Olugbenga Ogedegbe

Olugbenga Ogedegbe
Olugbenga Ogedegbe

Professor

Professional overview

Gbenga Ogedegbe, a physician, is Professor of Population Health & Medicine, Chief Division of Health & Behavior and Director Center for Healthful Behavior Change in the Department of Population Health at the School of Medicine. Gbenga is a leading expert on health disparities research; his work focuses on the implementation of evidence-based interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction in minority populations. He is Principal Investigator on numerous NIH projects, and has expanded his work globally to Sub-Saharan Africa where he is funded by the NIH to strengthen research capacity and reduce the burden of noncommunicable diseases. He has co-authored over 250 publications and his work has been recognized by receipt of several research and mentoring awards including the prestigious John M. Eisenberg Excellence in Mentorship Award from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the Daniel Savage Science Award. He has served on numerous scientific panels including the NIH, CDC, World Health Organization, and the European Union Research Council. Prior to joining NYU, he was faculty at Cornell Weill Medical School and Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. 

Education

MPH from Columbia University, 1999
Residency, Montefiore Medical Center, Internal Medicine, 1998
MD from Donetsk University, 1988

Publications

Publications

Ambulatory blood pressure threshold for black Africans: More questions than answers

Adeoye, A. M., Tayo, B. O., Owolabi, M. O., Adebiyi, A. A., Lackland, D. T., Cooper, R., Ojo, A., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2018

Journal title

Journal of Clinical Hypertension

Developing a Tailored Website for Promoting Awareness about Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Among Blacks in Community-Based Settings

Robbins, R., Senathirajah, Y., Williams, N. J., Hutchinson, C., Rapoport, D. M., Allegrante, J. P., Cohall, A., Rogers, A., Ogedegbe, O., & Jean-Louis, G.

Publication year

2018

Journal title

Health Communication

Page(s)

1-9
Abstract
Blacks are at greater risk for lower sleep quality and higher risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) than other racial groups. In this study, we summarize the development of a tailored website including visuals, key messages, and video narratives, to promote awareness about sleep apnea among community-dwelling blacks. We utilized mixed methods, including in-depth interviews, usability-testing procedures, and brief surveys (n = 9, 55% female, 100% black, average age 38.5 years). Themes from the qualitative analysis illuminated varied knowledge regarding OSA symptoms and prevalent self-reported experience with sleep disturbance and OSA symptoms (e.g., snoring). On a scale from 1 (not at all) to 5 (very high), participants provided favorable ratings of website usefulness (mean = 4.9), user friendliness (mean = 4.9) and attractiveness (mean = 4.3). Our findings suggest although tailored health communication has potential for serving as a tool for advancing health equity, usability-testing of health materials is critical to ensure that culturally and linguistically tailored messages are acceptable and actionable in the intended population.

Evaluating different criteria for defining a complete ambulatory blood pressure monitoring recording: Data from the Jackson Heart Study

Bromfield, S. G., Booth, J. N., Loop, M. S., Schwartz, J. E., Seals, S. R., Thomas, S. J., Min, Y. I., Ogedegbe, G., Shimbo, D., & Muntner, P.

Publication year

2018

Journal title

Blood Pressure Monitoring

Volume

23

Issue

2

Page(s)

103-111
Abstract
Objective We determined differences in the prevalence of blood pressure (BP) phenotypes and the association of these phenotypes with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) for individuals who fulfilled and did not fulfill various criteria used for defining a complete ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) recording. Methods We analyzed data for 1141 participants from the Jackson Heart Study. Criteria evaluated included having greater than or equal to 80% of planned readings with more than or equal to one reading per hour (Spanish ABPM Registry criteria), more than or equal to 70% of planned readings with a minimum of 20 daytime and seven nighttime readings (2013 European Society of Hypertension criteria), greater than or equal to 14 daytime and greater than or equal to seven nighttime readings (2003 European Society of Hypertension criteria), more than or equal to 10 daytime and more than or equal to 5 nighttime readings (International Database of Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcome criteria), and greater than or equal to 14 daytime readings (UK National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence criteria). Results Between 45.0% (Spanish ABPM Registry) and 91.8% (UK National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence) of the participants fulfilled the different criteria for a complete ABPM recording. Across the various criteria evaluated, 55.5-57.8% of participants had nocturnal hypertension and 62.8-66.8% had nondipping systolic BP. Among participants with clinic-measured systolic/diastolic BP of more than or equal to 140/90 mmHg, 22.9-26.5% had white-coat hypertension. The prevalence of daytime, 24-h, sustained, and masked hypertension differed by up to 2% for participants fulfilling each criterion. The association of BP phenotypes with LVH was similar for participants who fulfilled versus those who did not fulfill different criteria (each P>0.05). Conclusion Irrespective of the criteria used for defining a complete ABPM recording, the prevalence of BP phenotypes and their association with LVH were similar.

Health insurance coverage with or without a nurse-led task shifting strategy for hypertension control: A pragmatic cluster randomized trial in Ghana

Ogedegbe, G., Plange-Rhule, J., Gyamfi, J., Chaplin, W., Ntim, M., Apusiga, K., Iwelunmor, J., Awudzi, K. Y., Quakyi, K. N., Mogaverro, J., Khurshid, K., Tayo, B., & Cooper, R.

