighth Joint National Committee Panel Member Report

Colvin, C. L., King, J. B., Oparil, S., Wright, J. T., Ogedegbe, G., Mohanty, A., Hardy, S. T., Huang, L., Hess, R., Muntner, P., & Bress, A.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

JAMA network open

Volume

3

Issue

11

Page(s)

e2025127
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: In December 2013, the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC8) published a recommendation that non-Black adults initiate antihypertensive medication with a thiazide-type diuretic, calcium channel blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), whereas Black adults initiate treatment with a thiazide-type diuretic or calcium channel blocker. β-Blockers were not recommended as first-line therapy. Objective: To assess changes in antihypertensive medication classes initiated by race/ethnicity from before to after publication of the JNC8 panel member report. Design, Setting, and Participants: This serial cross-sectional analysis assessed a 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries aged 66 years or older who initiated antihypertensive medication between 2011 and 2018, were Black (n = 3303 [8.0%]), White (n = 34 943 [84.5%]), or of other (n = 3094 [7.5%]) race/ethnicity, and did not have compelling indications for specific antihypertensive medication classes. Exposures: Calendar year and period after vs before publication of the JNC8 panel member report. Main Outcomes and Measures: The proportion of beneficiaries initiating ACEIs or ARBs and, separately, β-blockers vs other antihypertensive medication classes. Results: In total, 41 340 Medicare beneficiaries (65% women; mean [SD] age, 75.7 [7.6] years) of Black, White, or other races/ethnicities initiated antihypertensive medication and met the inclusion criteria for the present study. In 2011, 25.2% of Black beneficiaries initiating antihypertensive monotherapy did so with an ACEI or ARB compared with 23.7% in 2018 (P = .47 for trend). Among beneficiaries initiating monotherapy, the proportion filling a β-blocker was 20.1% in 2011 and 15.4% in 2018 for White beneficiaries (P < .001 for trend), 14.2% in 2011 and 11.1% in 2018 for Black beneficiaries (P = .08 for trend), and 11.3% in 2011 and 15.0% in 2018 for beneficiaries of other race/ethnicity (P = .40 for trend). After multivariable adjustment and among beneficiaries initiating monotherapy, there was no evidence of a change in the proportion filling an ACEI or ARB before to after publication of the JNC8 panel member report overall (prevalence ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.97-1.03) or in Black vs White beneficiaries (prevalence ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.83-1.12; P = .60 for interaction). Among beneficiaries initiating monotherapy, the proportion filling a β-blocker decreased from before to after publication of the JNC8 panel member report (prevalence ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.84-0.93) with no differences across race/ethnicity groups (P > .10 for interaction). Conclusions and Relevance: A substantial proportion of older US adults who initiate antihypertensive medication do so with non-guideline-recommended classes of medication.

Behavioral Counseling Interventions to Prevent Sexually Transmitted Infections: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Krist, A. H., Davidson, K. W., Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Donahue, K., Doubeni, C. A., Epling, J. W., Kubik, M., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M. A., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

324

Issue

7

Page(s)

674-681
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Approximately 20 million new cases of bacterial or viral sexually transmitted infections (STIs) occur each year in the US, and about one-half of these cases occur in persons aged 15 to 24 years. Rates of chlamydial, gonococcal, and syphilis infection continue to increase in all regions. Sexually transmitted infections are frequently asymptomatic, which may delay diagnosis and treatment and lead persons to unknowingly transmit STIs to others. Serious consequences of STIs include pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, cancer, and AIDS. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a review of the evidence on the benefits and harms of behavioral counseling interventions for preventing STI acquisition. Population: This recommendation statement applies to all sexually active adolescents and to adults at increased risk for STIs. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that behavioral counseling interventions reduce the likelihood of acquiring STIs in sexually active adolescents and in adults at increased risk, including for example, those who have a current STI, do not use condoms, or have multiple partners, resulting in a moderate net benefit. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends behavioral counseling for all sexually active adolescents and for adults at increased risk for STIs. (B recommendation).

