Olugbenga Ogedegbe

Olugbenga Ogedegbe
Olugbenga Ogedegbe

Professor

Professional overview

Gbenga Ogedegbe, a physician, is Professor of Population Health & Medicine, Chief Division of Health & Behavior and Director Center for Healthful Behavior Change in the Department of Population Health at the School of Medicine. Gbenga is a leading expert on health disparities research; his work focuses on the implementation of evidence-based interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction in minority populations. He is Principal Investigator on numerous NIH projects, and has expanded his work globally to Sub-Saharan Africa where he is funded by the NIH to strengthen research capacity and reduce the burden of noncommunicable diseases. He has co-authored over 250 publications and his work has been recognized by receipt of several research and mentoring awards including the prestigious John M. Eisenberg Excellence in Mentorship Award from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the Daniel Savage Science Award. He has served on numerous scientific panels including the NIH, CDC, World Health Organization, and the European Union Research Council. Prior to joining NYU, he was faculty at Cornell Weill Medical School and Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons. 

Education

MPH from Columbia University, 1999
Residency, Montefiore Medical Center, Internal Medicine, 1998
MD from Donetsk University, 1988

Areas of research and study

Access to Healthcare
Global Health
Health of Marginalized Population
Implementation and Impact of Public Health Regulations
Implementation science
Stroke and Cardiovascular Disease

Publications

Publications

Actions to Transform US Preventive Services Task Force Methods to Mitigate Systemic Racism in Clinical Preventive Services

Davidson, K. W., Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Cabana, M. D., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Krist, A. H., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

326

Issue

23

Page(s)

2405-2411
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: US life expectancy and health outcomes for preventable causes of disease have continued to lag in many populations that experience racism. Objective: To propose iterative changes to US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) processes, methods, and recommendations and enact a commitment to eliminate health inequities for people affected by systemic racism. Design and Evidence: In February 2021, the USPSTF began operational steps in its work to create preventive care recommendations to address the harmful effects of racism. A commissioned methods report was conducted to inform this process. Key findings of the report informed proposed updates to the USPSTF methods to address populations adversely affected by systemic racism and proposed pilots on implementation of the proposed changes. Findings: The USPSTF proposes to consider the opportunity to reduce health inequities when selecting new preventive care topics and prioritizing current topics; seek evidence about the effects of systemic racism and health inequities in all research plans and public comments requested, and integrate available evidence into evidence reviews; and summarize the likely effects of systemic racism and health inequities on clinical preventive services in USPSTF recommendations. The USPSTF will elicit feedback from its partners and experts and proposed changes will be piloted on selected USPSTF topics. Conclusions and Relevance: The USPSTF has developed strategies intended to mitigate the influence of systemic racism in its recommendations. The USPSTF seeks to reduce health inequities and other effects of systemic racism through iterative changes in methods of developing evidence-based recommendations, with partner and public input in the activities to implement the advancements..

Analysis of self-efficacy for stroke recognition and action from a cluster randomised trial evaluating the effects of stroke education pamphlets versus a 12-minute culturally tailored stroke film among Black and Hispanic churchgoers in New York

Ilunga Tshiswaka, D., Teresi, J., Eimicke, J. P., Kong, J., Noble, J. M., Ogedegbe, G., & Williams, O.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Health Education Journal

Volume

80

Issue

7

Page(s)

844-850
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Because early recognition of symptoms and timely treatment of stroke can reduce mortality and the long-term effects of such events, efforts to make many people both aware of these symptoms and knowledgeable about what to do when recognising them are critical for reducing impacts from stroke. Objectives: To assess the impact of a stroke preparedness film (intervention) and stroke preparedness pamphlets (usual care) on self-efficacy for stroke recognition and action. Design: Two-arm cluster randomised trial conducted between July 2013 and August 2018. Setting: A total of 13 church sites located in economically disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods in New York. Of the 883 churchgoers approached, 503 expressed interest, 375 completed eligibility screening and 312 were randomised. Participant inclusion criteria were Black or Hispanic churchgoers, aged 34 years or older, without stroke history, but at a high risk for stroke. The intervention consisted of two 12-minute stroke films: Gospel of Stroke, in English for Black participants, and Derrame Cerebral, in Spanish for Hispanic participants. Method: Participants were pre–post-tested (at baseline, 6-month follow-up and 12-month follow-up) for self-efficacy. Descriptive analysis, a linear mixed model and t tests were used to assess the effects of a stroke preparedness film and stroke preparedness pamphlets on self-efficacy. Results: Findings are based on intention-to-treat analysis. A total of 310 participants completed the study (99% retention rate). About half (53.8%) of participants were Black and 46.2% Hispanic in the intervention group; 48.3% were Black and 51.7% were Hispanic in the usual care group. Overall, both groups evidenced higher self-efficacy (i.e. lower predicted means) over time (p <.0001), although a significant benefit was not observed for the intervention relative to usual care. Conclusion: Both stroke preparedness films and stroke preparedness pamphlets improved self-efficacy with respect to stroke recognition and action among minority churchgoers.