Publication year

2018

Journal title

PLoS Medicine

Volume

15

Issue

5
Abstract
Background: Poor access to care and physician shortage are major barriers to hypertension control in sub-Saharan Africa. Implementation of evidence-based systems-level strategies targeted at these barriers are lacking. We conducted a study to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of provision of health insurance coverage (HIC) alone versus a nurse-led task shifting strategy for hypertension control (TASSH) plus HIC on systolic blood pressure (SBP) reduction among patients with uncontrolled hypertension in Ghana. Methods and findings: Using a pragmatic cluster randomized trial, 32 community health centers within Ghana’s public healthcare system were randomly assigned to either HIC alone or TASSH + HIC. A total of 757 patients with uncontrolled hypertension were recruited between November 28, 2012, and June 11, 2014, and followed up to October 7, 2016. Both intervention groups received health insurance coverage plus scheduled nurse visits, while TASSH + HIC comprised cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle counseling, and initiation/titration of antihypertensive medications for 12 months, delivered by trained nurses within the healthcare system. The primary outcome was change in SBP from baseline to 12 months. Secondary outcomes included lifestyle behaviors and blood pressure control at 12 months and sustainability of SBP reduction at 24 months. Of the 757 patients (389 in the HIC group and 368 in the TASSH + HIC group), 85% had 12-month data available (60% women, mean BP 155.9/89.6 mm Hg). In intention-to-treat analyses adjusted for clustering, the TASSH + HIC group had a greater SBP reduction (−20.4 mm Hg; 95% CI −25.2 to −15.6) than the HIC group (−16.8 mm Hg; 95% CI −19.2 to −15.6), with a statistically significant between-group difference of −3.6 mm Hg (95% CI −6.1 to −0.5; p = 0.021). Blood pressure control improved significantly in both groups (55.2%, 95% CI 50.0% to 60.3%, for the TASSH + HIC group versus 49.9%, 95% CI 44.9% to 54.9%, for the HIC group), with a non-significant between-group difference of 5.2% (95% CI −1.8% to 12.4%; p = 0.29). Lifestyle behaviors did not change appreciably in either group. Twenty-one adverse events were reported (9 and 12 in the TASSH + HIC and HIC groups, respectively). The main study limitation is the lack of cost-effectiveness analysis to determine the additional costs and benefits, if any, of the TASSH + HIC group. Conclusions: Provision of health insurance coverage plus a nurse-led task shifting strategy was associated with a greater reduction in SBP than provision of health insurance coverage alone, among patients with uncontrolled hypertension in Ghana. Future scale-up of these systems-level strategies for hypertension control in sub-Saharan Africa requires a cost–benefit analysis.

National patterns of physician management of sleep apnea and treatment among patients with hypertension

Robbins, R., Seixas, A., Jean-Louis, G., Parthasarathy, S., Rapoport, D. M., Ogedegbe, G., & Ladapo, J. A.

Publication year

2018

Journal title

PLoS ONE

Volume

13

Issue

5
Abstract
Study objectives Sleep apnea is associated with hypertension, and treatment may improve outcomes. We examine national burden of sleep apnea, rates of sleep apnea treatment, and whether racial/ethnic disparities exist among patients with hypertension. Methods Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey/National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS/NHAMCS), 2005–2012, were analyzed (N = 417,950). We identified hypertension patient visits where sleep apnea diagnosis or complaint was recorded. Primary outcome measures were sleep study, medication, or behavioral therapy (diet, weight loss, or exercise counseling). We used multivariate logistic regression to examine treatment by demographic/clinical factors. Results Among patients with hypertension, sleep apnea was identified in 11.2-per-1,000 visits. Overall, patients with hypertension and a sleep disorder were referred for sleep study in 14.4% of visits, prescribed sleep medication in 11.2% of visits, and offered behavioral therapy in 34.8% of visits. Adjusted analyses show behavioral therapy more likely to be provided to obese patients than normal/overweight (OR = 4.96, 95%CI[2.93–8.38]), but less likely to be provided to smokers than nonsmokers (OR = 0.54, 95%CI[0.32–0.93]). Non-Hispanic blacks were less likely to receive medications than non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.19, 95% CI [0.06–0.65]). Conclusions In the U.S., sleep apnea were observed in a small proportion of hypertension visits, a population at high-risk for the disorder. One explanation for the low prevalence of sleep apnea observed in this patient population at high risk for the disorder is under-diagnosis of sleep related breathing disorders. Behavioral therapy was underutilized, and non-Hispanic Blacks were less likely to receive medications than non-Hispanic Whites.

Quality of cardiovascular disease care in small urban practices

Shelley, D., Blechter, B., Siman, N., Jiang, N., Cleland, C., Ogedegbe, G., Williams, S., Wu, W., Rogers, E., & Berry, C.

Publication year

2018

Journal title

Annals of Family Medicine

Volume

16

Page(s)

S21-S28
Abstract
PURPOSE We wanted to describe small, independent primary care practices’ performance in meeting the Million Hearts ABCSs (aspirin use, blood pressure control, cholesterol management, and smoking screening and counseling), as well as on a composite measure that captured the extent to which multiple clinical targets are achieved for patients with a history of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We also explored relationships between practice characteristics and ABCS measures. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional, bivariate analysis using baseline data from 134 practices in New York City. ABCS data were extracted from practices’ electronic health records and aggregated to the site level. Practice characteristics were obtained from surveys of clinicians and staff at each practice. RESULTS The proportion of at-risk patients meeting clinical goals for each of the ABCS measures was 73.0% for aspirin use, 69.6% for blood pressure, 66.7% for cholesterol management, and 74.2% screened for smoking and counseled. For patients with a history of ASCVD, only 49% were meeting all ABC (aspirin use, blood pressure control, cholesterol management) targets (ie, composite measure). Solo practices were more likely to meet clinical guidelines for aspirin (risk ratio [RR ] = 1.17, P = .007) and composite (RR = 1.29, P = .011) than practices with multiple clinicians. CONCLUSION Achieving targets for ABCS measures varied considerably across practices; however, small practices were meeting or exceeding Million Hearts goals (ie, 70% or greater). Practices were less likely to meet consistently clinical targets that apply to patients with a history of ASCVD risk factors. Greater emphasis is needed on providing support for small practices to address the complexity of managing patients with multiple risk factors for primary and secondary ASCVD.

