Andrea L Deierlein
Assistant Professor of Public Health Nutrition
Dr. Andrea Deierlein is a nutritional and reproductive epidemiologist who studies dietary and environmental determinant of obesity and metabolic health-related outcomes. Her previous work focused on predictors and outcomes of gestational weight gain including maternal obesity, postpartum weight retention, and gestational diabetes.
With the support of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, she is expanding her research to investigate associations of prenatal and postnatal nutritional and environmental chemical exposures with disease outcomes.
Dr. Deierlein teaches Epidemiology for Global Health and Nutrition and Metabolism.
BS, Animal Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NYMS, Health Nutrition, Columbia University, New York, NYMPH, Epidemiology, Columbia University, New York, NYPhD, Nutrition Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC
Travel Scholarship, Be Our Voice Childhood Obesity Prevention Advocacy Training, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (2013)New York Academy of Sciences Education Fellowship (2012)Postdoctoral Fellowship in Pediatric Environmental Health, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (2010)Travel Scholarship, Researching Women’s Environmental Health: Food, Nutrition, and Obesity, University of Rochester Medical Center (2010)Travel Scholarship, Childhood Obesity Symposium, University of Southern California (2010)
Environmental Public Health ServicesEpidemiologyMaternal and Child HealthNutritionWomen's Health
Dietary Quality and Sociodemographic and Health Behavior Characteristics Among Pregnant Women Participating in the New York University Children's Health and Environment StudyDeierlein, A. L., Ghassabian, A., Kahn, L. G., Afanasyeva, Y., Mehta-Lee, S. S., Brubaker, S. G., & Trasande, L.
Journal titleFrontiers in Nutrition
Volume8AbstractMaternal diet, prior to and during pregnancy, plays an important role in the immediate and long-term health of the mother and her offspring. Our objectives were to assess diet quality among a large, diverse, urban cohort of pregnant women, and examine associations with sociodemographic and health behavior characteristics. Data were from 1,325 pregnant women enrolled in New York University Children's Health and Environment Study (NYU CHES). Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2015. Mean total HEI-2015 score was 74.9 (SD = 8.5); 376 (28%), 612 (46%), 263 (20%), and 74 (6%) of women had scores that fell into the grade range of A/B, C, D, and F, respectively. Mean HEI-2015 component scores were high for fruit and whole grains and low for protein-related, sodium, and fat-related components. In multivariable linear regression models, Hispanic women scored 1.65 points higher on the total HEI-2015 (95% CI: 0.21, 3.10) compared to non-Hispanic White women, while younger age (<30 years), parity, single status, pre-pregnancy obesity, smoking, pre-existing hypertension, moderate/severe depressive symptoms, not meeting physical activity recommendations, and not taking a vitamin before pregnancy were associated with ~1.5–5-point lower mean total HEI-2015 scores. Diet is a modifiable behavior; our results suggest a continued need for pre-conceptional and prenatal nutritional counseling.
Prenatal maternal phthalate exposures and child lipid and adipokine levels at age six: A study from the PROGRESS cohort of Mexico CityKupsco, A., Wu, H., Calafat, A. M., Kioumourtzoglou, M. A., Tamayo-Ortiz, M., Pantic, I., Cantoral, A., Tolentino, M., Oken, E., Braun, J. M., Deierlein, A. L., Wright, R. O., Téllez-Rojo, M. M., Baccarelli, A. A., & Just, A. C.
Journal titleEnvironmental Research
Volume192AbstractBackground: Prenatal phthalate exposures may affect processes that underlie offspring cardiometabolic health, but findings from studies examining these associations are conflicting. We examined associations between biomarkers of phthalate exposures during pregnancy with child lipid and adipokine levels. Methods: Data were from 463 mother-child pairs in the PROGRESS cohort of Mexico City. We quantified 15 phthalate metabolites in 2nd and 3rd trimester maternal urine samples and created an average pregnancy measure using the geometric mean. We evaluated the 15 metabolites as nine biomarkers, including four metabolite molar sums. We measured fasting serum triglycerides, non-HDL cholesterol, leptin, and adiponectin in children at the six-year follow-up visit (mean = 6.8 years). We estimated associations using linear regression, Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR), and weighted quantile sum (WQS) and assessed effect modification by sex. Results: In BKMR and WQS models, higher concentrations of the total mixture of phthalate biomarkers were associated with lower triglycerides (β = −3.7% [-6.5, −0.78] per 1 unit increase in WQS biomarker index) and non-HDL cholesterol (β = −2.0 [-3.7, −0.25] ng/ml per increase in WQS biomarker index). Associations between individual biomarkers and child outcomes were largely null. We observed some evidence of effect modification by child sex for mono-3-carboxypropyl phthalate (β = 19.4% [1.26, 40.7] per doubling of phthalate) and monobenzyl phthalate (β = −7.6% [-14.4, -0.23]) in girls for adiponectin. Conclusions: Individual prenatal phthalate biomarkers were not associated with child lipid or adipokine levels. Contrary to our hypothesis, the total phthalate mixture was associated with lower child triglycerides and non-HDL cholesterol.