Behavioral Counseling Interventions to Promote a Healthy Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Krist, A. H., Davidson, K. W., Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Donahue, K., Doubeni, C. A., Epling, J. W., Kubik, M., Landefeld, S., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M. A., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

324

Issue

20

Page(s)

2069-2075
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in the US. Known modifiable risk factors for CVD include smoking, overweight and obesity, diabetes, elevated blood pressure or hypertension, dyslipidemia, lack of physical activity, and unhealthy diet. Adults who adhere to national guidelines for a healthy diet and physical activity have lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than those who do not. All persons, regardless of their CVD risk status, benefit from healthy eating behaviors and appropriate physical activity. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the USPSTF commissioned a review of the evidence on behavioral counseling to promote a healthy diet and physical activity for CVD prevention in adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Population: This recommendation statement applies to adults 18 years or older with known hypertension or elevated blood pressure, those with dyslipidemia, or those who have mixed or multiple risk factors such as metabolic syndrome or an estimated 10-year CVD risk of 7.5% or greater. Adults with other known modifiable cardiovascular risk factors such as abnormal blood glucose levels, obesity, and smoking are not included in this recommendation. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that behavioral counseling interventions have a moderate net benefit on CVD risk in adults at increased risk for CVD. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends offering or referring adults with CVD risk factors to behavioral counseling interventions to promote a healthy diet and physical activity. (B recommendation).

Building cardiovascular disease competence in an urban poor Ghanaian community: A social psychology of participation approach

De-Graft Aikins, A., Kushitor, M., Kushitor, S. B., Sanuade, O., Asante, P. Y., Sakyi, L., Agyei, F., Koram, K., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology

Volume

30

Issue

4

Page(s)

419-440
Abstract
Abstract
This paper describes conceptual, methodological, and practical insights from a longitudinal social psychological project that aims to build cardiovascular disease (CVD) competence in a poor community in Accra, Ghana's capital. Informed by a social psychology of participation approach, mixed method data included qualitative interviews and household surveys from over 500 community members, including people living with diabetes, hypertension, and stroke, their caregivers, health care providers, and GIS mapping of pluralistic health systems, food vending sites, bars, and physical activity spaces. Data analysis was informed by the diagnosis-psychosocial intervention-reflexivity framework proposed by Guareschi and Jovchelovitch. The community had a high prevalence of CVD and risk factors, and CVD knowledge was cognitive polyphasic. The environment was obesogenic, alcohol promoting, and medically pluralistic. These factors shaped CVD experiences and eclectic treatment seeking behaviours. Psychosocial interventions included establishing a self-help group and community screening and education. Applying the “AIDS-competent communities” model proposed by Campbell and colleagues, we outline the psychosocial features of CVD competence that are relatively easy to implement, albeit with funds and labour, and those that are difficult. We offer a reflexive analysis of four challenges that future activities will address: social protection, increasing men's participation, connecting national health policy to community needs, and sustaining the project.

Cardiovascular Disease Guideline Adherence: An RCT Using Practice Facilitation

Shelley, D. R., Gepts, T., Siman, N., Nguyen, A. M., Cleland, C., Cuthel, A. M., Rogers, E. S., Ogedegbe, O., Pham-Singer, H., Wu, W., & Berry, C. A.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

American journal of preventive medicine

Volume

58

Issue

5

Page(s)

