Clinical Professor of Epidemiology
Dr. Gershon is an interdisciplinary occupational and environmental health and safety researcher with extensive experience in the areas of disaster preparedness, healthcare safety, and risk assessment and management in high-risk work occupations. She earned her doctorate in Public Health from Johns Hopkins University, School of Public Health, where she was on faculty for several years.
Subsequently, Dr. Gershon was a Professor at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University, with a joint appointment in the School of Nursing.
At the Mailman School, she also served as the Associate Dean for Research and was the Director of the Mentoring Program. Her most recent faculty appointment prior to joining NYU GPH was Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and the Philip R. Lee Institute for Health Policy Studies at University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). She was also an Adjunct Professor in the UCSF School of Nursing, as well as at UC Berkeley where she taught public health disaster courses.
Dr. Gershon and her team conducted numerous ground breaking studies to develop and test new metrics of preparedness. Importantly, Dr. Gershon’s work has influenced the adoption of safe work practices and regulatory control measures, such as national needlestick prevention guidelines and high-rise building fire safety laws. Her numerous research studies encompass a wide range of topics, including, (to name a few): bloodborne pathogen exposure; hospital safety climate; psychosocial work stress in law enforcement; “ability and willingness” of essential workforce employees to report to duty during natural and man-made disasters; preparedness of responders for terrorist incidents; emergency high–rise building evacuation- (including the World Trade Center Evacuation Study); emergency preparedness of the elderly and disabled; mass fatality management infrastructure in the US; adherence to emergency public health measures among the general public; hearing loss risk in subway ridership; and noise exposure in urban populations.
Dr. Gershon recently completed a four-year, longitudinal intervention NIH-funded study on motivation and persistence in pursuing STEM research careers among underrepresented doctoral students. (the BRIDGE Project).
As a committed advocate for junior faculty and graduate students, Dr. Gershon will play an active role in research mentorship and advisement.
BS, Medical Technology, Quinnipiac University, Hamden, CTMHS, Medical Microbiology, Quinnipiac University, Hamden, CTDrPH, Environmental and Occupational Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
Recipient, American Society of Safety Engineers, Membership Award, Oakland, CA (2016)Recipient, John L. Ziegler Capstone Mentor Award, Global Health Sciences, University of California San Francisco (2015)Recipient, City of New York Fire Commissioner's Special Commendation Certificate of Appreciation (2006)Recipient, Survivors' Salute, World Trade Center Survivors' Network (2006)Recipient, Annual International Sharps Injury Prevention Award (2005)Delta Omega (Public Health) Honorary Society (1997)Phi Theta Kappa Honor Society (Microbiology) (1976)Lambda Tau Mu Honor Society (Laboratory Science) (1976)
Disaster HealthDisaster Impact and RecoveryDisaster PreparednessEnvironmental Public Health ServicesHealthcare SafetyOccupational HealthRisk Assessment and Management
Adherence to Emergency Public Health Measures for Bioevents: Review of US StudiesGershon, R. R., Zhi, Q., Chin, A. F., Nwankwo, E. M., & Gargano, L. M.
Journal titleDisaster medicine and public health preparedness
Page(s)1-8The frequency of bioevents is increasing worldwide. In the United States, as elsewhere, control of contagion may require the cooperation of community members with emergency public health measures. The US general public is largely unfamiliar with these measures, and our understanding of factors that influence behaviors in this context is limited. The few previous reviews of research on this topic focused on non-US samples. For this review, we examined published research on the psychosocial influences of adherence in US sample populations. Of 153 articles identified, only 9 met the inclusion criteria. Adherence behaviors were categorized into 2 groups: self-protective behaviors (personal hygiene, social distancing, face mask use, seeking out health care advice, and vaccination) and protecting others (isolation, temperature screening, and quarantine). A lack of uniformity across studies regarding definitions and measures was noted. Only 5 of the 9 articles reported tests of association between adherence with emergency measures and psychosocial factors; perceived risk and perceived seriousness were found to be significantly associated with adherence or adherence intentions. Although it is well documented that psychosocial factors are important predictors of protective health behaviors in general, this has not been rigorously studied in the context of bioevents. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 8)
Protective factors, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and World Trade Center evacueesHosakote, S., Nwankwo, E. M., Zhi, Q., & Gershon, R.