Prenatal urinary concentrations of phthalate metabolites and behavioral problems in Mexican children: The Programming Research in Obesity, Growth Environment and Social Stress (PROGRESS) studyColicino, E., De Water, E., Just, A. C., Navarro, E., Pedretti, N. F., McRae, N., Braun, J. M., Schnaas, L., Rodríguez-Carmona, Y., Hernández, C., Tamayo-Ortiz, M., Téllez-Rojo, M. M., Deierlein, A. L., Calafat, A. M., Baccarelli, A., Wright, R. O., & Horton, M. K.
Journal titleEnvironmental Research
Volume201AbstractBackground: Phthalate exposure has been associated with increased childhood behavioral problems. Existing studies failed to include phthalate replacements and did not account for high correlations among phthalates. Phthalates’ exposure is higher in Mexico than in U.S. locations, making it an ideal target population for this study. Aim: To examine associations between 15 maternal prenatal phthalate metabolite concentrations and children's behavioral problems. Methods: We quantified phthalate metabolites in maternal urine samples from maternal-child dyads (n = 514) enrolled in the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth Environment and Social Stress (PROGRESS) birth cohort in Mexico City. We performed least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regressions to identify associations between specific-gravity adjusted log2-transformed phthalate metabolites and parent-reported 4–6 year old behavior on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC-2), accounting for metabolite correlations. We adjusted for socio-demographic and birth-related factors, and examined associations stratified by sex. Results: Higher prenatal mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl terephthalate (MECPTP) urinary concentrations were associated with increased hyperactivity scores in the overall sample (β = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.17, 1.13) and in girls (β = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.16, 1.08), overall behavioral problems in boys (β = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.20, 1.15), and depression scores in boys (β = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.06, 0.88). Higher prenatal monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP) concentrations were associated with reduced hyperactivity scores in girls (ß = −0.54, 95% CI = −1.08, −0.21). Discussion: Our findings suggested that prenatal concentrations of phthalates and their replacements altered child neurodevelopment and those associations may be influenced sex.
The associations of phthalate biomarkers during pregnancy with later glycemia and lipid profilesWu, H., Just, A. C., Colicino, E., Calafat, A. M., Oken, E., Braun, J. M., McRae, N., Cantoral, A., Pantic, I., Pizano-Zárate, M. L., Tolentino, M. C., Wright, R. O., Téllez-Rojo, M. M., Baccarelli, A. A., & Deierlein, A. L.
Journal titleEnvironment international
Volume155AbstractBackground: Pregnancy induces numerous cardiovascular and metabolic changes. Alterations in these sensitive processes may precipitate long-term post-delivery health consequences. Studies have reported associations between phthalates and metabolic complications of pregnancy, but no study has investigated metabolic outcomes beyond pregnancy. Objectives: To examine associations of exposure to phthalates during pregnancy with post-delivery metabolic health. Design: We quantified 15 urinary phthalate biomarker concentrations during the second and third trimesters among 618 pregnant women from Mexico City. Maternal metabolic health biomarkers included fasting blood measures of glycemia [glucose, insulin, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance [HOMA-IR], % hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c%)] and lipids (total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides), at 4–5 and 6–8 years post-delivery. To estimate the influence of the phthalates mixture, we used Bayesian weighted quantile sum regression and Bayesian kernel machine regression; for individual biomarkers, we used linear mixed models. Results: As a mixture, higher urinary phthalate biomarker concentrations during pregnancy were associated with post-delivery concentrations of plasma glucose (interquartile range [IQR] difference: 0.13 SD, 95%CrI: 0.05, 0.20), plasma insulin (IQR difference: 0.06 SD, 95%CrI: −0.02, 0.14), HOMA-IR (IQR difference: 0.08 SD, 95% CrI: 0.01, 0.16), and HbA1c% (IQR difference: 0.15 SD, 95%CrI: 0.05, 0.24). Associations were primarily driven by mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl terephthalate (MECPTP) and the sum of dibutyl phthalate biomarkers (∑DBP). The phthalates mixture was associated with lower HDL (IQR difference: −0.08 SD, 95%CrI: −0.16, −0.01), driven by ∑DBP and monoethyl phthalate (MEP), and higher triglyceride levels (IQR difference: 0.15 SD, 95%CrI: 0.08, 0.22), driven by MECPTP and MEP. The overall mixture was not associated with total cholesterol and LDL. However, ∑DBP and MEP were associated with lower and higher total cholesterol, respectively, and MECPTP and ∑DBP were associated with lower LDL. Conclusions: Phthalate exposure during pregnancy is associated with adverse long-term changes in maternal metabolic health. A better understanding of timing of the exact biological changes and their implications on metabolic disease risk is needed.
Trends in food consumption by degree of processing and diet quality over 17 years: Results from the Framingham Offspring StudyJuul, F., Lin, Y., Deierlein, A. L., Vaidean, G., & Parekh, N.