Analysis of Therapeutic Inertia and Race and Ethnicity in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial

Zheutlin, A. R., Mondesir, F. L., Derington, C. G., King, J. B., Zhang, C., Cohen, J. B., Berlowitz, D. R., Anstey, D. E., Cushman, W. C., Greene, T. H., Ogedegbe, O., & Bress, A. P.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA network open
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Therapeutic inertia may contribute to racial and ethnic differences in blood pressure (BP) control. Objective: To determine the association between race and ethnicity and therapeutic inertia in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study was a secondary analysis of data from SPRINT, a randomized clinical trial comparing intensive (<120 mm Hg) vs standard (<140 mm Hg) systolic BP treatment goals. Participants were enrolled between November 8, 2010, and March 15, 2013, with a median follow-up 3.26 years. Participants included adults aged 50 years or older at high risk for cardiovascular disease but without diabetes, previous stroke, or heart failure. The present analysis was restricted to participant visits with measured BP above the target goal. Analyses for the present study were performed in from October 2020 through March 2021. Exposures: Self-reported race and ethnicity, mutually exclusively categorized into groups of Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, or non-Hispanic White participants. Main Outcomes and Measures: Therapeutic inertia, defined as no antihypertensive medication intensification at each study visit where the BP was above target goal. The association between self-reported race and ethnicity and therapeutic inertia was estimated using generalized estimating equations and stratified by treatment group. Antihypertensive medication use was assessed with pill bottle inventories at each visit. Blood pressure was measured using an automated device. Results: A total of 8556 participants, including 4141 in the standard group (22844 participant-visits; median age, 67.0 years [IQR, 61.0-76.0 years]; 1467 women [35.4%]) and 4415 in the intensive group (35453 participant-visits; median age, 67.0 years [IQR, 61.0-76.0 years]; 1584 women [35.9%]) with at least 1 eligible study visit were included in the present analysis. Among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic participants, the overall prevalence of therapeutic inertia in the standard vs intensive groups was 59.8% (95% CI, 58.9%-60.7%) vs 56.0% (95% CI, 55.2%-56.7%), 56.8% (95% CI, 54.4%-59.2%) vs 54.5% (95% CI, 52.4%-56.6%), and 59.7% (95% CI, 56.5%-63.0%) vs 51.0% (95% CI, 47.4%-54.5%), respectively. The adjusted odds ratios in the standard and intensive groups for therapeutic inertia associated with non-Hispanic Black vs non-Hispanic White participants were 0.85 (95% CI, 0.79-0.92) and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.88-1.01), respectively. The adjusted odds ratios for therapeutic inertia comparing Hispanic vs non-Hispanic White participants were 1.00 (95% CI, 0.90-1.13) and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.79-1.00) in the standard and intensive groups, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: Among SPRINT participants above BP target goal, this cross-sectional study found that therapeutic inertia prevalence was similar or lower for non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic participants compared with non-Hispanic White participants. These findings suggest that a standardized approach to BP management, as used in SPRINT, may help ensure equitable care and could reduce the contribution of therapeutic inertia to disparities in hypertension. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01206062.

Aspirin Use to Prevent Preeclampsia and Related Morbidity and Mortality: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Davidson, K. W., Barry, M. J., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M. A., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

326

Issue

12

Page(s)

1186-1191
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Preeclampsia is one of the most serious health problems that affect pregnant persons. It is a complication in approximately 4% of pregnancies in the US and contributes to both maternal and infant morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia also accounts for 6% of preterm births and 19% of medically indicated preterm births in the US. There are racial and ethnic disparities in the prevalence of and mortality from preeclampsia. Non-Hispanic Black women are at greater risk for developing preeclampsia than other women and experience higher rates of maternal and infant morbidity and perinatal mortality. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the USPSTF commissioned a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of low-dose aspirin use to prevent preeclampsia. Population: Pregnant persons at high risk for preeclampsia who have no prior adverse effects with or contraindications to low-dose aspirin. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that there is a substantial net benefit of daily low-dose aspirin use to reduce the risk for preeclampsia, preterm birth, small for gestational age/intrauterine growth restriction, and perinatal mortality in pregnant persons at high risk for preeclampsia. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends the use of low-dose aspirin (81 mg/d) as preventive medication for preeclampsia after 12 weeks of gestation in persons who are at high risk for preeclampsia. (B recommendation).