Journal titleJournal of Emergency Management
Adherence to emergency public heath measures for bio events: review of US studiesGershon, R., Zhi, Q., Chin, A. F., Nwankwo, E. M., & Gargano, L. M.
Journal titleDisaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Emergency Preparedness Safety Climate and Other Factors Associated with Mental Health Outcomes among World Trade Center Disaster EvacueesSherman, M. F., Gershon, R. R., Riley, H. E., Zhi, Q., Magda, L. A., & Peyrot, M.
Journal titleDisaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Page(s)326-336Objective We examined psychological outcomes in a sample of participants who evacuated from the World Trade Center towers on September 11, 2011. This study aimed to identify risk factors for psychological injury that might be amenable to change, thereby reducing adverse impacts associated with emergency high-rise evacuation. Methods We used data from a cross-sectional survey conducted 2 years after the attacks to classify 789 evacuees into 3 self-reported psychological outcome categories: long-term psychological disorder diagnosed by a physician, short-term psychological disorder and/or memory problems, and no known psychological disorder. Results After nonmodifiable risk factors were controlled for, diagnosed psychological disorder was more likely for evacuees who reported lower emergency preparedness safety climate scores, more evacuation challenges (during exit from the towers), and evacuation-related physical injuries. Other variables associated with increased risk of psychological disorder outcome included gender (female), lower levels of education, preexisting physical disability, preexisting psychological disorder, greater distance to final exit, and more information sources during egress. Conclusions Improving the emergency preparedness safety climate of high-rise business occupancies and reducing the number of egress challenges are potential strategies for reducing the risk of adverse psychological outcomes of high-rise evacuations. Focused safety training for individuals with physical disabilities is also warranted.
Enabling a Disaster-Resilient Workforce: Attending to Individual Stress and Collective TraumaRaveis, V. H., VanDevanter, N., Kovner, C. T., & Gershon, R.
Journal titleJournal of Nursing Scholarship
Page(s)653-660Purpose: Superstorm Sandy forced the evacuation and extended shutdown of New York University Langone Medical Center. This investigation explored how nurses were impacted by the disasters and how they can best be supported in their nursing responsibilities. Design: Sequential mixed methods were used to explore the psychosocial issues nurses experienced throughout the course of this natural disaster and its lingering aftermath. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted from April to June 2013 with a subsample of nurses who participated in the evacuation deployment (n = 16). An anonymous, Internet-based cross-sectional survey sent to all registered nurses employed at the hospital at the time of the storm explored storm impact and recovery. Between July and September 2013, 528 surveys were completed. Findings: The qualitative data revealed challenges in balancing professional obligations and personal concerns. Accounts described dealing in the immediate recovery period with unexpected job changes and resultant work uncertainty. The storm's lingering aftermath did not signify restoration of their predisaster lifestyle for some, but necessitated coping with this massive storm's long-lasting impact on their personal lives and communal loss. Conclusions: Nurses working under the rapidly changing, uncontrolled, and potentially dangerous circumstances of a weather-related disaster are also experiencing concerns about their families’ welfare and worries about personal loss. These multiple issues increase the psychosocial toll on nurses during a disaster response and impending recovery. Clinical Relevance: Awareness of concerns and competing demands nurses experience in a disaster and aftermath can inform education and services to enable nurses to perform their critical functions while minimizing risk to patients and themselves.
Health care emergency preparedness: changes on the horizonGershon, R., & Zhi, Q.
Journal titleJournal of the Association of Occupational Health Professionals in Healthcare
Mass-Fatality Incident Preparedness Among Faith-Based OrganizationsZhi, Q., Merrill, J. A., & Gershon, R. R.