Journal titleBritish Journal of NutritionAbstractUltra-processed foods provide the majority of calories in the American diet, yet little is known regarding consumption trends over time. We determined trends in diet processing level and diet quality from 1991-2008 within the prospective Framingham Offspring Cohort. Dietary intakes were collected by food frequency questionnaires quadrennially 1991-2008 (total of four examinations). The analytical sample included 2,893 adults with valid dietary data for ≥3 examinations (baseline mean age=54y). Based on the NOVA framework, we classified foods as: unprocessed/minimally processed foods; processed culinary ingredients (salt/sugar/fats/oils); processed foods; and ultra-processed foods. We evaluated diet quality using the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adherence Index (DGAI) 2010. Trends in consumption of foods within each processing level (servings/day) and diet quality over the four examinations were evaluated using mixed effects models with subject-specific random intercepts. Analyses were stratified by sex, BMI (<25kg/m2, 25-29.9kg/m2, ≥30kg/m2) and smoking status. Over 17 years of follow-up, ultra-processed food consumption decreased from 7.5 to 6.0 servings/day and minimally processed food consumption decreased from 11.9 to 11.3 servings/day (p-trend<0.001). Changes in intakes of processed foods, culinary ingredients, and culinary preparations were minimal. Trends were similar by sex, BMI, and smoking status. DGAI-2010 score increased from 60.1 to 61.5, p<0.001. The current study uniquely describes trends in diet processing level in an aging U.S. population, highlighting the longstanding presence of ultra-processed foods in the American diet. Given the poor nutritional quality of ultra-processed foods, public health efforts should be designed to limit their consumption.
Ultra-Processed Foods and Incident Cardiovascular Disease in the Framingham Offspring StudyJuul, F., Vaidean, G., Lin, Y., Deierlein, A. L., & Parekh, N.
Journal titleJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Page(s)1520-1531AbstractBackground: Ultra-processed foods provide 58% of total energy in the U.S. diet, yet their association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains understudied. Objectives: The authors investigated the associations between ultra-processed foods and CVD incidence and mortality in the prospective Framingham Offspring Cohort. Methods: The analytical sample included 3,003 adults free from CVD with valid dietary data at baseline. Data on diet, measured by food frequency questionnaire, anthropometric measures, and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were collected quadrennially from 1991 to 2008. Data regarding CVD incidence and mortality were available until 2014 and 2017, respectively. Ultra-processed foods were defined according to the NOVA framework. The authors used Cox proportional hazards models to determine the multivariable association between ultra-processed food intake (energy-adjusted servings per day) and incident hard CVD, hard coronary heart disease (CHD), overall CVD, and CVD mortality. Multivariable models were adjusted for age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity. Results: During follow-up (1991 to 2014/2017), the authors identified 251, 163, and 648 cases of incident hard CVD, hard CHD, and overall CVD, respectively. On average, participants consumed 7.5 servings per day of ultra-processed foods at baseline. Each additional daily serving of ultra-processed foods was associated with a 7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03 to 1.12), 9% (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.15), 5% (95% CI: 1.02 to 1.08), and 9% (95% CI: 1.02 to 1.16) increase in the risk of hard CVD, hard CHD, overall CVD, and CVD mortality, respectively. Conclusions: The current findings support that higher consumption of ultra-processed foods is associated with increased risk of CVD incidence and mortality. Although additional research in ethnically diverse populations is warranted, these findings suggest cardiovascular benefits of limiting ultra-processed foods.
Early-life dietary cadmium exposure and kidney function in 9-year-old children from the progress cohortRodríguez-López, E., Tamayo-Ortiz, M., Ariza, A. C., Ortiz-Panozo, E., Deierlein, A. L., Pantic, I., Tolentino, M. C., Estrada-Gutiérrez, G., Parra-Hernández, S., Espejel-Núñez, A., Téllez-Rojo, M. M., Wright, R. O., & Sanders, A. P.
Page(s)1-11AbstractCadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal associated with adverse health effects, including kidney injury or disease. The aims of this study were to estimate dietary Cd exposure during childhood, and to evaluate the association of early-life dietary Cd with biomarkers of glomerular kidney function in 9-year-old Mexican children. Our study included 601 children from the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors (PROGRESS) cohort with up to five follow-up food frequency questionnaires from 1 to 9 years of age; and 480 children with measures of serum creatinine, cystatin C, and blood nitrogen urea (BUN), as well as 9-year-old estimated glomerular filtration rate. Dietary Cd was estimated through food composition tables. Multiple linear regression models were used to analyze the association between 1 and 9 years, cumulative dietary Cd, and each kidney parameter. Dietary Cd exposure increased with age and exceeded the tolerable weekly intake (TWI = 2.5 g/kg body weight) by 16–64% at all ages. Early-life dietary Cd exposure was above the TWI and we observed inverse associations between dietary Cd exposure and kidney function parameters. Additional studies are needed to assess kidney function trajectories through adolescence. Identifying preventable risk factors including environmental exposures in early life can contribute to decreasing the incidence of adult kidney disease.
Exposures to phthalates and bisphenols in pregnancy and postpartum weight gain in a population-based longitudinal birth cohortPhilips, E. M., Jaddoe, V. W., Deierlein, A., Asimakopoulos, A. G., Kannan, K., Steegers, E. A., & Trasande, L.