683-690
Abstract
Abstract
Introduction: Practice facilitation is a promising practice transformation strategy, but further examination of its effectiveness in improving adoption of guidelines for multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors is needed. The objective of the study is to determine whether practice facilitation is effective in increasing the proportion of patients meeting the Million Hearts ABCS outcomes: (A) aspirin when indicated, (B) blood pressure control, (C) cholesterol management, and (S) smoking screening and cessation intervention. Study design: The study used a stepped-wedge cluster RCT design with 4 intervention waves. Data were extracted for 13 quarters between January 1, 2015 and March 31, 2018, which encompassed the control, intervention, and follow-up periods for all waves, and analyzed in 2019. Setting/participants: A total of 257 small independent primary care practices in New York City were randomized into 1 of 4 waves. Intervention: The intervention consisted of practice facilitators conducting at least 13 practice visits over 1 year, focused on capacity building and implementing system and workflow changes to meet cardiovascular disease care guidelines. Main outcome measures: The main outcomes were the Million Hearts’ ABCS measures. Two additional measures were created: (1) proportion of tobacco users who received a cessation intervention (smokers counseled) and (2) a composite measure that assessed the proportion of patients meeting treatment targets for A, B, and C (ABC composite). Results: The S measure improved when comparing follow-up with the control period (incidence rate ratio=1.152, 95% CI=1.072, 1.238, p<0.001) and when comparing follow-up with intervention (incidence rate ratio=1.060, 95% CI=1.013, 1.109, p=0.007). Smokers counseled improved when comparing the intervention period with control (incidence rate ratio=1.121, 95% CI=1.037, 1.211, p=0.002). Conclusions: Increasing the impact of practice facilitation programs that target multiple risk factors may require a longer, more intense intervention and greater attention to external policy and practice context. Trial registration: This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02646488.

Interventions targeting racial/ethnic disparities in stroke prevention and treatment

Levine, D. A., Duncan, P. W., Nguyen-Huynh, M. N., & Ogedegbe, O. G.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

Stroke

Page(s)

3425-3432
Abstract
Abstract
Systemic racism is a public health crisis. Systemic racism and racial/ethnic injustice produce racial/ethnic disparities in health care and health. Substantial racial/ethnic disparities in stroke care and health exist and result predominantly from unequal treatment. This special report aims to summarize selected interventions to reduce racial/ethnic disparities in stroke prevention and treatment. It reviews the social determinants of health and the determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in care. It provides a focused summary of selected interventions aimed at reducing stroke risk factors, increasing awareness of stroke symptoms, and improving access to care for stroke because these interventions hold the promise of reducing racial/ethnic disparities in stroke death rates. It also discusses knowledge gaps and future directions.

Obstructive sleep apnea, cognition and Alzheimer's disease: A systematic review integrating three decades of multidisciplinary research

Bubu, O. M., Andrade, A. G., Umasabor-Bubu, O. Q., Hogan, M. M., Turner, A. D., De Leon, M. J., Ogedegbe, G., Ayappa, I., Jean-Louis G., G., Jackson, M. L., Varga, A. W., & Osorio, R. S.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

Sleep Medicine Reviews

Volume

50
Abstract
Abstract
Increasing evidence links cognitive-decline and Alzheimer's disease (AD) to various sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). With increasing age, there are substantial differences in OSA's prevalence, associated comorbidities and phenotypic presentation. An important question for sleep and AD researchers is whether OSA's heterogeneity results in varying cognitive-outcomes in older-adults compared to middle-aged adults. In this review, we systematically integrated research examining OSA and cognition, mild cognitive-impairment (MCI) and AD/AD biomarkers; including the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment, particularly focusing on characterizing the heterogeneity of OSA and its cognitive-outcomes. Broadly, in middle-aged adults, OSA is often associated with mild impairment in attention, memory and executive function. In older-adults, OSA is not associated with any particular pattern of cognitive-impairment at cross-section; however, OSA is associated with the development of MCI or AD with symptomatic patients who have a higher likelihood of associated disturbed sleep/cognitive-impairment driving these findings. CPAP treatment may be effective in improving cognition in OSA patients with AD. Recent trends demonstrate links between OSA and AD-biomarkers of neurodegeneration across all age-groups. These distinct patterns provide the foundation for envisioning better characterization of OSA and the need for more sensitive/novel sleep-dependent cognitive assessments to assess OSA-related cognitive-impairment.