Assessment of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to COVID-19 Vaccination Sites in Brooklyn, New York

Williams, N., Tutrow, H., Pina, P., Belli, H. M., Ogedegbe, G., & Schoenthaler, A.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Annual Review of Plant Biology

Volume

4

Issue

6

Association between Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Coronary Artery Calcification: The JHS

Zhang, Y., Schwartz, J. E., Jaeger, B. C., An, J., Bellows, B. K., Clark, D., Langford, A. T., Kalinowski, J., Ogedegbe, O., Carr, J. J., Terry, J. G., Min, Y. I., Reynolds, K., Shimbo, D., Moran, A. E., & Muntner, P.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Hypertension

Page(s)

1886-1894
Abstract
Abstract
High blood pressure (BP) based on measurements obtained in the office setting has been associated with the presence and level of coronary artery calcification (CAC) - a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. We studied the association between out-of-office BP and CAC among 557 participants who underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring at visit 1 in 2000-2004 and a computed tomography scan at visit 2 in 2005-2008 as part of the JHS (Jackson Heart Study) - a community-based cohort of African American adults. Mean awake, asleep, and 24-hour BP were calculated for each participant. Among participants included in this analysis, 279 (50%) had any CAC defined by an Agatston score >0. After multivariable adjustment including office systolic BP (SBP), the prevalence ratios for any CAC comparing the highest versus the lowest quartiles of SBP on ambulatory BP monitoring were 1.08 (95% CI, 0.84-1.39) for awake SBP, 1.32 (95% CI, 1.01-1.74) for asleep SBP, and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.91-1.55) for 24-hour SBP. After multivariable adjustment including office diastolic BP, the prevalence ratios for any CAC comparing the highest versus the lowest quartiles of awake, asleep, and 24-hour diastolic BP were 1.27 (95% CI, 1.02-1.59), 1.29 (95% CI, 1.02-1.64), and 1.25 (95% CI, 0.99-1.59), respectively. The current results suggest that higher asleep SBP and higher awake and asleep diastolic BP may be risk factors for subclinical atherosclerosis and underscore the potential role of ambulatory BP monitoring in identifying individuals at high risk for coronary artery disease.

Behavioral Counseling Interventions for Healthy Weight and Weight Gain in Pregnancy: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Davidson, K. W., Barry, M. J., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Krist, A. H., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

325

Issue

20

Page(s)

2087-2093
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing among persons of childbearing age and pregnant persons. In 2015, almost half of all persons began pregnancy with overweight (24%) or obesity (24%). Reported rates of overweight and obesity are higher among Black, Alaska Native/American Indian, and Hispanic women and lower among White and Asian women. Excess weight at the beginning of pregnancy and excess gestational weight gain have been associated with adverse maternal and infant health outcomes such as a large for gestational age infant, cesarean delivery, or preterm birth. Objective: The USPSTF commissioned a systematic review to evaluate the benefits and harms of behavioral counseling interventions to prevent adverse health outcomes associated with obesity during pregnancy and to evaluate intermediate outcomes, including excess gestational weight gain. This is a new recommendation. Population: Pregnant adolescents and adults in primary care settings. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that behavioral counseling interventions aimed at promoting healthy weight gain and preventing excess gestational weight gain in pregnancy have a moderate net benefit for pregnant persons. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends that clinicians offer pregnant persons effective behavioral counseling interventions aimed at promoting healthy weight gain and preventing excess gestational weight gain in pregnancy. (B recommendation).

COVID-19 and Social Determinants of Health in Gastroenterology and Hepatology

Balzora, S., May, F. P., & Ogedegbe, G.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Gastroenterology

Volume

161

Issue

5

Page(s)

1373-1376

Evidence-based interventions implemented in low-and middle-income countries for sickle cell disease management: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials

Gyamfi, J., Ojo, T., Epou, S., Diawara, A., Dike, L., Adenikinju, D., Enechukwu, S., Vieira, D., Nnodu, O., Ogedegbe, G., & Peprah, E.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

PloS one

Volume

16

Issue

2
Abstract
Abstract
Background Despite ~90% of sickle cell disease (SCD) occurring in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), the vast majority of people are not receiving evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to reduce SCD-related adverse outcomes and mortality, and data on implementation research outcomes (IROs) and SCD is limited. This study aims to synthesize available data on EBIs for SCD and assess IROs. Methods We conducted a systematic review of RCTs reporting on EBIs for SCD management implemented in LMICs. We identified articles from PubMed/Medline, Global Health, PubMed Central, Embase, Web of Science medical subject heading (MeSH and Emtree) and keywords, published from inception through February 23, 2020, and conducted an updated search through December 24, 2020. We provide intervention characteristics for each study, EBI impact on SCD, and evidence of reporting on IROs. Main results 29 RCTs were analyzed. EBIs identified included disease modifying agents, supportive care agents/analgesics, anti-malarials, systemic treatments, patient/ provider education, and nutritional supplements. Studies using disease modifying agents, nutritional supplements, and anti-malarials reported improvements in pain crisis, hospitalization, children’s growth and reduction in severity and prevalence of malaria. Two studies reported on the sustainability of supplementary arginine, citrulline, and daily chloroquine and hydroxyurea for SCD patients. Only 13 studies (44.8%) provided descriptions that captured at least three of the eight IROs. There was limited reporting of acceptability, feasibility, fidelity, cost and sustainability. Conclusion EBIs are effective for SCD management in LMICs; however, measurement of IROs is scarce. Future research should focus on penetration of EBIs to inform evidence-based practice and sustainability in the context of LMICs.