Journal titleEnvironment international
Volume144AbstractBackground: Experimental evidence suggests that exposures to phthalates and bisphenols may interfere with processes related to glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and body weight. Few studies have considered the possible influence of chemical exposures during pregnancy on maternal weight gain or metabolic health outcomes postpartum. Objective: To examine the associations of early and mid-pregnancy bisphenol and phthalate urine concentrations with maternal weight gain 6 years postpartum. Methods: We analyzed urine samples for bisphenol, phthalate and creatinine concentrations from early and mid-pregnancy in 1192 women in a large, population-based birth cohort in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and examined postpartum weight gain using maternal anthropometrics before pregnancy and 6 years postpartum. We have used covariate-adjusted linear regressions to evaluate associations of early and mid-pregnancy bisphenols and phthalate metabolites with weight change. Mediator and interaction models have been used to assess the role of gestational weight gain and breastfeeding, respectively. Sensitivity analysis is performed among women without subsequent pregnancies. Results: Among all 1192 mothers included in the analysis, each log unit increase in the average bisphenol A and all assessed phthalate groupings were associated with increased maternal weight gain. As a proxy for phthalate exposure, each log unit increase in averaged phthalic acid was associated with 734 g weight gain (95% CI 273–1196 g) between pre-pregnancy and 6 years postpartum. Mediation by gestational weight gain was not present. Breastfeeding and ethnicity did not modify the effects. Stratification revealed these associations to be strongest among overweight and obese women. Among women without subsequent pregnancies (n = 373) associations of bisphenols, HMW phthalate metabolites and di-2-ethylhexylphthalate metabolites attenuated. For phthalic acid, LMW phthalate metabolites and di-n-octylphthalate metabolites associations increased. Similarly to the whole group, stratification yielded significant results among overweight and obese women. Discussion: In a large population-based birth cohort, early and mid-pregnancy phthalate exposures are associated with weight gain 6 years postpartum, particularly among overweight and obese women. These data support ongoing action to replace phthalates with safer alternatives.
Food assistance programs and income are associated with the diet quality of grocery purchases for households consisting of women of reproductive age or young childrenLitvak, J., Parekh, N., Juul, F., & Deierlein, A.
Journal titlePreventive Medicine
Volume138AbstractWomen's diet quality during reproductive years and children's diet quality during early life influence long term health. Few studies have evaluated the impact of food assistance programs and income on the diet quality of grocery purchases made by households consisting of women of reproductive age and young children. We used data from the Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey 2012–2013 (FoodAPS) to evaluate how household income, Special Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) participation, and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participation are related to the diet quality of grocery purchases made by households that include women of reproductive age or young children (n = 2436). The diet quality of household grocery purchases was assessed with the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2015. HEI-2015 total score (0−100) and component scores were evaluated according to household income (eligible for WIC: income-to-poverty ratio ≤ 185%; ineligible for WIC: income-to-poverty ratio > 185%) and WIC, SNAP, and WIC + SNAP participation. Median HEI-2015 total score was lowest among SNAP households and highest among income ineligible for WIC and WIC households (47.2 and 54.1, respectively). Compared to income ineligible for WIC households, WIC + SNAP and SNAP households had lower HEI-2015 whole fruit (β = −0.30, 95% CI: −0.59, −0.01 and β = −0.41, 95% CI: −0.63, −0.20, respectively) and total vegetable scores (β = −0.58, 95% CI: −0.83, −0.32 and β = −0.27, 95% CI: −0.45, −0.08, respectively). The diet quality of grocery purchases in this population varies according to household income and food assistance participation.
Health behaviours during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: Implications for obesityParekh, N., & Deierlein, A. L.
Journal titlePublic Health Nutrition
Page(s)3121-3125AbstractObjective: Obesity is a risk factor for severe complications and death from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Public health efforts to control the pandemic may alter health behaviors related to weight gain, inflammation, and poor cardiometabolic health, exacerbating the prevalence of obesity, poor immune health, and chronic diseases. Design: We reviewed how the pandemic adversely influences many of these behaviors, specifically physical activity, sedentary behaviors, sleep, and dietary intakes, and provided individual level strategies that may be used to mitigate them. Results: At the community level and higher, public health and health care professionals need to advocate for intervention strategies and policy changes that address these behaviors, such as increasing nutrition assistance programs and creating designated areas for recreation and active transportation, to reduce disparities among vulnerable populations. Conclusions: The long-lasting impact of the pandemic on health behaviors, and the possibility of a second COVID-19 wave, emphasize the need for creative and evolving, multi-level approaches to assist individuals in adapting their health behaviors to prevent both chronic and infectious diseases.
Patterns of weight change one year after delivery are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors at six years postpartum in Mexican womenSoria-Contreras, D. C., Trejo-Valdivia, B., Cantoral, A., Pizano-Zárate, M. L., Baccarelli, A. A., Just, A. C., Colicino, E., Deierlein, A. L., Wright, R. O., Oken, E., Téllez-Rojo, M. M., & López-Ridaura, R.