Journal titlePrehospital and Disaster Medicine
Page(s)1-8Introduction: Members of faith-based organizations (FBOs) are in a unique position to provide support and services to their local communities during disasters. Because of their close community ties and well-established trust, they can play an especially critical role in helping communities heal in the aftermath of a mass-fatality incident (MFI). Faith-based organizations are considered an important disaster resource and partner under the National Response Plan (NRP) and National Response Framework; however, their level of preparedness and response capabilities with respect to MFIs has never been evaluated. The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to develop appropriate measures of preparedness for this sector; (2) to assess MFI preparedness among United States FBOs; and (3) to identify key factors associated with MFI preparedness. Problem: New metrics for MFI preparedness, comprised of three domains (organizational capabilities, operational capabilities, and resource sharing partnerships), were developed and tested in a national convenience sample of FBO members. Methods: Data were collected using an online anonymous survey that was distributed through two major, national faith-based associations and social media during a 6-week period in 2014. Descriptive, bivariate, and correlational analyses were conducted. Results: One hundred twenty-four respondents completed the online survey. More than one-half of the FBOs had responded to MFIs in the previous five years. Only 20% of respondents thought that roughly three-quarters of FBO clergy would be able to respond to MFIs, with or without hazardous contamination. A higher proportion (45%) thought that most FBO clergy would be willing to respond, but only 37% thought they would be willing if hazardous contamination was involved. Almost all respondents reported that their FBO was capable of providing emotional care and grief counseling in response to MFIs. Resource sharing partnerships were typically in place with other voluntary organizations (73%) and less likely with local death care sector organizations (27%) or Departments of Health (DOHs; 32%). Conclusions: The study suggests improvements are needed in terms of staff training in general, and specifically, drills with planning partners are needed. Greater cooperation and inclusion of FBOs in national planning and training will likely benefit overall MFI preparedness in the US. Zhi Q , Merrill JA , Gershon RR . Mass-fatality incident preparedness among faith-based organizations. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):1–8.
Psychosocial Influences on Disaster Preparedness in San Francisco Recipients of Home CareGershon, R. R., Portacolone, E., Nwankwo, E. M., Zhi, Q., Qureshi, K. A., & Raveis, V. H.
Journal titleJournal of Urban Health
Page(s)606-618Disasters disproportionately impact certain segments of the population, including children, pregnant women, people living with disabilities and chronic conditions and those who are underserved and under-resourced. One of the most vulnerable groups includes the community-dwelling elderly. Post-disaster analyses indicate that these individuals have higher risk of disaster-related morbidity and mortality. They also have suboptimal levels of disaster preparedness in terms of their ability to shelter-in-place or evacuate to a shelter. The reasons for this have not been well characterized, although impaired health, financial limitations, and social isolation are believed to act as barriers to preparedness as well as to adaptability to changes in the environment both during and in the immediate aftermath of disasters. In order to identify strategies that address barriers to preparedness, we recently conducted a qualitative study of 50 elderly home care recipients living in San Francisco. Data were collected during in-home, in-person interviews using a semi-structured interview guide that included psychosocial constructs based on the social cognitive preparedness model and a new 13-item preparedness checklist. The mean preparedness score was 4.74 (max 13, range 1–11, SD. 2.11). Over 60 % of the participants reported that they had not made back-up plans for caregiver assistance during times of crisis, 74 % had not made plans for transportation to a shelter, 56 % lacked a back-up plan for electrical equipment in case of power outages, and 44 % had not prepared an emergency contacts list—the most basic element of preparedness. Impairments, disabilities, and resource limitations served as barriers to preparedness. Cognitive processes that underlie motivation and intentions for preparedness behaviors were lacking. There were limitations with respect to critical awareness of hazards (saliency), self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and perceived responsibility. There was also a lack of trust in response agencies and authorities and a limited sense of community. Participants wanted to be prepared and welcomed training, but physical limitations kept many of them home bound. Training of home care aides, the provision of needed resources, and improved community outreach may be helpful in improving disaster outcomes in this vulnerable segment of the population.
Resilience to post-traumatic stress among World Trade Center survivors: A mixed-methods studyGargano, L. M., Hosakote, S., Zhi, Q., Qureshi, K. A., & Gershon, R. R.
Journal titleJournal of Emergency Management
Page(s)275-284The purpose of this study was to identify individual characteristics, behaviors, and psychosocial factors associated with symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among World Trade Center (WTC) disaster evacuation survivors. The study utilized a mixed-method design. In-depth interviews were conducted using a prepared script. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD checklist-civilian (PCL-C; a score ≥ 50 indicates probable PTSD). Thematic analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with PTSD. A purposive sample of 29 WTC evacuees was recruited using a multimodal recruitment strategy. Eligibility included: history of evacuation from the WTC (Tower 1 and/or Tower 2) on September 11, 2001, and decisional capacity for informed consent. Five participants had PCL-C scores ≥ 50. Thematic analysis identified resiliency factors (protective for PTSD), including leadership, taking action based on “gut” feelings (to evacuate), social support (staying in a group), going on “automatic survival” mode, and previous training on emergency response. Risk factors for PTSD included lack of emergency response training, lack of sense of urgency, poor physical condition, lack of communication skills, lack of direction, peri-event physical injury, peri-event traumatic exposure (horror), and moral injury (guilt and remorse). Several modifiable factors that may confer resilience were identified. In particular, the role of emergency response training in preventing disaster-related mental illness should be explored as a possible strategy for enhancing resilience to disaster events.