Injustice in health: Now is the time to change the story

Ogedegbe, G., & Inouye, S. K.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Annals of internal medicine

Volume

174

Issue

7

Page(s)

1012-1013

Integration of a task strengthening strategy for hypertension management into HIV care in Nigeria: a cluster randomized controlled trial study protocol

Aifah, A. A., Odubela, O., Rakhra, A., Onakomaiya, D., Hu, J., Nwaozuru, U., Oladele, D. A., Odusola, A. O., Idigbe, I., Musa, A. Z., Akere, A., Tayo, B., Ogedegbe, G., Iwelunmor, J., & Ezechi, O.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Implementation Science

Volume

16

Issue

1
Abstract
Abstract
Background: In regions with weak healthcare systems, critical shortages of the healthcare workforce, and increasing prevalence of dual disease burdens, there is an urgent need for the implementation of proven effective interventions and strategies to address these challenges. Our mixed-methods hybrid type II effectiveness-implementation study is designed to fill this evidence-to-practice gap. This study protocol describes a cluster randomized controlled trial which evaluates the effectiveness of an implementation strategy, practice facilitation (PF), on the integration, adoption, and sustainability of a task-strengthening strategy for hypertension control (TASSH) intervention within primary healthcare centers (PHCs) in Lagos State, Nigeria. Design: Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) and the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM), this study tests the impact of a proven effective implementation strategy to integrate hypertension management into the HIV care cascade, across 30 PHCs. The study will be conducted in three phases: (1) a pre-implementation phase that will use CFIR to develop a tailored PF intervention for integrating TASSH into HIV clinics; (2) an implementation phase that will use RE-AIM to compare the clinical effectiveness of PF vs. a self-directed condition (receipt of information on TASSH without PF) on BP reduction; and (3) a post-implementation phase that will use RE-AIM to evaluate the effect of PF vs. self-directed condition on adoption and sustainability of TASSH. The PF intervention components comprise (a) an advisory board to provide leadership support for implementing TASSH in PHCs; (b) training of the HIV nurses on TASSH protocol; and (c) training of practice facilitators, who will serve as coaches, provide support, and performance feedback to the HIV nurses. Discussion: This study is one of few, if any trials, to evaluate the impact of an implementation strategy for integrating hypertension management into HIV care, on clinical and implementation outcomes. Findings from this study will advance implementation science research on the effectiveness of tailoring an implementation strategy for the integration of an evidence-based, system-level hypertension control intervention into HIV care and treatment. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04704336). Registered on 11 January 2021.

Interactive Associations of Neuropsychiatry Inventory-Questionnaire Assessed Sleep Disturbance and Vascular Risk on Alzheimer’s Disease Stage Progression in Clinically Normal Older Adults

Bubu, O. M., Williams, E. T., Umasabor-Bubu, O. Q., Kaur, S. S., Turner, A. D., Blanc, J., Cejudo, J. R., Mullins, A. E., Parekh, A., Kam, K., Osakwe, Z. T., Nguyen, A. W., Trammell, A. R., Mbah, A. K., De Leon, M., Rapoport, D. M., Ayappa, I., Ogedegbe, G., Jean-Louis, G., Masurkar, A. V., Varga, A. W., & Osorio, R. S.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience

Volume

13
Abstract
Abstract
Background: To determine whether sleep disturbance (SD) and vascular-risk interact to promote Alzheimer’s disease (AD) stage-progression in normal, community-dwelling older adults and evaluate their combined risk beyond that of established AD biomarkers. Methods: Longitudinal data from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center Uniform-Dataset. SD data (i.e., SD+ vs. SD-), as characterized by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Questionnaire, were derived from 10,600 participants at baseline, with at-least one follow-up visit. A subset (n = 361) had baseline cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers and MRI data. The Framingham heart study general cardiovascular disease (FHS-CVD) risk-score was used to quantify vascular risk. Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) diagnosis during follow-up characterized AD stage-progression. Logistic mixed-effects models with random intercept and slope examined the interaction of SD and vascular risk on prospective aMCI diagnosis. Results: Of the 10,600 participants, 1,017 (9.6%) reported SD and 6,572 (62%) were female. The overall mean (SD) age was 70.5 (6.5), and follow-up time was 5.1 (2.7) years. SD and the FHS-CVD risk-score were each associated with incident aMCI (aOR: 1.42 and aOR: 2.11, p < 0.01 for both). The interaction of SD and FHS-CVD risk-score with time was significant (aOR: 2.87, p < 0.01), suggesting a synergistic effect. SD and FHS-CVD risk-score estimates remained significantly associated with incident aMCI even after adjusting for CSF (Aβ, T-tau, P-tau) and hippocampal volume (n = 361) (aOR: 2.55, p < 0.01), and approximated risk-estimates of each biomarker in the sample where data was available. Conclusions: Clinical measures of sleep and vascular risk may complement current AD biomarkers in assessing risk of cognitive decline in older adults.