Issue1AbstractPregnancy is a contributor to the obesity epidemic in women, probably through postpartum weight retention (PPWR), weight gain (PPWG), or a combination of both (PPWR + WG). The contribution of these patterns of postpartum weight change to long-term maternal health remains understudied. In a secondary analysis of 361 women from the prospective cohort PROGRESS, we evaluated the associations between patterns of weight change one year after delivery and cardiometabolic risk factors at six years postpartum. Using principal component analysis, we grouped cardiometabolic risk factors into: (1) body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), triglycerides (TG), and glucose; (2) systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP); and (3) low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol. Using path analysis, we studied direct (patterns of weight change-outcomes) and indirect associations through BMI at six years postpartum. Around 60% of women returned to their pregestational weight (reference) by one year postpartum, 6.6% experienced PPWR, 13.9% PPWG, and 19.9% PPWR + WG. Women with PPWR + WG, vs. the reference, had higher BMI and WC at six years (2.30 kg/m2, 95% CI [1.67, 2.93]; 3.38 cm [1.14, 5.62]). This was also observed in women with PPWR (1.80 kg/m2 [0.80, 2.79]; 3.15 cm [−0.35, 6.65]) and PPWG (1.22 kg/m2 [0.53, 1.92]; 3.32 cm [0.85, 5.78]). PPWR + WG had a direct association with HOMA-IR (0.21 units [0.04, 0.39]). The three patterns of weight change, vs. the reference, had significant indirect associations with HOMA-IR, glucose, TG, HDL-c, SBP, and DBP through BMI at six years. In conclusion, women with PPWR + WG are at high-risk for obesity and insulin resistance. Interventions targeting women during pregnancy and the first year postpartum may have implications for their long-term risk of obesity and cardiovascular disease.
Predictors of gestational weight gain in a low-income hispanic population: Sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and psychosocial stressorsDolin, C. D., Gross, R. S., Deierlein, A. L., Berube, L. T., Katzow, M., Yaghoubian, Y., Brubaker, S. G., & Messito, M. J.
Journal titleInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue1AbstractHispanic women have a higher prevalence of weight associated complications in pregnancy. This ethnic disparity is likely related to behavior patterns, social circumstances, environmental exposures, and access to healthcare, rather than biologic differences. The objective was to determine associations between sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and psychosocial stressors and gestational weight gain (GWG) in low-income Hispanic women. During pregnancy, information on sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, and psychosocial stressors were collected. Linear regression estimated mean differences in GWG by selected predictors. Multinomial logistic regression estimated odds of inadequate and excessive GWG by selected predictors. Five-hundred and eight women were included, 38% had inadequate and 28% had excessive GWG; 57% with a normal pre-pregnancy BMI had inadequate GWG. Compared to women with normal BMI, women with overweight or obesity were more likely to have excessive GWG (aRRR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.04, 3.40 and aRRR = 1.98, 95% CI: 1.08, 3.62, respectively). Mean total GWG was higher among women who were nulliparous (ß = 1.34 kg, 95% CI: 0.38, 2.29) and those who engaged in ≥3 h of screen time daily (ß = 0.98 kg, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.94), and lower among women who were physically active during pregnancy (ß = −1.00 kg, 95% CI: −1.99, −0.03). Eating breakfast daily was associated with lower risk of inadequate GWG (aRRR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.83). Depressive symptoms and poor adherence to dietary recommendations were prevalent, but none of the psychosocial or dietary variables were associated with GWG. In this cohort of primarily immigrant, low-income, Hispanic women, there were high rates of poor adherence to diet and physical activity recommendations, and a majority of women did not meet GWG guidelines. Modifiable health behaviors were associated with GWG, and their promotion should be included in prenatal care.
Prenatal dietary exposures and offspring body size from 6 months to 18 years: A systematic reviewLitvak, J., Parekh, N., & Deierlein, A.
Journal titlePaediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology
Page(s)171-189AbstractBackground: In utero dietary exposures may influence childhood obesity. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between prenatal dietary exposures and offspring body size from 6 months to 18 years. Data sources: Articles were identified in PubMed and Web of Science (January 2010-March 2018) using the PRISMA guidelines. Additional studies were identified through a reference review of articles that met the inclusion criteria and related reviews. Study selection: Prospective cohort studies that assessed dietary patterns, foods, macronutrients, or beverages during healthy pregnancy and offspring body size. The extraction of articles was done using predefined data fields. Synthesis: One author extracted all information and evaluated bias with the NHLBI's Quality Assessment Tool. Results: A total of 851 research articles were evaluated. Twenty-one studies assessing dietary patterns, macronutrients, foods, and beverages met inclusion criteria. Consumption of a Mediterranean dietary pattern during pregnancy was associated with reduced body size, while refined carbohydrates were associated with offspring obesity. No association was observed between data-driven dietary patterns and offspring body size, as well as a pro-inflammatory diet pattern and offspring body size. Mixed and null findings were observed for the relationship between total carbohydrates, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, protein, sugar-sweetened beverages, and artificially sweetened beverages and offspring body size. Conclusions: Adhering to a Mediterranean diet and limiting refined carbohydrates during pregnancy may influence offspring body size between 6 months and 18 years. The diverging results that exist between studies highlight the complexity of this topic.
Prevalence of meats offered during meals at New York city schoolsBorkowski, S., Rubenstein, W., Galvez, M., & Deierlein, A. L.