Experiences and psychological impact of deployment for West Africa Ebola among U.S. volunteer health care workersGershon, R., Dernehl, L. A., Nwankwo, E. M., Zhi, Q., & Qureshi, K. A.
Journal titlePLoS Currents
Impact of heath information technology on the quality of patient careHessels, A., Flynn, L., Cimiotti, J. P., Bakken, S., & Gershon, R.
Journal titleOnline Journal of Nursing Informatics
Issue3Objective To examine the relationships among Electronic Health Record (EHR) adoption and adverse outcomes and satisfaction in hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods This secondary analysis of cross-sectional data was compiled from four sources: (1) State Inpatient Database from the Healthcare Cost Utilization Project; (2) Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society (HIMSS) Dorenfest Institute; (3) Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Survey (HCAHPS) and (4) New Jersey nurse survey data. The final analytic sample consisted of data on 854,258 adult patients discharged from 70 New Jersey hospitals in 2006 and 7,679 nurses working in those same hospitals. The analytic approach used ordinary least squares and multiple regression models to estimate the effects of EHR adoption stage on the delivery of nursing care and patient outcomes, controlling for characteristics of patients, nurses, and hospitals. Results Advanced EHR adoption was independently associated with fewer patients with prolonged length of stay and seven-day readmissions. Advanced EHR adoption was not associated with patient satisfaction even when controlling for the strong relationships between better nursing practice environments, particularly staffing and resource adequacy, and missed nursing care and more patients reporting "Top-Box," satisfaction ratings. Conclusions This innovative study demonstrated that advanced stages of EHR adoption show some promise in improving important patient outcomes of prolonged length of stay and hospital readmissions. Strongly evident by the relationships among better nursing work environments, better quality nursing care, and patient satisfaction is the importance of supporting the fundamentals of quality nursing care as technology is integrated into practice.
Quality of graduate school life: do perceptions differ among majority/minority students?Gershon, R., Gregory, L., Nwankwo, E. M., Zhi, Q., Ozer, E., & Estrada, M.
Journal titleJournal of cultural diversity
Quality of life of persons injured on 9/11: Qualitative analysis from the world trade center health registryGaragano, L. M., Gershon, R. R., & Brackbill, R.
Journal titlePLoS Currents
Volume8Introduction: A number of studies published by the World Trade Center Health Registry (Registry) document the prevalence of injuries sustained by victims of the World Trade Center Disaster (WTCD) on 9/11. Injury occurrence during or in the immediate aftermath of this event has been shown to be a risk factor for long-term adverse physical and mental health status. More recent reports of ongoing physical health and mental health problems and overall poor quality of life among survivors led us to undertake this qualitative study to explore the long-term impact of having both disaster-related injuries and peri-event traumatic exposure on quality of life in disaster survivors.Methods: Semi-structured, in-depth individual telephone interviews were conducted with 33 Registry enrollees who reported being injured on 9/11/01. Topics included: extent and circumstance of the injury(ies), description of medical treatment for injury, current health and functional status, and lifestyle changes resulting from the WTCD. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and inductively open-coded for thematic analysis. Results: Six themes emerged with respect to long term recovery and quality of life: concurrent experience of injury with exposure to peri-event traumatic exposure (e.g., witnessing death or destruction, perceived life threat, etc.); sub-optimal quality and timeliness of short- and long-term medical care for the injury reported and mental health care; poor ongoing health status, functional limitations, and disabilities; adverse impact on lifestyle; lack of social support; and adverse economic impact. Many study participants, especially those reporting more serious injuries, also reported self-imposed social isolation, an inability to participate in or take enjoyment from previously enjoyable leisure and social activities and greatly diminished overall quality of life. Discussion: This study provided unique insight into the long-term impact of disasters on survivors. Long after physical injuries have healed, some injured disaster survivors report having serious health and mental health problems, economic problems due to loss of livelihood, limited sources of social support, and profound social isolation. Strategies for addressing the long-term health problems of disaster survivors are needed in order to support recovery.