Interventions for Tobacco Smoking Cessation in Adults, Including Pregnant Persons: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

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Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA

Volume

325

Issue

3

Page(s)

265-279
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Tobacco use is the leading preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the US. In 2014, it was estimated that 480 000 deaths annually are attributed to cigarette smoking, including second hand smoke exposure. Smoking during pregnancy can increase the risk of numerous adverse pregnancy outcomes (eg, miscarriage and congenital anomalies) and complications in the offspring (including sudden infant death syndrome and impaired lung function in childhood). In 2019, an estimated 50.6 million US adults (20.8% of the adult population) used tobacco; 14.0% of the US adult population currently smoked cigarettes and 4.5% of the adult population used electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Among pregnant US women who gave birth in 2016, 7.2% reported smoking cigarettes while pregnant. Objective: To update its 2015 recommendation, the USPSTF commissioned a review to evaluate the benefits and harms of primary care interventions on tobacco use cessation in adults, including pregnant persons. Population: This recommendation statement applies to adults 18 years or older, including pregnant persons. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with high certainty that the net benefit of behavioral interventions and US Food and Drug Associated (FDA)-approved pharmacotherapy for tobacco smoking cessation, alone or combined, in nonpregnant adults who smoke is substantial. The USPSTF concludes with high certainty that the net benefit of behavioral interventions for tobacco smoking cessation on perinatal outcomes and smoking cessation in pregnant persons is substantial. The USPSTF concludes that the evidence on pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco smoking cessation in pregnant persons is insufficient because few studies are available, and the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. The USPSTF concludes that the evidence on the use of e-cigarettes for tobacco smoking cessation in adults, including pregnant persons, is insufficient, and the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. The USPSTF has identified the lack of well-designed, randomized clinical trials on e-cigarettes that report smoking abstinence or adverse events as a critical gap in the evidence. Recommendations: The USPSTF recommends that clinicians ask all adults about tobacco use, advise them to stop using tobacco, and provide behavioral interventions and FDA-approved pharmacotherapy for cessation to nonpregnant adults who use tobacco. (A recommendation) The USPSTF recommends that clinicians ask all pregnant persons about tobacco use, advise them to stop using tobacco, and provide behavioral interventions for cessation to pregnant persons who use tobacco. (A recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco cessation in pregnant persons. (I statement) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of e-cigarettes for tobacco cessation in adults, including pregnant persons. The USPSTF recommends that clinicians direct patients who use tobacco to other tobacco cessation interventions with proven effectiveness and established safety. (I statement).

Motivation to move fast, motivation to wait and see: The association of prevention and promotion focus with clinicians’ implementation of the JNC-7 hypertension treatment guidelines

Sanders, M., Fiscella, K., Hill, E., Ogedegbe, O., Cassells, A., Tobin, J. N., Williams, S., & Veazie, P.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Journal of Clinical Hypertension

Volume

23

Issue

9

Page(s)

1752-1757
Abstract
Abstract
Roughly half of the adults in the United States are diagnosed with hypertension (HTN). Unfortunately, less than one-third have their condition under control. Clinicians generally have positive regard for the use of HTN guidelines to achieve HTN treatment goals; however, actual uptake remains low. Factors underpinning clinician variation in practice are poorly understood. To understand the relationship between clinicians’ personal motivation to complete goals and their uptake of the Joint National Commission's HTN guidelines. The authors used Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT, ie, prevention and promotion focus), an empirically supported motivational theory, as a guiding framework to examine the relationship. The authors hypothesized that clinicians with high prevention focus would report following guidelines more often and have shorter follow-up visit intervals for patients with uncontrolled blood pressure. Clinicians (n = 27) caring for adult patients diagnosed with HTN (n = 8605) in Federally Qualified Health Centers (n = 8). Clinicians’ prevention and promotion focus scores and the number of days between visits for their patients with uncontrolled systolic blood pressure (SBP) (≥ 140 mm Hg). Consistent with RFT, 60% of prevention focused clinicians reported they always followed the monthly visit guideline for the patients with uncontrolled blood pressure, compared with 38% of promotion focused clinicians (p =.254). The unadjusted probability of returning for a follow-up visit within 30 days was greater among patients whose clinician was higher in prevention focus (p =.009), but there was no evidence at the 0.05 significance level in our adjusted model. These findings provide some limited evidence that RFT is a useful framework to understand clinician adherence to HTN treatment guidelines.

Screening and Interventions to Prevent Dental Caries in Children Younger Than 5 Years: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Davidson, K. W., Barry, M. J., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

326

Issue

21

Page(s)

2172-2178
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Dental caries is the most common chronic disease in children in the US. According to the 2011-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, approximately 23% of children aged 2 to 5 years had dental caries in their primary teeth. Prevalence is higher in Mexican American children (33%) and non-Hispanic Black children (28%) than in non-Hispanic White children (18%). Dental caries in early childhood is associated with pain, loss of teeth, impaired growth, decreased weight gain, negative effects on quality of life, poor school performance, and future dental caries. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review on screening and interventions to prevent dental caries in children younger than 5 years. Population: Asymptomatic children younger than 5 years. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that there is a moderate net benefit of preventing future dental caries with oral fluoride supplementation at recommended doses in children 6 months or older whose water supply is deficient in fluoride. The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that there is a moderate net benefit of preventing future dental caries with fluoride varnish application in all children younger than 5 years. The USPSTF concludes that the evidence is insufficient on performing routine oral screening examinations for dental caries by primary care clinicians in children younger than 5 years and that the balance of benefits and harms of screening cannot be determined. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends that primary care clinicians prescribe oral fluoride supplementation starting at age 6 months for children whose water supply is deficient in fluoride. (B recommendation) The USPSTF recommends that primary care clinicians apply fluoride varnish to the primary teeth of all infants and children starting at the age of primary tooth eruption. (B recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of routine screening examinations for dental caries performed by primary care clinicians in children younger than 5 years. (I statement).