Telephone-based mindfulness training to reduce stress in women with myocardial infarction: Rationale and design of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

Spruill, T. M., Reynolds, H. R., Dickson, V. V., Shallcross, A. J., Visvanathan, P. D., Park, C., Kalinowski, J., Zhong, H., Berger, J. S., Hochman, J. S., Fishman, G. I., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2018

Journal title

American Heart Journal

Volume

202

Page(s)

61-67
Abstract
Background: Elevated stress is associated with adverse cardiovascular disease outcomes and accounts in part for the poorer recovery experienced by women compared with men after myocardial infarction (MI). Psychosocial interventions improve outcomes overall but are less effective for women than for men with MI, suggesting the need for different approaches. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is an evidence-based intervention that targets key psychosocial vulnerabilities in women including rumination (i.e., repetitive negative thinking) and low social support. This article describes the rationale and design of a multicenter randomized controlled trial to test the effects of telephone-delivered MBCT (MBCT-T) in women with MI. Methods: We plan to randomize 144 women reporting elevated perceived stress at least two months after MI to MBCT-T or enhanced usual care (EUC), which each involve eight weekly telephone sessions. Perceived stress and a set of patient-centered health outcomes and potential mediators will be assessed before and after the 8-week telephone programs and at 6-month follow-up. We will test the hypothesis that MBCT-T will be associated with greater 6-month improvements in perceived stress (primary outcome), disease-specific health status, quality of life, depression and anxiety symptoms, and actigraphy-based sleep quality (secondary outcomes) compared with EUC. Changes in mindfulness, rumination and perceived social support will be evaluated as potential mediators in exploratory analyses. Conclusions: If found to be effective, this innovative, scalable intervention may be a promising secondary prevention strategy for women with MI experiencing elevated perceived stress.

A content analysis of outdoor non-alcoholic beverage advertisements in Ghana

Bragg, M. A., Hardoby, T., Pandit, N. G., Raji, Y. R., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

BMJ Open

Volume

7

Issue

5
Abstract
Objectives This was a two-part descriptive study designed to (1) assess the marketing themes and sugar content of beverages promoted in outdoor advertisements (ads) within a portion of Accra, Ghana and (2) quantify the types of ads that appeared along the Accra-Cape Coast Highway. Setting A 4.7 km 2 area of Accra, Ghana and a 151 km region along the highway represented the target areas for collecting photos of outdoor beverage ads. Primary and secondary outcome measures Number and types of beverage ads, sugar content of beverage products featured in ads and marketing themes used in ads. Design Two researchers photographed outdoor beverage ads in a 4.7 km 2 area of Accra and used content analysis to assess marketing themes of ads, including the portrayal of children, local culture, music, sports and health. Researchers also recorded the number and type of ads along a 151 km stretch of the Accra-Cape Coast Highway. Researchers assessed the added sugar content to determine which beverages were sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Results Seventy-seven photographed ads were analysed. Seventy-three per cent (72.7%) of ads featured SSBs, and Coca-Cola accounted for 59.7% of ads. Sixty-five per cent (64.9%) of all ads featured sodas, while 35.1% advertised energy drinks, bottled or canned juice drinks and coffee-based, milk-based and water-based beverages. Thirteen per cent (13%) of ads featured children and 5.2% were located near schools or playgrounds. Nine per cent (9.1%) of ads contained a reference to health and 7.8% contained a reference to fitness/strength/sport. Along the Accra-Cape Coast Highway, Coca-Cola accounted for 60% of branded ads. Conclusion This study demonstrates the frequency of outdoor SSB ads within a 4.7 km 2 area of Accra, Ghana. Coca-Cola was featured in the majority of ads, and the child-targeted nature of some ads indicates a need to expand the Children's Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative pledge to reduce child-targeted marketing on a global scale.

Addressing the social needs of hypertensive patients the role of patient-provider communication as a predictor of medication adherence

Schoenthaler, A., Knafl, G. J., Fiscella, K., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes

Volume

10

Issue

9
Abstract
Background-Poor medication adherence is a pervasive problem in patients with hypertension. Despite research documenting an association between patient-provider communication and medication adherence, there are no empirical data on how the informational and relational aspects of communication affect patient's actual medication-Taking behaviors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of patient-provider communication on medication adherence among a sample of primary care providers and their black and white hypertensive patients. Methods and Results-Cohort study included 92 hypertensive patients and 27 providers in 3 safety-net primary care practices in New York City. Patient-provider encounters were audiotaped at baseline and coded using the Medical Interaction Process System. Medication adherence data were collected continuously during the 3-month study with an electronic monitoring device. The majority of patients were black, 58% women, and most were seeing the same provider for at least 1 year. Approximately half of providers were white (56%), 67% women, and have been in practice for an average of 5.8 years. Fifty-eight percent of patients exhibited poor adherence to prescribed antihypertensive medications. Three categories of patient-provider communication predicted poor medication adherence: lower patient centeredness (odds ratio: 3.08; 95% confidence interval: 1.04-9.12), less discussion about patients' sociodemographic circumstances (living situation, relationship with partner; odds ratio: 6.03; 95% confidence interval: 2.15-17), and about their antihypertensive medications (odds ratio: 6.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.83-23.0). The effect of having less discussion about patients' sociodemographic circumstances on medication adherence was heightened in black patients (odds ratio: 8.01; 95% confidence interval: 2.80-22.9). Conclusions-The odds of poor medication adherence are greater when patient-provider interactions are low in patient centeredness and do not address patients' sociodemographic circumstances or their medication regimen.

Adherence to antihypertensive medications and associations with blood pressure among African Americans with hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study

Butler, M. J., Tanner, R. M., Muntner, P., Shimbo, D., Bress, A. P., Shallcross, A. J., Sims, M., Ogedegbe, G., & Spruill, T. M.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Journal of the American Society of Hypertension

Volume

11

Issue

9

Page(s)

581-588.e5
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to test the association between a self-report measure of 24-hour adherence to antihypertensive medication and blood pressure (BP) among African Americans. The primary analysis included 3558 Jackson Heart Study participants taking antihypertensive medication who had adherence data for at least one study examination. Nonadherence was defined by self-report of not taking one or more prescribed antihypertensive medications, identified during pill bottle review, in the past 24 hours. Nonadherence and clinic BP were assessed at Exam 1 (2000–2004), Exam 2 (2005–2008), and Exam 3 (2009–2013). Associations of nonadherence with clinic BP and uncontrolled BP (systolic BP ≥ 140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥ 90 mm Hg) were evaluated using unadjusted and adjusted linear and Poisson repeated measures regression models. The prevalence of nonadherence to antihypertensive medications was 25.4% at Exam 1, 28.7% at Exam 2, and 28.5% at Exam 3. Nonadherence was associated with higher systolic BP (3.38 mm Hg) and diastolic BP (1.47 mm Hg) in fully adjusted repeated measures analysis. Nonadherence was also associated with uncontrolled BP (prevalence ratio = 1.26; 95% confidence interval = 1.16–1.37). This new self-report measure may be useful for identifying nonadherence to antihypertensive medication in future epidemiologic studies.