Are We Ready for Mass Fatality Incidents? Preparedness of the US Mass Fatality InfrastructureMerrill, J. A., Orr, M., Chen, D. Y., Zhi, Q., & Gershon, R. R.
Journal titleDisaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Page(s)87-97Objective To assess the preparedness of the US mass fatality infrastructure, we developed and tested metrics for 3 components of preparedness: organizational, operational, and resource sharing networks. Methods In 2014, data were collected from 5 response sectors: medical examiners and coroners, the death care industry, health departments, faith-based organizations, and offices of emergency management. Scores were calculated within and across sectors and a weighted score was developed for the infrastructure. Results A total of 879 respondents reported highly variable organizational capabilities: 15% had responded to a mass fatality incident (MFI); 42% reported staff trained for an MFI, but only 27% for an MFI involving hazardous contaminants. Respondents estimated that 75% of their staff would be willing and able to respond, but only 53% if contaminants were involved. Most perceived their organization as somewhat prepared, but 13% indicated not at all. Operational capability scores ranged from 33% (death care industry) to 77% (offices of emergency management). Network capability analysis found that only 42% of possible reciprocal relationships between resource-sharing partners were present. The cross-sector composite score was 51%; that is, half the key capabilities for preparedness were in place. Conclusions The sectors in the US mass fatality infrastructure report suboptimal capability to respond. National leadership is needed to ensure sector-specific and infrastructure-wide preparedness for a large-scale MFI.
Coping Behavior and Risk of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder among Federal Disaster RespondersLoo, G. T., Dimaggio, C. J., Gershon, R. R., Canton, D. B., Morse, S. S., & Galea, S.
Journal titleDisaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Page(s)108-117Background Our knowledge about the impact of coping behavior styles in people exposed to stressful disaster events is limited. Effective coping behavior has been shown to be a psychosocial stress modifier in both occupational and nonoccupational settings. Methods Data were collected by using a web-based survey that administered the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian, General Coping Questionnaire-30, and a supplementary questionnaire assessing various risk factors. Logistic regression models were used to test for the association of the 3 coping styles with probable PTSD following disaster exposure among federal disaster responders. Results In this sample of 549 study subjects, avoidant coping behavior was most associated with probable PTSD. In tested regression models, the odds ratios ranged from 1.19 to 1.26 and 95% confidence intervals ranged from 1.08 to 1.35. With control for various predictors, emotion-based coping behavior was also found to be associated with probable PTSD (odds ratio=1.11; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.22). Conclusion This study found that in disaster responders exposed to traumatic disaster events, the likelihood of probable PTSD can be influenced by individual coping behavior style and other covariates. The continued probability of disasters underscores the critical importance of these findings both in terms of guiding mental health practitioners in treating exposed disaster responders and in stimulating future research.
Musculoskeletal Symptoms in Nurses in the Early Implementation Phase of California's Safe Patient Handling LegislationLee, S. J., Lee, J. H., & Gershon, R. R.
Journal titleResearch in Nursing and Health
Page(s)183-193Musculoskeletal injuries and symptoms are prevalent in nurses and are largely associated with strenuous patient handling. In 2011, California enacted legislation that required acute-care hospitals to implement safe patient handling (SPH) policies and programs. To assess the early phase of this legislation, we conducted an epidemiological assessment of organizational SPH practices, musculoskeletal symptoms, and perceptions in a random sample of 396 registered nurses. Among those who worked in hospitals and had patient handling duties (n=220), the 12 month prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal symptoms was 69% (lower back 54%, neck 41%, shoulders 34%, and hands/wrists 26%). Twenty-two percent of the nurses reported that their hospitals had a "no-lift" policy, 37% reported that their hospitals had lift teams, and 61% reported the availability of mechanical lift equipment such as floor or ceiling lifts. Nurses whose facilities employed lift teams were significantly less likely to report low back pain (OR=0.54, 95% CI [0.30-0.97]). Nurses whose units had ceiling lifts were significantly less likely to report shoulder pain than nurses with no access to lifts (OR=0.32, 95% CI [0.10-0.98]). Roughly 60% of respondents were aware of the SPH law, and 33% reported changes in their hospital's patient handling policies or programs since the law went into effect. Hospital SPH practices reported by the nurses in our sample were generally sub-optimal, but our findings suggest positive effects of elements required by SPH legislation. These data will serve as the baseline for future evaluation of the impact of this law in California.