Screening for Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

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Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

325

Issue

5

Page(s)

476-481
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Carotid artery stenosis is atherosclerotic disease that affects extracranial carotid arteries. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis refers to stenosis in persons without a history of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, or other neurologic symptoms referable to the carotid arteries. The prevalence of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis is low in the general population but increases with age. Objective: To determine if its 2014 recommendation should be reaffirmed, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a reaffirmation evidence review. The reaffirmation update focused on the targeted key questions on the potential benefits and harms of screening and interventions, including revascularization procedures designed to improve carotid artery blood flow, in persons with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Population: This recommendation statement applies to adults without a history of transient ischemic attack, stroke, or other neurologic signs or symptoms referable to the carotid arteries. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF found no new substantial evidence that could change its recommendation and therefore concludes with moderate certainty that the harms of screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis outweigh the benefits. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends against screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis in the general adult population. (D recommendation).

Screening for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Davidson, K. W., Barry, M. J., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Krist, A. H., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Simon, M. A., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

326

Issue

10

Page(s)

949-956
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Chlamydia and gonorrhea are among the most common sexually transmitted infections in the US. Infection rates are highest among adolescents and young adults of both sexes. Chlamydial and gonococcal infections in women are usually asymptomatic and may lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and its associated complications. Newborns of pregnant persons with untreated infection may develop neonatal chlamydial pneumonia or gonococcal or chlamydial ophthalmia. Infection in men may lead to urethritis and epididymitis. Both types of infection can increase risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review to evaluate the benefits and harms of screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea in sexually active adolescents and adults, including pregnant persons. Population: Asymptomatic, sexually active adolescents and adults, including pregnant persons. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that screening for chlamydia in all sexually active women 24 years or younger and in women 25 years or older who are at increased risk for infection has moderate net benefit. The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that screening for gonorrhea in all sexually active women 24 years or younger and in women 25 years or older who are at increased risk for infection has moderate net benefit. The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea in men. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends screening for chlamydia in all sexually active women 24 years or younger and in women 25 years or older who are at increased risk for infection. (B recommendation) The USPSTF recommends screening for gonorrhea in all sexually active women 24 years or younger and in women 25 years or older who are at increased risk for infection. (B recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for chlamydia and gonorrhea in men. (I statement).

Screening for Colorectal Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Davidson, K. W., Barry, M. J., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Krist, A. H., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Owens, D. K., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

325

Issue

19

Page(s)

1965-1977
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death for both men and women, with an estimated 52980 persons in the US projected to die of colorectal cancer in 2021. Colorectal cancer is most frequently diagnosed among persons aged 65 to 74 years. It is estimated that 10.5% of new colorectal cancer cases occur in persons younger than 50 years. Incidence of colorectal cancer (specifically adenocarcinoma) in adults aged 40 to 49 years has increased by almost 15% from 2000-2002 to 2014-2016. In 2016, 26% of eligible adults in the US had never been screened for colorectal cancer and in 2018, 31% were not up to date with screening. Objective: To update its 2016 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review to evaluate the benefits and harms of screening for colorectal cancer in adults 40 years or older. The review also examined whether these findings varied by age, sex, or race/ethnicity. In addition, as in 2016, the USPSTF commissioned a report from the Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network Colorectal Cancer Working Group to provide information from comparative modeling on how estimated life-years gained, colorectal cancer cases averted, and colorectal cancer deaths averted vary by different starting and stopping ages for various screening strategies. Population: Asymptomatic adults 45 years or older at average risk of colorectal cancer (ie, no prior diagnosis of colorectal cancer, adenomatous polyps, or inflammatory bowel disease; no personal diagnosis or family history of known genetic disorders that predispose them to a high lifetime risk of colorectal cancer [such as Lynch syndrome or familial adenomatous polyposis]). Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with high certainty that screening for colorectal cancer in adults aged 50 to 75 years has substantial net benefit. The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that screening for colorectal cancer in adults aged 45 to 49 years has moderate net benefit. The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that screening for colorectal cancer in adults aged 76 to 85 years who have been previously screened has small net benefit. Adults who have never been screened for colorectal cancer are more likely to benefit. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends screening for colorectal cancer in all adults aged 50 to 75 years. (A recommendation) The USPSTF recommends screening for colorectal cancer in adults aged 45 to 49 years. (B recommendation) The USPSTF recommends that clinicians selectively offer screening for colorectal cancer in adults aged 76 to 85 years. Evidence indicates that the net benefit of screening all persons in this age group is small. In determining whether this service is appropriate in individual cases, patients and clinicians should consider the patient's overall health, prior screening history, and preferences. (C recommendation).