Journal titleHealth Behavior and Policy Review
Page(s)146-153AbstractObjective: We examined types and frequency of meats and meat alternatives offered to children attending New York City public and private elementary and middle schools. Methods: Weekly public and private school breakfast and lunch menus were collected 3 times from each school during the 2018-2019 academic year. Menu options were reviewed and categorized as containing processed meat, unprocessed red meat, unprocessed poultry, breaded/fried poultry, fish, and meat alternatives. Results: Public school hot breakfast menus offered 2.0 options per week of processed meats and lunch menus offered an average of 4.0, 1.3, 1.7, and 2.0 options per week of processed, red, unprocessed poultry, and breaded poultry meats, respectively. Private school lunch menus offered an average of 1.0, 1.5, 2.1, and 0.4 options per week of processed, red, unprocessed poultry, and breaded poultry meats, respectively. The majority of private schools, 75% of those serving grades K-5 and 64% of those serving grades 6-8, offered a daily salad bar and/or sandwich bar with processed meats. Conclusions: The school food environment influences and contributes to children’s dietary intakes. We suggest removing processed meats from meals, reducing red meat-based meals, increasing vegetable-and grain-based alternatives in recipes, and instituting meatless meal days.
Total and trimester-specific gestational weight gain and infant anthropometric outcomes at birth and 6 months in low-income Hispanic familiesDeierlein, A. L., Messito, M. J., Katzow, M., Berube, L. T., Dolin, C. D., & Gross, R. S.
Journal titlePediatric Obesity
Issue3AbstractObjective: To describe total and trimester-specific gestational weight gain (GWG) among low-income Hispanic women and determine whether these GWG exposures are associated with infant anthropometric outcomes at birth and 6 months. Study Design: Data were from 448 mother-infant pairs enrolled in the Starting Early child obesity prevention trial. Prenatal weights were used to calculate total GWG and 2nd and 3rd trimester GWG rates (kg/week) and categorized as inadequate, adequate, and excessive according to the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations. Multivariable linear and modified Poisson regressions estimated associations of infant anthropometric outcomes (birthweight, small-for-gestational age [SGA], large-for-gestational age [LGA], rapid weight gain, and weight-for-age, length-for-age, and weight-for-length z-scores at 6 months) with GWG categories. Results: For total GWG, 39% and 27% of women had inadequate and excessive GWG, respectively. 57% and 46% had excessive GWG rates in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, respectively, with 29% having excessive rates in both trimesters. Inadequate total GWG was associated with lower infant weight and length outcomes (ß range for z-scores = −0.21 to −0.46, p < 0.05) and lower risk of LGA (adjusted Relative Risk, aRR = 0.38; 95% confidence intervals, CI: 0.16, 0.95) and rapid weight gain (aRR = 0.72; 95%CI: 0.51, 1.00). GWG rates above recommendations in the 2nd trimester or 2nd/3rd trimesters were associated with greater weight outcomes at birth and 6 months (ß range for z-scores = 0.24 to 0.35, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Counseling women about health behaviors and closely monitoring GWG beginning in early pregnancy is necessary, particularly among populations at high-risk of obesity.
Trends and Patterns of Phthalates and Phthalate Alternatives Exposure in Pregnant Women from Mexico City during 2007-2010Wu, H., Kupsco, A. J., Deierlein, A. L., Just, A. C., Calafat, A. M., Oken, E., Braun, J. M., Mercado-Garcia, A., Cantoral, A., Téllez-Rojo, M. M., Wright, R. O., & Baccarelli, A. A.
Journal titleEnvironmental Science and Technology
Page(s)1740-1749AbstractPhthalates are associated with several adverse health outcomes, but few studies have evaluated phthalate exposures in Mexican populations, particularly pregnant women. Between 2007 and 2011, 948 pregnant women from Mexico City were recruited as part of the PROGRESS cohort. We quantified 17 metabolites of phthalates and phthalate alternatives in urine samples collected during the second and third trimesters and examined temporal trends of metabolite concentrations, within-person reproducibility, and relations of individual metabolites with sociodemographic, lifestyle, and occupational factors. Concentrations of mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl terephthalate, a metabolite of the alternative phthalate di-2-ethylhexyl terephthalate, increased monotonically from 2007 to 2010 (31% per year; 95% confidence interval = 23 and 39%). We observed moderate to high correlations among metabolites collected at the same visit, but there was high variability between second and third trimester phthalate metabolite concentrations (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.17-0.35). In general, higher socioeconomic status was associated with higher phthalate concentrations. Some metabolites were associated with maternal age and education, but no consistent patterns were observed. Women working in the home and those who worked in administration had higher concentrations of several phthalate metabolites relative to students, professionals, and those in customer service. Biomonitoring efforts are warranted to investigate present and future exposure trends and patterns.
Correlates of Prenatal Diet Quality in Low-Income Hispanic WomenThomas Berube, L., Messito, M. J., Woolf, K., Deierlein, A., & Gross, R.