Blood pressure control and mortality in US- and foreign-born blacks in New York City

Gyamfi, J., Butler, M., Williams, S. K., Agyemang, C., Gyamfi, L., Seixas, A., Zinsou, G. M., Bangalore, S., Shah, N. R., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Abstract
This retrospective cohort study compared blood pressure (BP) control (BP <140/90 mm Hg) and all-cause mortality between US- and foreign-born blacks. We used data from a clinical data warehouse of 41 868 patients with hypertension who received care in a New York City public healthcare system between 2004 and 2009, defining BP control as the last recorded BP measurement and mean BP control. Poisson regression demonstrated that Caribbean-born blacks had lower BP control for the last BP measurement compared with US- and West African-born blacks, respectively (49% vs 54% and 57%; P<.001). This pattern was similar for mean BP control. Caribbean- and West African-born blacks showed reduced hazard ratios of mortality (0.46 [95% CI, 0.42-0.50] and 0.28 [95% CI, 0.18-0.41], respectively) compared with US-born blacks, even after adjustment for BP. BP control rates and mortality were heterogeneous in this sample. Caribbean-born blacks showed worse control than US-born blacks. However, US-born blacks experienced increased hazard of mortality. This suggests the need to account for the variations within blacks in hypertension management.

Cardiovascular Health and Incident Hypertension in Blacks: JHS (The Jackson Heart Study)

Booth, J. N., Abdalla, M., Tanner, R. M., Diaz, K. M., Bromfield, S. G., Tajeu, G. S., Correa, A., Sims, M., Ogedegbe, G., Bress, A. P., Spruill, T. M., Shimbo, D., & Muntner, P.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Hypertension
Abstract
Several modifiable health behaviors and health factors that comprise the Life’s Simple 7—a cardiovascular health metric—have been associated with hypertension risk. We determined the association between cardiovascular health and incident hypertension in JHS (the Jackson Heart Study)—a cohort of blacks. We analyzed participants without hypertension or cardiovascular disease at baseline (2000–2004) who attended ≥1 follow-up visit in 2005 to 2008 or 2009 to 2012 (n=1878). Body mass index, physical activity, diet, cigarette smoking, blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, and fasting glucose were assessed at baseline and categorized as ideal, intermediate, or poor using the American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7 definitions. Incident hypertension was defined at the first visit wherein a participant had systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg, or self-reported taking antihypertensive medication. The percentage of participants with ≤1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 ideal Life’s Simple 7 components was 6.5%, 22.4%, 34.4%, 25.2%, 10.0%, and 1.4%, respectively. No participants had 7 ideal components. During follow-up (median, 8.0 years), 944 (50.3%) participants developed hypertension, including 81.3% with ≤1 and 11.1% with 6 ideal components. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for incident hypertension comparing participants with 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 versus ≤1 ideal component were 0.80 (0.61–1.03), 0.58 (0.45–0.74), 0.30 (0.23–0.40), 0.26 (0.18–0.37), and 0.10 (0.03–0.31), respectively (Ptrend <0.001). This association was present among participants with baseline systolic BP <120 mm Hg and diastolic BP <80 mm Hg and separately systolic BP 120 to 139 mm Hg or diastolic BP 80 to 89 mm Hg. Blacks with better cardiovascular health have lower hypertension risk.

Comparison of online marketing techniques on food and beverage companies' websites in six countries

Bragg, M. A., Eby, M., Arshonsky, J., Bragg, A., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Globalization and Health

Volume

13

Issue

1
Abstract
Food and beverage marketing contributes to poor dietary choices among adults and children. As consumers spend more time on the Internet, food and beverage companies have increased their online marketing efforts. Studies have shown food companies' online promotions use a variety of marketing techniques to promote mostly energy-dense, nutrient-poor products, but no studies have compared the online marketing techniques and nutritional quality of products promoted on food companies' international websites. For this descriptive study, we developed a qualitative codebook to catalogue the marketing themes used on 18 international corporate websites associated with the world's three largest fast food and beverage companies (i.e. Coca-Cola, McDonald's, Kentucky Fried Chicken). Nutritional quality of foods featured on those websites was evaluated based on quantitative Nutrient Profile Index scores and food category (e.g. fried, fresh). Beverages were sorted into categories based on added sugar content. We report descriptive statistics to compare the marketing techniques and nutritional quality of products featured on the company websites for the food and beverage company websites in two high-income countries (HICs), Germany and the United States, two upper-middle-income countries (UMICs), China and Mexico, and two lower-middle-income countries (LMICs), India and the Philippines. Of the 406 screenshots captured from company websites, 678% depicted a food or beverage product. HICs' websites promoted diet food or beverage products/healthier alternatives (e.g. baked chicken sandwich) significantly more often on their pages (25%), compared to LMICs (145%). Coca-Cola featured diet products significantly more frequently on HIC websites compared to LMIC websites. Charities were featured more often on webpages in LMICs (154%) compared to UMICs (26%) and HICs (23%). This study demonstrates that companies showcase healthier products in wealthier countries and advertise their philanthropic activities in lower income countries, which is concerning given the negative effect of nutrition transition (double burden of overnutrition and undernutrition) on burden of non-communicable diseases and obesity in lower income countries.