Screening for Gestational Diabetes: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Davidson, K. W., Barry, M. J., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

326

Issue

6

Page(s)

531-538
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Gestational diabetes is diabetes that develops during pregnancy. Prevalence of gestational diabetes in the US has been estimated at 5.8% to 9.2%, based on traditional diagnostic criteria, although it may be higher if more inclusive criteria are used. Pregnant persons with gestational diabetes are at increased risk for maternal and fetal complications, including preeclampsia, fetal macrosomia (which can cause shoulder dystocia and birth injury), and neonatal hypoglycemia. Gestational diabetes has also been associated with an increased risk of several long-term health outcomes in pregnant persons and intermediate outcomes in their offspring. Objective: The USPSTF commissioned a systematic review to evaluate the accuracy, benefits, and harms of screening for gestational diabetes and the benefits and harms of treatment for the pregnant person and infant. Population: Pregnant persons who have not been previously diagnosed with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that there is a moderate net benefit to screening for gestational diabetes at 24 weeks of gestation or after to improve maternal and fetal outcomes. The USPSTF concludes that the evidence on screening for gestational diabetes before 24 weeks of gestation is insufficient, and the balance of benefits and harms of screening cannot be determined. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends screening for gestational diabetes in asymptomatic pregnant persons at 24 weeks of gestation or after. (B recommendation) The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for gestational diabetes in asymptomatic pregnant persons before 24 weeks of gestation. (I statement).

Screening for Hearing Loss in Older Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Krist, A. H., Davidson, K. W., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Epling, J. W., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

325

Issue

12

Page(s)

1196-1201
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Age-related sensorineural hearing loss is a common health problem among adults. Nearly 16% of US adults 18 years or older report difficulty hearing. The prevalence of perceived hearing loss increases with age. Hearing loss can adversely affect an individual's quality of life and ability to function independently and has been associated with increased risk of falls, hospitalizations, social isolation, and cognitive decline. Objective: To update its 2012 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review on screening for hearing loss in adults 50 years or older. Population: Asymptomatic adults 50 years or older with age-related hearing loss. Evidence Assessment: Because of a lack of evidence, the USPSTF concludes that the benefits and harms of screening for hearing loss in asymptomatic older adults are uncertain and that the balance of benefits and harms cannot be determined. More research is needed. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for hearing loss in older adults. (I statement).

Screening for Hypertension in Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Reaffirmation Recommendation Statement

Krist, A. H., Davidson, K. W., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

325

Issue

16

Page(s)

1650-1656
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Hypertension is a prevalent condition that affects approximately 45% of the adult US population and is the most commonly diagnosed condition at outpatient office visits. Hypertension is a major contributing risk factor for heart failure, myocardial infarction, stroke, and chronic kidney disease. Objective: To reaffirm its 2015 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review to evaluate the benefits and harms of screening for hypertension in adults, the accuracy of office blood pressure measurement for initial screening, and the accuracy of various confirmatory blood pressure measurement methods. Population: Adults 18 years or older without known hypertension. Evidence Assessment: Using a reaffirmation deliberation process, the USPSTF concludes with high certainty that screening for hypertension in adults has substantial net benefit. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends screening for hypertension in adults 18 years or older with office blood pressure measurement. The USPSTF recommends obtaining blood pressure measurements outside of the clinical setting for diagnostic confirmation before starting treatment. (A recommendation).

Screening for Lung Cancer: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Krist, A. H., Davidson, K. W., Mangione, C. M., Barry, M. J., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Kubik, M., Landefeld, C. S., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Owens, D. K., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

325

Issue

10

Page(s)

962-970
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Lung cancer is the second most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in the US. In 2020, an estimated 228820 persons were diagnosed with lung cancer, and 135720 persons died of the disease. The most important risk factor for lung cancer is smoking. Increasing age is also a risk factor for lung cancer. Lung cancer has a generally poor prognosis, with an overall 5-year survival rate of 20.5%. However, early-stage lung cancer has a better prognosis and is more amenable to treatment. Objective: To update its 2013 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review on the accuracy of screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) and on the benefits and harms of screening for lung cancer and commissioned a collaborative modeling study to provide information about the optimum age at which to begin and end screening, the optimal screening interval, and the relative benefits and harms of different screening strategies compared with modified versions of multivariate risk prediction models. Population: This recommendation statement applies to adults aged 50 to 80 years who have a 20 pack-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that annual screening for lung cancer with LDCT has a moderate net benefit in persons at high risk of lung cancer based on age, total cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke, and years since quitting smoking. Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends annual screening for lung cancer with LDCT in adults aged 50 to 80 years who have a 20 pack-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. Screening should be discontinued once a person has not smoked for 15 years or develops a health problem that substantially limits life expectancy or the ability or willingness to have curative lung surgery. (B recommendation) This recommendation replaces the 2013 USPSTF statement that recommended annual screening for lung cancer with LDCT in adults aged 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years.