Journal titleJournal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Page(s)1284-1295AbstractBackground: Low-income Hispanic women are at-risk of poor prenatal diet quality. Correlates associated with prenatal diet quality in this group of women are understudied. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the associations between financial, cultural, psychosocial, and lifestyle correlates and prenatal diet quality in low-income Hispanic women. Design: This cross-sectional analysis used data from pregnant women enrolled in the Starting Early Trial, a randomized-controlled trial of a primary-care based child obesity prevention program beginning in pregnancy. The trial enrolled women from clinics affiliated with a large urban medical center in New York City from 2012 to 2014. Financial, cultural, psychosocial, and lifestyle variables were collected using a comprehensive baseline questionnaire. Usual dietary intakes over the past year were assessed using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire 2005 bilingual version. Participants: The study enrolled low-income Hispanic women between 28 and 32 gestational weeks (N=519). Main outcome measures: Prenatal diet quality was measured by the Healthy Eating Index 2015. Statistical analyses performed: Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to determine independent associations between financial, cultural, psychosocial, and lifestyle correlates and Healthy Eating Index 2015 total score. Results: Overall prenatal diet quality was poor (mean Healthy Eating Index 2015 total score=69.0±9.4). Most women did not meet the maximum score for total vegetables (65.3%), whole grains (97.1%), dairy (74.8%), fatty acids (84.4%), refined grains (79.8%), sodium (97.5%), saturated fats (92.9%), and added sugars (66.5%). Women who reported screen time ≤2 hours/day, physical activity before and/or during pregnancy, and being born outside the United States had higher mean Healthy Eating Index 2015 total score than women with screen time >2 hours/day, no physical activity, and those born in the United States. Conclusions: Prenatal diet quality of low-income pregnant Hispanic women was suboptimal. This cross-sectional study revealed associations between cultural and lifestyle factors and prenatal diet quality in low-income Hispanic women. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine long-term influences and specific behaviors to target for effective intervention studies.
Development of a technology-assisted food frequency questionnaire for elementary and middle school children: Findings from a pilot studyDeierlein, A. L., Bihuniak, J. D., Nagi, E., Litvak, J., Victoria, C., Braune, T., Weiss, R., & Parekh, N.
Issue5AbstractBackground: This pilot study collected preliminary data for the modification of the VioScreen Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), an adult-validated, self-administered, web-based dietary assessment tool for use in older children. Methods: A convenience sample of 55 children, aged 6–14 years, completed the VioScreen FFQ and 3-day diet record (reference standard). Caregivers completed a short sociodemographic questionnaire. Reported dietary intakes from the VioScreen FFQ and 3-day diet record were calculated using standard nutrient databases, and descriptive statistics were used to examine differences in food/beverage items and portion sizes between the two methods. Informal focus groups obtained user feedback and identified components of the VioScreen FFQ that required modifications. Results: The highest de-attenuated Pearson correlation coefficients between the VioScreen FFQ and 3-day diet record were observed for iron (r = 0.69), saturated fat (r = 0.59), and vegetables (r = 0.56), and the lowest were for whole grains (r = 0.11) and vitamin C (r = 0.16). Qualitative feedback was overall positive, and six technological modifications were identified. Conclusion: Findings from this pilot study provided valuable information on the process of evaluating the use of the VioScreen FFQ among older children, and will inform the future development of a modified version for this population.
Do Women Know Their Prepregnancy Weight?Thomas, D. M., Oken, E., Rifas-Shiman, S. L., Téllez-Rojo, M., Just, A., Svensson, K., Deierlein, A. L., Chandler-Laney, P. C., Miller, R. C., McNamara, C., Phelan, S., Yoshitani, S., Butte, N. F., & Redman, L. M.
Page(s)1161-1167AbstractObjective: Prepregnancy weight may not always be known to women. A model was developed to estimate prepregnancy weight from measured pregnancy weight. Methods: The model was developed and validated using participants from two studies (Project Viva, n = 301, model development; and Fit for Delivery [FFD], n = 401, model validation). Data from the third study (Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors [PROGRESS]), which included women from Mexico City, were used to demonstrate the utility of the newly developed model to objectively quantify prepregnancy weight. Results: The model developed from the Project Viva study validated well with low bias (R2 = 0.95; y = 1.02x − 0.69; bias = 0.68 kg; 95% CI: −4.86 to 6.21). Predictions in women from FFD demonstrated good agreement (R2 = 0.96; y = 0.96x + 4.35; bias = 1.60 kg; 95% CI: −4.40 to 7.54; error range = −11.25 kg to 14.73 kg). High deviations from model predictions were observed in the Programming Research in PROGRESS (R2 = 0.81; y = 0.89x + 9.61; bias = 2.83 kg; 95% CI: −7.70 to 12.31; error range = −39.17 kg to 25.73 kg). The model was programmed into software (https://www.pbrc.edu/research-and-faculty/calculators/prepregnancy/). Conclusions: The developed model provides an alternative to determine prepregnancy weight in populations receiving routine health care that may not have accurate knowledge of prepregnancy weight. The software can identify misreporting and classification into incorrect gestational weight gain categories.