Developing consensus measures for global programs: Lessons from the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases Hypertension research program

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Publication year

2017

Journal title

Globalization and Health

Volume

13

Issue

1
Abstract
Background: The imperative to improve global health has prompted transnational research partnerships to investigate common health issues on a larger scale. The Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (GACD) is an alliance of national research funding agencies. To enhance research funded by GACD members, this study aimed to standardise data collection methods across the 15 GACD hypertension research teams and evaluate the uptake of these standardised measurements. Furthermore we describe concerns and difficulties associated with the data harmonisation process highlighted and debated during annual meetings of the GACD funded investigators. With these concerns and issues in mind, a working group comprising representatives from the 15 studies iteratively identified and proposed a set of common measures for inclusion in each of the teams' data collection plans. One year later all teams were asked which consensus measures had been implemented. Results: Important issues were identified during the data harmonisation process relating to data ownership, sharing methodologies and ethical concerns. Measures were assessed across eight domains; demographic; dietary; clinical and anthropometric; medical history; hypertension knowledge; physical activity; behavioural (smoking and alcohol); and biochemical domains. Identifying validated measures relevant across a variety of settings presented some difficulties. The resulting GACD hypertension data dictionary comprises 67 consensus measures. Of the 14 responding teams, only two teams were including more than 50 consensus variables, five teams were including between 25 and 50 consensus variables and four teams were including between 6 and 24 consensus variables, one team did not provide details of the variables collected and two teams did not include any of the consensus variables as the project had already commenced or the measures were not relevant to their study. Conclusions: Deriving consensus measures across diverse research projects and contexts was challenging. The major barrier to their implementation was related to the time taken to develop and present these measures. Inclusion of consensus measures into future funding announcements would facilitate researchers integrating these measures within application protocols. We suggest that adoption of consensus measures developed here, across the field of hypertension, would help advance the science in this area, allowing for more comparable data sets and generalizable inferences.

Exploring stakeholders' perceptions of a task-shifting strategy for hypertension control in Ghana: A qualitative study

Iwelunmor, J., Gyamfi, J., Plange-Rhule, J., Blackstone, S., Quakyi, N. K., Ntim, M., Zizi, F., Yeboah-Awudzi, K., Nang-Belfubah, A., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

BMC Public Health

Volume

17

Issue

1
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this study was to explore stakeholders' perception of an on-going evidence-based task-shifting strategy for hypertension (TASSH) in 32 community health centers and district hospitals in Ghana. Methods: Using focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, qualitative data were obtained from 81 key stakeholders including patients, nurses, and site directors of participating community health centers involved in the TASSH trial. Qualitative data were analyzed using open and axial coding techniques. Results: Analysis of the qualitative data revealed three themes that illustrate stakeholders' perceptions of the ongoing task-shifting strategy for blood pressure control in Ghana and they include: 1) awareness and understanding of the TASSH program; 2) reasons for participation and non-participation in TASSH; and 3) the benefit and drawbacks to the TASSH program. Conclusion: The findings support evidence that successful implementation of any task-shifting strategy must focus not only on individual patient characteristics, but also consider the role contextual factors such as organizational and leadership factors play. The findings also demonstrate the importance of understanding stakeholder's perceptions of evidence-based task-shifting interventions for hypertension control as it may ultimately influence the sustainable uptake of these interventions into "real world" settings.

Mentored training to increase diversity among faculty in the biomedical sciences: The NHL BI Summer Institute Programs to Increase Diversity (SI PID ) and the Programs to Increase Diversity among Individuals Engaged in Health-related Research (PRIDE )

Rice, T. K., Jeffe, D. B., Boyington, J. E., Jobe, J. B., Dávila-Román, V. G., Gonzalez, J. E., De Las Fuentes, L., Makala, L. H., Sarkar, R., Ogedegbe, G. G., Taylor, A. L., Czajkowski, S., Rao, D. C., Pace, B. S., Jean-Louis, G., & Boutjdir, M.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Ethnicity and Disease

Volume

27

Issue

3

Page(s)

249-256
Abstract
Objective: To report baseline characteristics of junior-level faculty participants in the Summer Institute Programs to Increase Diversity (SIPID) and the Programs to Increase Diversity among individuals engaged in Health-Related Research (PRIDE), which aim to facilitate participants' career development as independent investigators in heart, lung, blood, and sleep research. Design and Setting: Junior faculty from groups underrepresented in the biomedicalresearch workforce attended two, 2-3 week, annual summer research-education programs at one of six sites. Programs provided didactic and/or laboratory courses, workshops to develop research, writing and career-development skills, as well as a mentoring component, with regular contact maintained via phone, email and webinar conferences. Between summer institutes, trainees participated in a short mid-year meeting and an annual scientific meeting. Participants were surveyed during and after SIPID/PRIDE to evaluate program components. Participants: Junior faculty from underrepresented populations across the United States and Puerto Rico participated in one of three SIPID (2007-2010) or six PRIDE programs (2011-2014). Results: Of 204 SIPID/PRIDE participants, 68% were female; 67% African American and 27% Hispanic/Latino; at enrollment, 75% were assistant professors and 15% instructors, with most (96%) on non-tenure track. Fifty-eight percent had research doctorates (PhD, ScD) and 42% had medical (MD, DO) degrees. Mentees' feedback about the program indicated skills development (eg, manuscript and grant writing), access to networking, and mentoring were the most beneficial elements of SIPID and PRIDE programs. Grant awards shifted from primarily mentored research mechanisms to primarily independent investigator awards after training. Conclusions: Mentees reported their career development benefited from SIPID and PRIDE participation.