Screening for Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Davidson, K. W., Barry, M. J., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Krist, A. H., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Owens, D. K., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

326

Issue

8

Page(s)

736-743
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: An estimated 13% of all US adults (18 years or older) have diabetes, and 34.5% meet criteria for prediabetes. The prevalences of prediabetes and diabetes are higher in older adults. Estimates of the risk of progression from prediabetes to diabetes vary widely, perhaps because of differences in the definition of prediabetes or the heterogeneity of prediabetes. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure and new cases of blindness among adults in the US. It is also associated with increased risks of cardiovascular disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and was estimated to be the seventh leading cause of death in the US in 2017. Screening asymptomatic adults for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes may allow earlier detection, diagnosis, and treatment, with the ultimate goal of improving health outcomes. Objective: To update its 2015 recommendation, the USPSTF commissioned a systematic review to evaluate screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in asymptomatic, nonpregnant adults and preventive interventions for those with prediabetes. Population: Nonpregnant adults aged 35 to 70 years seen in primary care settings who have overweight or obesity (defined as a body mass index ≥25 and ≥30, respectively) and no symptoms of diabetes. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes and offering or referring patients with prediabetes to effective preventive interventions has a moderate net benefit. Conclusions and Recommendation: The USPSTF recommends screening for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in adults aged 35 to 70 years who have overweight or obesity. Clinicians should offer or refer patients with prediabetes to effective preventive interventions. (B recommendation).

Screening for Vitamin D Deficiency in Adults: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement

Krist, A. H., Davidson, K. W., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Caughey, A. B., Davis, E. M., Donahue, K. E., Doubeni, C. A., Epling, J. W., Kubik, M., Li, L., Ogedegbe, G., Owens, D. K., Pbert, L., Silverstein, M., Stevermer, J., Tseng, C. W., & Wong, J. B.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association

Volume

325

Issue

14

Page(s)

1436-1442
Abstract
Abstract
Importance: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that performs an important role in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism and also affects many other cellular regulatory functions outside the skeletal system. Vitamin D requirements may vary by individual; thus, no one serum vitamin D level cutpoint defines deficiency, and no consensus exists regarding the precise serum levels of vitamin D that represent optimal health or sufficiency. Objective: To update its 2014 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review on screening for vitamin D deficiency, including the benefits and harms of screening and early treatment. Population: Community-dwelling, nonpregnant adults who have no signs or symptoms of vitamin D deficiency or conditions for which vitamin D treatment is recommended. Evidence Assessment: The USPSTF concludes that the overall evidence on the benefits of screening for vitamin D deficiency is lacking. Therefore, the balance of benefits and harms of screening for vitamin D deficiency in asymptomatic adults cannot be determined. Recommendation: The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for vitamin D deficiency in asymptomatic adults. (I statement).

Stress and Depression Are Associated with Life's Simple 7 among African Americans with Hypertension: Findings from the Jackson Heart Study

Langford, A. T., Butler, M., Booth, J. N., Jin, P., Bress, A. P., Tanner, R. M., Kalinowski, J., Blanc, J., Seixas, A., Shimbo, D., Sims, M., Ogedegbe, G., & Spruill, T. M.

Publication year

2021

Journal title

American Journal of Hypertension

Volume

34

Issue

12

Page(s)

1311-1321
Abstract
Abstract
Background: The American Heart Association created the Life's Simple 7 (LS7) metrics to promote cardiovascular health (CVH) by achieving optimal levels of blood pressure, cholesterol, blood sugar, physical activity, diet, weight, and smoking status. The degree to which psychosocial factors such as stress and depression impact one's ability to achieve optimal CVH is unclear, particularly among hypertensive African Americans. Methods: Cross-sectional analyses included 1,819 African Americans with hypertension participating in the Jackson Heart Study (2000-2004). Outcomes were LS7 composite and individual component scores (defined as poor, intermediate, ideal). High perceived chronic stress was defined as the top quartile of Weekly Stress Inventory scores. High depressive symptoms were defined as Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale scores of ≥16. We compared 4 groups: high stress alone; high depressive symptoms alone; high stress and high depressive symptoms; low stress and low depressive symptoms (reference) using linear regression for total LS7 scores and logistic regression for LS7 components. Results: Participants with both high stress and depressive symptoms had lower composite LS7 scores (B [95% confidence interval] = -0.34 [-0.65 to -0.02]) than those with low stress and depressive symptoms in unadjusted and age/sex-adjusted models. They also had poorer health status for smoking (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.52 [0.35-0.78]) and physical activity (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.71 [0.52-0.95]) after full covariate adjustment. Conclusions: The combination of high stress and high depressive symptoms was associated with poorer LS7 metrics in hypertensive African Americans. Psychosocial interventions may increase the likelihood of engaging in behaviors that promote optimal CVH.