Prevalence and correlates of depression among black and Latino stroke survivors with uncontrolled hypertension: A cross-sectional study

Ogunlade, A. O., Williams, S. K., Joseph, J., Onakomaiya, D. O., Eimicke, J. P., Teresi, J. A., Williams, O., Ogedegbe, G., & Spruill, T. M.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

BMJ open

Volume

10

Issue

12
Abstract
Abstract
Objective To examine the prevalence and correlates of depression in a cohort of black and Hispanic stroke survivors with uncontrolled hypertension. Setting Baseline survey data from 10 stroke centres across New York City. Participants Black and Hispanic stroke survivors with uncontrolled hypertension (n=450). Outcome measures Depressive symptoms were assessed with the 8-item Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) measure. Depression was defined as a PROMIS score ≥55. Other data collected included clinical factors, health-related quality of life (EuroQoL five dimensions (EQ-5D)), functional independence (Barthel Index, BI), stroke-related disability (Modified Rankin Score), physical function (PROMIS Physical Function) and executive functioning (Frontal Assessment Battery). Results The mean age was 61.7±11.1 years, 44% of participants were women and 51% were black. Poststroke depression was noted in 32% of the cohort. Examining bivariate relationships, patients with depression were observed to have poorer function and quality of life as evidenced by significantly lower PROMIS physical function scores (36.9±8.32 vs 43.4±10.19, p<0.001); BI scores (79.9±19.2 vs 88.1±15.1, p<0.001); EQ-5D scores (0.66±0.24 vs 0.83±0.17, p<0.001) and higher Rankin scores (2.10±1.00 vs 1.46±1.01, p<0.001) compared with those without depression. Multivariate (model adjusted) significant correlates of depression included lower self-reported quality of life (OR=0.02 (CI 0.004 to 0.12) being younger (OR=0.94; 95% CI 0.91 to 0.97); not married (OR=0.46; CI 0.24 to 0.89)); and foreign-born (OR=3.34, 95% CI 1.4 to 7.97). There was a trend for higher comorbidity to be uniquely associated with depression (≥3 comorbid conditions, OR=1.49, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.23). Conclusions Poststroke depression is common among black and Hispanic stroke survivors with higher rates noted among foreign-born patients and those with high comorbidity. These findings highlight the importance of screening for depression in minority stroke survivors. Trial registration number http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01070056.

Primary Care Interventions for Prevention and Cessation of Tobacco Use in Children and Adolescents: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Owens, D. K., Davidson, K. W., Krist, A. H., Barry, M. J., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Curry, S. J., Donahue, K., Doubeni, C. A., Epling, J. W., Kubik, M., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M. A., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

323

Issue

16

Page(s)

1590-1598
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in the US. An estimated annual 480000 deaths are attributable to tobacco use in adults, including from secondhand smoke. It is estimated that every day about 1600 youth aged 12 to 17 years smoke their first cigarette and that about 5.6 million adolescents alive today will die prematurely from a smoking-related illness. Although conventional cigarette use has gradually declined among children in the US since the late 1990s, tobacco use via electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is quickly rising and is now more common among youth than cigarette smoking. e-Cigarette products usually contain nicotine, which is addictive, raising concerns about e-cigarette use and nicotine addiction in children. Exposure to nicotine during adolescence can harm the developing brain, which may affect brain function and cognition, attention, and mood; thus, minimizing nicotine exposure from any tobacco product in youth is important. Objective: To update its 2013 recommendation, the USPSTF commissioned a review of the evidence on the benefits and harms of primary care interventions for tobacco use prevention and cessation in children and adolescents. The current systematic review newly included e-cigarettes as a tobacco product. Population: This recommendation applies to school-aged children and adolescents younger than 18 years. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that primary care-feasible behavioral interventions, including education or brief counseling, to prevent tobacco use in school-aged children and adolescents have a moderate net benefit. The USPSTF concludes that there is insufficient evidence to determine the balance of benefits and harms of primary care interventions for tobacco cessation among school-aged children and adolescents who already smoke, because of a lack of adequately powered studies on behavioral counseling interventions and a lack of studies on medications. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends that primary care clinicians provide interventions, including education or brief counseling, to prevent initiation of tobacco use among school-aged children and adolescents. (B recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of primary care-feasible interventions for the cessation of tobacco use among school-aged children and adolescents. (I statement).