Metabolic syndrome and masked hypertension among African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study

Colantonio, L. D., Anstey, D. E., Carson, A. P., Ogedegbe, G., Abdalla, M., Sims, M., Shimbo, D., & Muntner, P.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Journal of Clinical Hypertension

Volume

19

Issue

6

Page(s)

592-600
Abstract
The metabolic syndrome is associated with higher ambulatory blood pressure. The authors studied the association of metabolic syndrome and masked hypertension (MHT) among African Americans with clinic-measured systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) <140/90 mm Hg in the Jackson Heart Study. MHT was defined as daytime, nighttime, or 24-hour hypertension on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Among 359 participants not taking antihypertensive medication, the metabolic syndrome was associated with MHT (prevalence ratio, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.10–1.74]). When metabolic syndrome components (clinic SBP/DBP 130–139/85–89 mm Hg, abdominal obesity, impaired glucose, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides) were analyzed separately, only clinic SBP/DBP 130–139/85–89 mm Hg was associated with MHT (prevalence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.56–2.32]). The metabolic syndrome was not associated with MHT among participants not taking antihypertensive medication with SBP/DBP 130–139/85–89 and <130/85 mm Hg, separately, or among participants taking antihypertensive medication (n=393). Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring screening for MHT among African Americans should be considered based on clinic BP, not metabolic syndrome.

Modifiable risk factors versus age on developing high predicted cardiovascular disease risk in blacks

Bress, A. P., Colantonio, L. D., Booth, J. N., Spruill, T. M., Ravenell, J., Butler, M., Shallcross, A. J., Seals, S. R., Reynolds, K., Ogedegbe, G., Shimbo, D., & Muntner, P.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Journal of the American Heart Association

Volume

6

Issue

2
Abstract
Background-Clinical guidelines recommend using predicted atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk to inform treatment decisions. The objective was to compare the contribution of changes in modifiable risk factors versus aging to the development of high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk. Methods and Results-A prospective follow-up was done of the Jackson Heart Study, an exclusively black cohort at visit 1 (2000-2004) and visit 3 (2009-2012). Analyses included 1115 black participants without high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk (<7.5%), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or ASCVD at visit 1. We used the Pooled Cohort equations to calculate the incidence of high (≥7.5%) 10-year predicted ASCVD risk at visit 3. We recalculated the percentage with high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk at visit 3 assuming each risk factor (age, systolic blood pressure, antihypertensive medication use, diabetes mellitus, smoking, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), one at a time, did not change from visit 1. The mean age at visit 1 was 45.2±9.5 years. Overall, 30.9% (95% CI 28.3-33.4%) of participants developed high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk. Aging accounted for 59.7% (95% CI 54.2-65.1%) of the development of high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk compared with 32.8% (95% CI 27.0-38.2%) for increases in systolic blood pressure or antihypertensive medication initiation and 12.8% (95% CI 9.6-16.5%) for incident diabetes mellitus. Among participants <50 years, the contribution of increases in systolic blood pressure or antihypertensive medication initiation was similar to aging. Conclusions-Increases in systolic blood pressure and antihypertensive medication initiation are major contributors to the development of high 10-year predicted ASCVD risk in blacks, particularly among younger adults.

Neighborhood walk score and selected Cardiometabolic factors in the French RECORD cohort study

Méline, J., Chaix, B., Pannier, B., Ogedegbe, G., Trasande, L., Athens, J., & Duncan, D. T.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

BMC Public Health

Volume

17

Issue

1
Abstract
Background: Walkable neighborhoods are purported to impact a range of cardiometabolic outcomes through increased walking, but there is limited research that examines multiple cardiometabolic outcomes. Additionally, few Walk Score (a novel measure of neighborhood walkability) studies have been conducted in a European context. We evaluated associations between neighborhood Walk Score and selected cardiometabolic outcomes, including obesity, hypertension and heart rate, among adults in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods and results: We used data from the second wave of the RECORD Study on 5993 participants recruited in 2011-2014, aged 34-84 years, and residing in Paris (France). To this existing dataset, we added Walk Score values for participants' residential address. We used multilevel linear models for the continuous outcomes and modified Poisson models were used for our categorical outcomes to estimate associations between the neighborhood Walk Score (both as a continuous and categorical variable) (0-100 score) and body mass index (BMI) (weight/height2 in kg/m2), obesity (kg/m2), waist circumference (cm), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (mmHg), hypertension (mmHg), resting heart rate (RHR) (beats per minute), and neighborhood recreational walking (minutes per week). Most participants lived in Walker's Paradise (48.3%). In multivariate models (adjusted for individual variables, neighborhood variables, and risk factors for cardiometabolic outcomes), we found that neighborhood Walk Score was associated with decreased BMI (β: -0.010, 95% CI: -0.019 to -0.002 per unit increase), decreased waist circumference (β: -0.031, 95% CI: -0.054 to -0.008), increased neighborhood recreational walking (β: +0.73, 95% CI: +0.37 to +1.10), decreased SBP (β: -0.030, 95% CI: -0.063 to -0.0004), decreased DBP (β: -0.028, 95% CI: -0.047 to -0.008), and decreased resting heart rate (β: -0.026 95% CI: -0.046 to -0.005). Conclusions: In this large population-based study, we found that, even in a European context, living in a highly walkable neighborhood was associated with improved cardiometabolic health. Designing walkable neighborhoods may be a viable strategy in reducing cardiovascular disease prevalence at the population level.

Optimal Systolic Blood Pressure Target After SPRINT: Insights from a Network Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

Bangalore, S., Toklu, B., Gianos, E., Schwartzbard, A., Weintraub, H., Ogedegbe, G., & Messerli, F. H.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