Street-level noise in an urban setting: Assessment and contribution to personal exposureMcAlexander, T. P., Gershon, R. R., & Neitzel, R. L.
Journal titleEnvironmental Health: A Global Access Science Source
Issue1Background: The urban soundscape, which represents the totality of noise in the urban setting, is formed from a wide range of sources. One of the most ubiquitous and least studied of these is street-level (i.e., sidewalk) noise. Mainly associated with vehicular traffic, street level noise is hard to ignore and hard to escape. It is also potentially dangerous, as excessive noise from any source is an important risk factor for adverse health effects. This study was conducted to better characterize the urban soundscape and the role of street level noise on overall personal noise exposure in an urban setting. Methods: Street-level noise measures were obtained at 99 street sites located throughout New York City (NYC), along with data on time, location, and sources of environmental noise. The relationship between street-level noise measures and potential predictors of noise was analyzed using linear and logistic regression models, and geospatial modeling was used to evaluate spatial trends in noise. Daily durations of street-level activities (time spent standing, sitting, walking and running on streets) were estimated via survey from a sample of NYC community members recruited at NYC street fairs. Street-level noise measurements were then combined with daily exposure durations for each member of the sample to estimate exposure to street noise, as well as exposure to other sources of noise. Results: The mean street noise level was 73.4 dBA, with substantial spatial variation (range 55.8-95.0 dBA). Density of vehicular (road) traffic was significantly associated with excessive street level noise levels. Exposure duration data for street-level noise and other common sources of noise were collected from 1894 NYC community members. Based on individual street-level exposure estimates, and in consideration of all other sources of noise exposure in an urban population, we estimated that street noise exposure contributes approximately 4% to an average individual's annual noise dose. Conclusions: Street-level noise exposure is a potentially important source of overall noise exposure, and the reduction of environmental sources of excessive street- level noise should be a priority for public health and urban planning.
Mass fatality preparedness among medical examiners/coroners in the United States: A cross-sectional studyGershon, R. R., Orr, M. G., Zhi, Q., Merrill, J. A., Chen, D. Y., Riley, H. E., & Sherman, M. F.
Journal titleBMC Public Health
Issue1Background: In the United States (US), Medical Examiners and Coroners (ME/Cs) have the legal authority for the management of mass fatality incidents (MFI). Yet, preparedness and operational capabilities in this sector remain largely unknown. The purpose of this study was twofold; first, to identify appropriate measures of preparedness, and second, to assess preparedness levels and factors significantly associated with preparedness. Methods: Three separate checklists were developed to measure different aspects of preparedness: MFI Plan Elements, Operational Capabilities, and Pre-existing Resource Networks. Using a cross-sectional study design, data on these and other variables of interest were collected in 2014 from a national convenience sample of ME/C using an internet-based, anonymous survey. Preparedness levels were determined and compared across Federal Regions and in relation to the number of Presidential Disaster Declarations, also by Federal Region. Bivariate logistic and multivariable models estimated the associations between organizational characteristics and relative preparedness. Results: A large proportion (42%) of respondents reported that less than 25 additional fatalities over a 48-hour period would exceed their response capacities. The preparedness constructs measured three related, yet distinct, aspects of preparedness, with scores highly variable and generally suboptimal. Median scores for the three preparedness measures also varied across Federal Regions and as compared to the number of Presidential Declared Disasters, also by Federal Region. Capacity was especially limited for activating missing persons call centers, launching public communications, especially via social media, and identifying temporary interment sites. The provision of staff training was the only factor studied that was significantly (positively) associated (p < .05) with all three preparedness measures. Although ME/Cs ranked local partners, such as Offices of Emergency Management, first responders, and funeral homes, as the most important sources of assistance, a sizeable proportion (72%) expected federal assistance. Conclusions: The three measures of MFI preparedness allowed for a broad and comprehensive assessment of preparedness. In the future, these measures can serve as useful benchmarks or criteria for assessing ME/Cs preparedness. The study findings suggest multiple opportunities for improvement, including the development and implementation of national strategies to ensure uniform standards for MFI management across all jurisdictions.
Emergency preparedness in a sample of persons with disabilities.Gershon, R. R., Kraus, L. E., Raveis, V. H., Sherman, M. F., & Kailes, J. I.