Primary Care-Based Interventions to Prevent Illicit Drug Use in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Krist, A. H., Davidson, K. W., Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Donahue, K., Doubeni, C. A., Epling, J. W., Kubik, M., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M. A., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

323

Issue

20

Page(s)

2060-2066
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: In 2017, an estimated 7.9% of persons aged 12 to 17 years reported illicit drug use in the past month, and an estimated 50% of adolescents in the US had used an illicit drug by the time they graduated from high school. Young adults aged 18 to 25 years have a higher rate of current illicit drug use, with an estimated 23.2% currently using illicit drugs. Illicit drug use is associated with many negative health, social, and economic consequences and is a significant contributor to 3 of the leading causes of death among young persons (aged 10-24 years): unintentional injuries including motor vehicle crashes, suicide, and homicide. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the USPSTF commissioned a review of the evidence on the potential benefits and harms of interventions to prevent illicit drug use in children, adolescents, and young adults. Population: This recommendation applies to children (11 years and younger), adolescents (aged 12-17 years), and young adults (aged 18-25 years), including pregnant persons. Evidence Assessment: Because of limited and inadequate evidence, the USPSTF concludes that the benefits and harms of primary care-based interventions to prevent illicit drug use in children, adolescents, and young adults are uncertain and that the evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms. More research is needed. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of primary care-based behavioral counseling interventions to prevent illicit drug use, including nonmedical use of prescription drugs, in children, adolescents, and young adults. (I statement).

Proactive prevention: Act now to disrupt the impending non-communicable disease crisis in low-burden populations

Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors and risk of covid-19

Reynolds, H. R., Adhikari, S., Pulgarin, C., Troxel, A. B., Iturrate, E., Johnson, S. B., Hausvater, A., Newman, J. D., Berger, J. S., Bangalore, S., Katz, S. D., Fishman, G. I., Kunichoff, D., Chen, Y., Ogedegbe, G., & Hochman, J. S.

Publication year

2020

Journal title

New England Journal of Medicine

Volume

382

Issue

25

Page(s)

2441-2448
Abstract
Abstract
BACKGROUND There is concern about the potential of an increased risk related to medications that act on the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system in patients exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), because the viral receptor is angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). METHODS We assessed the relation between previous treatment with ACE inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, or thiazide diuretics and the likelihood of a positive or negative result on Covid-19 testing as well as the likelihood of severe illness (defined as intensive care, mechanical ventilation, or death) among patients who tested positive. Using Bayesian methods, we compared outcomes in patients who had been treated with these medications and in untreated patients, overall and in those with hypertension, after propensity-score matching for receipt of each medication class. A difference of at least 10 percentage points was prespecified as a substantial difference. RESULTS Among 12,594 patients who were tested for Covid-19, a total of 5894 (46.8%) were positive; 1002 of these patients (17.0%) had severe illness. A history of hypertension was present in 4357 patients (34.6%), among whom 2573 (59.1%) had a positive test; 634 of these patients (24.6%) had severe illness. There was no association between any single medication class and an increased likelihood of a positive test. None of the medications examined was associated with a substantial increase in the risk of severe illness among patients who tested positive. CONCLUSIONS We found no substantial increase in the likelihood of a positive test for Covid-19 or in the risk of severe Covid-19 among patients who tested positive in association with five common classes of antihypertensive medications.