American Journal of Medicine
Abstract
Background: The optimal on-treatment blood pressure (BP) target has been a matter of debate. The recent SPRINT trial showed significant benefits of a BP target of <120 mm Hg, albeit with an increase in serious adverse effects related to low BP. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were searched for randomized trials comparing treating with different BP targets. Trial arms were grouped into 5 systolic BP target categories: 1) <160 mm Hg, 2) <150 mm Hg, 3) <140 mm Hg, 4) <130 mm Hg, and 5) <120 mm Hg. Efficacy outcomes of stroke, myocardial infarction, death, cardiovascular death, heart failure, and safety outcomes of serious adverse effects were evaluated using a network meta-analysis. Results: Seventeen trials that enrolled 55,163 patients with 204,103 patient-years of follow-up were included. There was a significant decrease in stroke (rate ratio [RR] 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29-1.00) and myocardial infarction (RR 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-1.00) with systolic BP <120 mm Hg (vs <160 mm Hg). Sensitivity analysis using achieved systolic BP showed a 72%, 97%, and 227% increase in stroke with systolic BP of <140 mm Hg, <150 mm Hg, and <160 mm, respectively, when compared with systolic BP <120 mm Hg. There was no difference in death, cardiovascular death, or heart failure when comparing any of the BP targets. However, the point estimate favored lower BP targets (<120 mm Hg, <130 mm Hg) when compared with higher BP targets (<140 mm Hg or <150 mm Hg). BP targets of <120 mm Hg and <130 mm Hg ranked #1 and #2, respectively, as the most efficacious target. There was a significant increase in serious adverse effects with systolic BP <120 mm Hg vs <150 mm Hg (RR 1.83; 95% CI, 1.05-3.20) or vs <140 mm Hg (RR 2.12; 95% CI, 1.46-3.08). BP targets of <140 mm Hg and <150 mm Hg ranked #1 and #2, respectively, as the safest target for the outcome of serious adverse effects. Cluster plots for combined efficacy and safety showed that a systolic BP target of <130 mm Hg had optimal balance between efficacy and safety. Conclusions: In patients with hypertension, a on-treatment systolic BP target of <130 mm Hg achieved optimal balance between efficacy and safety.

Psychosocial correlates of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study

Shallcross, A. J., Butler, M., Tanner, R. M., Bress, A., Muntner, P., Shimbo, D., Ogedegbe, G., Sims, M., & Spruill, T. M.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Journal of Human Hypertension
Abstract
Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension (aTRH) is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. aTRH is common and disproportionately affects African Americans. The objective of this study is to explore psychosocial correlates of aTRH in a population-based cohort of African Americans with hypertension. The sample included 1392 participants in the Jackson Heart Study with treated hypertension who reported being adherent to their antihypertensive medications. aTRH was defined as uncontrolled clinic BP (⩾140/90 mm Hg) with ⩾3 classes of antihypertensive medication or treatment with ⩾4 classes of antihypertensive medication, including a diuretic. Self-reported medication adherence was defined as taking all prescribed antihypertensive medication in the 24 h before the study visit. The association of psychosocial factors (chronic stress, depressive symptoms, perceived social support and social network) with aTRH was evaluated using Poisson regression with progressive adjustment for demographic, clinical and behavioural factors. The prevalence of aTRH was 15.1% (n=210). Participants with aTRH had lower social network scores (that is, fewer sources of regular social contact) compared with participants without aTRH (P<0.01). No other psychosocial factors differed between groups. Social network was also the only psychosocial factor that was associated with aTRH prevalence in regression analyses. In age-, sex-adjusted and fully adjusted models, one additional unique source of social contact was associated with a 19% (PR=0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.68–0.94, P=0.001) and a 13% (PR=0.87; 95% CI 0.74–1.0, P=0.041) lower prevalence of aTRH, respectively. Social network was independently associated with aTRH and warrants further investigation as a potentially modifiable determinant of aTRH in African Americans.Journal of Human Hypertension advance online publication, 26 January 2017; doi:10.1038/jhh.2016.100.

Self-monitoring of blood pressure in hypertension: A systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis

Tucker, K. L., Sheppard, J. P., Stevens, R., Bosworth, H. B., Bove, A., Bray, E. P., Earle, K., George, J., Godwin, M., Green, B. B., Hebert, P., Hobbs, F. D., Kantola, I., Kerry, S. M., Leiva, A., Magid, D. J., Mant, J., Margolis, K. L., McKinstry, B., McLaughlin, M. A., Omboni, S., Ogedegbe, O., Parati, G., Qamar, N., Tabaei, B. P., Varis, J., Verberk, W. J., Wakefield, B. J., & McManus, R. J.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

PLoS Medicine

Volume

14

Issue

9
Abstract
Background: Self-monitoring of blood pressure (BP) appears to reduce BP in hypertension but important questions remain regarding effective implementation and which groups may benefit most. This individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis was performed to better understand the effectiveness of BP self-monitoring to lower BP and control hypertension. Methods and findings: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for randomised trials comparing self-monitoring to no self-monitoring in hypertensive patients (June 2016). Two reviewers independently assessed articles for eligibility and the authors of eligible trials were approached requesting IPD. Of 2,846 articles in the initial search, 36 were eligible. IPD were provided from 25 trials, including 1 unpublished study. Data for the primary outcomes—change in mean clinic or ambulatory BP and proportion controlled below target at 12 months—were available from 15/19 possible studies (7,138/8,292 [86%] of randomised participants). Overall, self-monitoring was associated with reduced clinic systolic blood pressure (sBP) compared to usual care at 12 months (−3.2 mmHg, [95% CI −4.9, −1.6 mmHg]). However, this effect was strongly influenced by the intensity of co-intervention ranging from no effect with self-monitoring alone (−1.0 mmHg [−3.3, 1.2]), to a 6.1 mmHg (−9.0, −3.2) reduction when monitoring was combined with intensive support. Self-monitoring was most effective in those with fewer antihypertensive medications and higher baseline sBP up to 170 mmHg. No differences in efficacy were seen by sex or by most comorbidities. Ambulatory BP data at 12 months were available from 4 trials (1,478 patients), which assessed self-monitoring with little or no co-intervention. There was no association between self-monitoring and either lower clinic or ambulatory sBP in this group (clinic −0.2 mmHg [−2.2, 1.8]; ambulatory 1.1 mmHg [−0.3, 2.5]). Results for diastolic blood pressure (dBP) were similar. The main limitation of this work was that significant heterogeneity remained. This was at least in part due to different inclusion criteria, self-monitoring regimes, and target BPs in included studies. Conclusions: Self-monitoring alone is not associated with lower BP or better control, but in conjunction with co-interventions (including systematic medication titration by doctors, pharmacists, or patients; education; or lifestyle counselling) leads to clinically significant BP reduction which persists for at least 12 months. The implementation of self-monitoring in hypertension should be accompanied by such co-interventions.