Journal titleAmerican journal of disaster medicine
Page(s)35-47The objective of this study was to characterize emergency preparedness in this vulnerable population, and to ascertain the role of the personal assistant (PA) and the potential impact of prior emergency experience on preparedness efforts. Cross-sectional Internet-based survey conducted in 2011. Convenience sample. Two-hundred fifty-three community residents with cognitive and /or physical disabilities, all receiving personal assistance services. Emergency preparedness, operationalized as responses to a seven-item scale. The mean score for the emergency preparedness scale was 2.32 (SD = 2.74), range 0-7. Even though 62.8 percent (n = 159) of the participants had previously experienced one or more large-scale emergencies, only 47.4 percent (n = 120) of the entire sample and 55.3 percent (n = 88) of those with actual emergency experience reported preparing an emergency plan. Sixty-three percent (n = 76) of those reporting a plan had involved their PA in its development. Participants who reported such involvement were significantly more likely to have higher scores on the emergency preparedness scale (p < 0.001). Participants who had experienced a prior emergency were also more likely to score higher on the emergency preparedness scale (p < 0.001). In general, participants reported limited attention to other basic preparedness recommendations: only 28 percent (n = 70) had prepared a "go-bag" with necessary supplies, 29 percent (n = 74) had developed a strategy for communicating with their PA during emergencies, and 32 percent (n = 81) had stockpiled emergency supplies. Of particular importance, only 26 percent (n = 66) had made alternative back-up plans for personal assistance. Involving the PA in the planning process and experiencing an emergency were both significantly associated with higher emergency preparedness scores in this sample of people living with disabilities. However, critical deficiencies in preparedness were noted, such as lack of back-up plans for replacing their PA. Despite a concerted national effort to improve preparedness in the population of people living with disabilities, important preparedness gaps remain. These findings highlight the need for additional study on emergency preparedness barriers in people living with disabilities so that effective strategies to reduce vulnerabilities can be identified.
Estimation of permanent noise-induced hearing loss in an urban settingLewis, R. C., Gershon, R. R., & Neitzel, R. L.
Journal titleEnvironmental Science and Technology
Page(s)6393-6399The potential burden of noise-induced permanent threshold shift (NIPTS) in U.S. urban settings is not well-characterized. We used ANSI S3.44-1996 to estimate NIPTS for a sample of 4585 individuals from New York City (NYC) and performed a forward stepwise logistic regression analysis to identify predictors of NIPTS >10 dB. The average individual is projected to develop a small NIPTS when averaged across 1000-4000 Hz for 1-to 20-year durations. For some individuals, NIPTS is expected to be substantial (>25 dB). At 4000 Hz, a greater number of individuals are at risk of NIPTS from MP3 players and stereos, but risk for the greatest NIPTS is for those with high occupational and episodic nonoccupational (e.g., power tool use) exposures. Employment sector and time spent listening to MP3 players and stereos and participating in episodic nonoccupational activities associated with excessive noise levels increased the odds of NIPTS >10 dB at 4000 Hz for 20-year durations. Our results indicate that the risk of NIPTS may be substantial for NYC and perhaps other urban settings. Noise exposures from "noisy" occupational and episodic nonoccupational activities and MP3 players and stereos are important risk factors and should be a priority for public health interventions.
Factors related to essential workers' ability and willingness to work and comply with personal infection control protocol during a large scale influenza pandemic in HawaiiQureshi, K. A., Gershon, R., Li, D., & Yamada, S.
Journal titleJournal of Emergency & Disaster Medicine
Mass transit ridership and self-reported hearing health in an urban populationGershon, R. R., Sherman, M. F., Magda, L. A., Riley, H. E., McAlexander, T. P., & Neitzel, R.
Journal titleJournal of Urban Health
Page(s)262-275Information on prevalence and risk factors associated with self-reported hearing health among mass transit riders is extremely limited, even though evidence suggests mass transit may be a source of excessive exposure to noise. Data on mass transit ridership were collected from 756 study participants using a self-administered questionnaire. Hearing health was measured using two symptom items (tinnitus and temporary audiometric threshold shift), two subjective measures (self-rated hearing and hearing ability), and two medical-related questions (hearing testing and physician-diagnosed hearing loss). In logistic regression analyses that controlled for possible confounders, including demographic variables, occupational noise exposure, nonoccupational noise exposure (including MP3 player use) and use of hearing protection, frequent and lengthy mass transit (all forms) ridership (1,100 min or more per week vs. 350 min or less per week) was the strongest predictor of temporary threshold shift symptoms. Noise abatement strategies, such as engineering controls, and the promotion of hearing protection use should be encouraged to reduce the risk of adverse impacts on the hearing health of mass transit users.
Prevalence and factors associated with 2009 to 2011 influenza vaccinations at a university medical centerCrowley, K. A., Myers, R., Magda, L. A., Morse, S. S., Brandt-Rauf, P., & Gershon, R. R.
Journal titleAmerican Journal of Infection Control
Page(s)824-830Background: Information on the rates and factors associated with influenza vaccinations, although limited, is important because it can inform the development of effective vaccination campaigns in a university medical center setting. Methods: A study was conducted in 2011 to identify individual and organizational level barriers and facilitators to influenza vaccination among clinical and nonclinical personnel (N = 428) from a major university medical center. Results: Seventy-one percent of clinical personnel (n = 170) reported pandemic H1N1 vaccination compared with 27% of nonclinical personnel (n = 258), even though vaccine was made widely available to all personnel at no cost. Similarly, disparate rates between clinical and nonclinical personnel were noted for the 2009/2010 seasonal influenza vaccine (82% vs 42%, respectively) and 2010/2011 combination (pandemic plus seasonal) influenza vaccine (73% vs 28%, respectively). Factors associated with pandemic vaccination in nonclinical personnel included the following: high level of influenza-related knowledge, concern regarding influenza contagion, history of previous influenza vaccinations or influenza illness, participation in vaccine-related training, and awareness of the institution's written pandemic plan. For clinicians, past history of seasonal influenza vaccination was associated with pandemic vaccination. For all participants, taking any 1 or more of the 3 influenza vaccines available in 2009 to 2011 was associated with intent to take a hypothetical future novel pandemic vaccine (odds ratio, 6.7; 95% confidence interval: 4.32-10.44; P <.001). Conclusion: Most of the risk factors associated with lack of vaccination uptake are amenable to organizational strategies.
Using participatory action research to identify strategies to improve pandemic vaccination.Crowley, K. A., Myers, R., Riley, H. E., Morse, S. S., Brandt-Rauf, P., & Gershon, R. R.
Journal titleDisaster medicine and public health preparedness
Page(s)424-430Developing and implementing effective strategies to increase influenza vaccination rates among health care personnel is an ongoing challenge, especially during a pandemic. We used participatory action research (PAR) methodology to identify targeted vaccination interventions that could potentially improve vaccine uptake in a medical center. Front-line medical center personnel were recruited to participate in 2 PAR teams (clinical and nonclinical staff). Data from a recent medical center survey on barriers and facilitators to influenza (seasonal, pandemic, and combination) vaccine uptake were reviewed, and strategies to increase vaccination rates among medical center personnel were identified. Feasible, creative, and low-cost interventions were identified, including organizational strategies that differed from investigator-identified interventions. The recommended strategies also differed by team. The nonclinical team suggested programs focused on dispelling vaccination-related myths, and the clinical team suggested campaigns emphasizing the importance of vaccination to protect patients. PAR methodology was useful to identify innovative and targeted recommendations for increasing vaccine uptake. By involving representative front-line workers, PAR may help medical centers improve influenza vaccination rates across all work groups.
Exposures to transit and other sources of noise among New York City residentsNeitzel, R. L., Gershon, R. R., McAlexander, T. P., Magda, L. A., & Pearson, J. M.
Journal titleEnvironmental Science and Technology
Page(s)500-508To evaluate the contributions of common noise sources to total annual noise exposures among urban residents and workers, we estimated exposures associated with five common sources (use of mass transit, occupational and nonoccupational activities, MP3 player and stereo use, and time at home and doing other miscellaneous activities) among a sample of over 4500 individuals in New York City (NYC). We then evaluated the contributions of each source to total noise exposure and also compared our estimated exposures to the recommended 70 dBA annual exposure limit. We found that one in ten transit users had noise exposures in excess of the recommended exposure limit from their transit use alone. When we estimated total annual exposures, 90% of NYC transit users and 87% of nonusers exceeded the recommended limit. MP3 player and stereo use, which represented a small fraction of the total annual hours for each subject on average, was the primary source of exposure among the majority of urban dwellers we evaluated. Our results suggest that the vast majority of urban mass transit riders may be at risk of permanent, irreversible noise-induced hearing loss and that, for many individuals, this risk is driven primarily by exposures other than occupational noise.