Sustaining Nurse-Led Task-Shifting Strategies for Hypertension Control: A Concept Mapping Study to Inform Evidence-Based Practice

Blackstone, S., Iwelunmor, J., Plange-Rhule, J., Gyamfi, J., Quakyi, N. K., Ntim, M., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing
Abstract
Background: The use of task-shifting is an increasingly widespread delivery approach for health interventions targeting prevention, treatment, and control of hypertension in adults living in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Addressing a gap in the literature, this research examined the sustainability of an ongoing task-shifting strategy for hypertension (TASSH) from the perspectives of community health nurses (CHNs) implementing the program. Methods: We used concept-mapping, a mixed-methods participatory approach to understand CHNs' perceptions of barriers and enablers to sustaining a task-shifting program. Participants responded to focal prompts, eliciting statements regarding perceived barriers and enablers to sustaining TASSH, and then rated these ideas based on importance to the research questions and feasibility to address. Twenty-eight community health nurses (21 women, 7 men) from the Ashanti region of Ghana completed the concept-mapping process. Results: Factors influencing sustainability were grouped into five categories: Limited Drug Supply, Financial Support, Provision of Primary Health Care, Personnel Training, and Patient-Provider Communication. The limited supply of antihypertensive medication was considered by CHNs as the most important item to address, while providing training for intervention personnel was considered most feasible to address. Linking Evidence to Action: This study's findings highlight the importance of examining nurses' perceptions of factors likely to influence the sustainability of evidence-based, task-shifting interventions. Nurses' perceptions can guide the widespread uptake and dissemination of these interventions in resource-limited settings.

Tailored behavioral intervention among blacks with metabolic syndrome and sleep apnea: Results of the MetSO trial

Jean-Louis, G., Newsome, V., Williams, N. J., Zizi, F., Ravenell, J., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Sleep

Volume

40

Issue

1
Abstract
Study Objectives: To assess effectiveness of a culturally and linguistically tailored telephone-delivered intervention to increase adherence to physician-recommended evaluation and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) among blacks. Methods: In a two-arm randomized controlled trial, we evaluated effectiveness of the tailored intervention among blacks with metabolic syndrome, relative to those in an attention control arm (n = 380; mean age = 58 ± 13; female = 71%). The intervention was designed to enhance adherence using culturally and linguistically tailored OSA health messages delivered by a trained health educator based on patients' readiness to change and unique barriers preventing desired behavior changes. Results: Analysis showed 69.4% of the patients in the intervention arm attended initial consultation with a sleep specialist, compared to 36.7% in the control arm; 74.7% of those in the intervention arm and 66.7% in the control arm completed diagnostic evaluation; and 86.4% in the intervention arm and 88.9% in the control arm adhered to PAP treatment based on subjective report. Logistic regression analyses adjusting for sociodemographic factors indicated patients in the intervention arm were 3.17 times more likely to attend initial consultation, compared to those in the control arm. Adjusted models revealed no significant differences between the two arms regarding adherence to OSA evaluation or treatment. Conclusion: The intervention was successful in promoting importance of sleep consultation and evaluation of OSA among blacks, while there was no significant group difference in laboratory-based evaluation and treatment adherence rates. It seems that the fundamental barrier to OSA care in that population may be the importance of seeking OSA care.

Thresholds for Ambulatory Blood Pressure among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study

Ravenell, J., Shimbo, D., Booth, J. N., Sarpong, D. F., Agyemang, C., Moody, D. L., Abdalla, M., Spruill, T. M., Shallcross, A. J., Bress, A. P., Muntner, P., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2017

Journal title

Circulation

Volume

135

Issue

25

Page(s)

2470-2480
Abstract
Background: Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring is the reference standard for out-of-clinic BP measurement. Thresholds for identifying ambulatory hypertension (daytime systolic BP [SBP]/diastolic BP [DBP] ≥135/85 mm Hg, 24-hour SBP/DBP ≥130/80 mm Hg, and nighttime SBP/DBP ≥120/70 mm Hg) have been derived from European, Asian, and South American populations. We determined BP thresholds for ambulatory hypertension in a US population-based sample of African American adults. Methods: We analyzed data from the Jackson Heart Study, a population-based cohort study comprised exclusively of African American adults (n=5306). Analyses were restricted to 1016 participants who completed ambulatory BP monitoring at baseline in 2000 to 2004. Mean SBP and DBP levels were calculated for daytime (10:00 am-8:00 pm), 24-hour (all available readings), and nighttime (midnight-6:00 am) periods, separately. Daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime BP thresholds for ambulatory hypertension were identified using regression-and outcome-derived approaches. The composite of a cardiovascular disease or an all-cause mortality event was used in the outcome-derived approach. For this latter approach, BP thresholds were identified only for SBP because clinic DBP was not associated with the outcome. Analyses were stratified by antihypertensive medication use. Results: Among participants not taking antihypertensive medication, the regression-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP/DBP corresponding to clinic SBP/DBP of 140/90 mm Hg were 134/85 mm Hg, 130/81 mm Hg, and 123/73 mm Hg, respectively. The outcome-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP corresponding to a clinic SBP ≥140 mm Hg were 138 mm Hg, 134 mm Hg, and 129 mm Hg, respectively. Among participants taking antihypertensive medication, the regression-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP/DBP corresponding to clinic SBP/DBP of 140/90 mm Hg were 135/85 mm Hg, 133/82 mm Hg, and 128/76 mm Hg, respectively. The corresponding outcome-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP were 140 mm Hg, 137 mm Hg, and 133 mm Hg, respectively, among those taking antihypertensive medication. Conclusions: On the basis of the outcome-derived approach for SBP and regression-derived approach for DBP, the following definitions for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime hypertension corresponding to clinic SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mm Hg are proposed for African American adults: daytime SBP/DBP ≥140/85 mm Hg, 24-hour SBP/DBP ≥135/80 mm Hg, and nighttime SBP/DBP ≥130/75 mm Hg, respectively.