Lead exposure during childhood and subsequent anthropometry through adolescence in girlsFailed generating bibliography.Abstract
Journal titleEnvironment international
Page(s)310-315AbstractIntroduction: Cross-sectional studies suggest that postnatal blood lead (PbB) concentrations are negatively associated with child growth. Few studies prospectively examined this association in populations with lower PbB concentrations. We investigated longitudinal associations of childhood PbB concentrations and subsequent anthropometric measurements in a multi-ethnic cohort of girls. Methods: Data were from The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program at three sites in the United States (U.S.): New York City, Cincinnati, and San Francisco Bay Area. Girls were enrolled at ages 6–8 years in 2004–2007. Girls with PbB concentrations collected at ≤10 years old (mean 7.8 years, standard deviation (SD) 0.82) and anthropometry collected at ≥3 follow-up visits were included (n = 683). The median PbB concentration was 0.99 μg/d (10th percentile = 0.59 μg/dL and 90th percentile = 2.00 μg/dL) and the geometric mean was 1.03 μg/dL (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.99, 1.06). For analyses, PbB concentrations were dichotomized as <1 μg/dL (n = 342) and ≥1 μg/dL (n = 341). Anthropometric measurements of height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and percent body fat (%BF) were collected at enrollment and follow-up visits through 2015. Linear mixed effects regression estimated how PbB concentrations related to changes in girls’ measurements from ages 7–14 years. Results: At 7 years, mean difference in height was −2.0 cm (95% CI: −3.0, −1.0) for girls with ≥1 μg/dL versus <1 μg/dL PbB concentrations; differences persisted, but were attenuated, with age to −1.5 cm (95% CI: −2.5, −0.4) at 14 years. Mean differences for BMI, WC, and BF% at 7 years between girls with ≥1 μg/dL versus <1 μg/dL PbB concentrations were −0.7 kg/m2 (95% CI: −1.2, −0.2), −2.2 cm (95% CI: −3.8, −0.6), and −1.8% (95% CI: −3.2, −0.4), respectively. Overall, these differences generally persisted with advancing age and at 14 years, differences were −0.8 kg/m2 (95% CI: −1.5, −0.02), −2.9 cm (95% CI: −4.8, −0.9), and −1.7% (95% CI: −3.1, −0.4) for BMI, WC, and BF%, respectively. Conclusions: These findings suggest that higher concentrations of PbB during childhood, even though relatively low by screening standards, may be inversely associated with anthropometric measurements in girls.
Processing level and diet quality of the US grocery cart: Is there an association?Juul, F., Simões, B. D. S., Litvak, J., Martinez-Steele, E., Deierlein, A., Vadiveloo, M., & Parekh, N.
Journal titlePublic Health Nutrition
Page(s)2357-2366AbstractObjective: The majority of groceries purchased by US households are industrially processed, yet it is unclear how processing level influences diet quality. We sought to determine if processing level is associated with diet quality of grocery purchases. Design: We analysed grocery purchasing data from the National Household Food Acquisition and Purchase Survey 2012-2013. Household grocery purchases were categorized by the NOVA framework as minimally processed, processed culinary ingredients, processed foods or ultra-processed foods. The energy share of each processing level (percentage of energy; %E) and Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) component and total scores were calculated for each household's purchases. The association between %E from processed foods and ultra-processed foods, respectively, and HEI-2015 total score was determined by multivariable linear regression. Foods purchased by households with the highest v. lowest ultra-processed food purchases and HEI-2015 total score <40 v. ≥60 were compared using linear regression. Setting: USA. Participants: Nationally representative sample of 3961 households. Results: Processed foods and ultra-processed foods provided 9·2 (se 0·3) % and 55·8 (se 0·6) % of purchased energy, respectively. Mean HEI-2015 score was 54·7 (se 0·4). Substituting 10 %E from minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients for ultra-processed foods decreased total HEI-2015 score by 1·8 points (β = -1·8; 95 % CI -2·0, -1·5). Processed food purchases were not associated with diet quality. Among households with high ultra-processed food purchases, those with HEI-2015 score <40 purchased less minimally processed plant-foods than households with HEI-2015 score ≥60. Conclusions: Increasing purchases of minimally processed foods, decreasing purchases of ultra-processed foods and selecting healthier foods at each processing level may improve diet quality.
Weight perception, weight control intentions, and dietary intakes among adolescents ages 10–15 years in the United StatesDeierlein, A. L., Malkan, A., Litvak, J., & Parekh, N.
Journal titleInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue6AbstractBackground: To examine associations of adolescents’ weight status perception and weight control intentions with dietary intakes. Methods: Cross-sectional data from adolescents aged 10–15 in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 2005–2014 (n = 4940). Adolescents responded to questions regarding weight perception and if they were trying to change their weight. Intakes of calories, protein, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, sugar, and fiber were assessed using 24-h dietary recalls. Multivariable linear regression estimated associations of intakes with weight perception and weight control intentions. Results: The majority of adolescents perceived their weight as “about right”; however, 45% and 46% of boys and girls, respectively, reported trying to change their weight. Weight perception was not associated with intakes, with the exception of lower sugar (−13.65 g, 95% CI: −23.06, −4.23) and higher percent calories from protein (1.01%, 95% CI: 0.16, 1.87) in boys with overweight/obesity who perceived themselves as overweight, as well as lower percent calories from saturated fat (−1.04%, 95% CI: −2.24, −0.17) among girls with normal weight who perceived themselves as overweight. Weight control intentions were associated with intakes in boys only. Compared to boys who never tried to lose weight, boys who tried to lose weight consumed fewer calories (−188.34 kcal, 95% CI: −357.67, −19.01), a lower percent of calories from fat (−1.41%, 95% CI: −2.80, −0.02), and a greater percent of calories from protein (1.48%, 95% CI: 0.41, 2.55). Conclusions: Despite perceiving weight as “about right”, many adolescents reported trying to change their weight, which was associated with some dietary intakes. Efforts may be necessary to educate adolescents on healthy nutrition and weight management behaviors.
Concerns About Current Breast Milk Intake Measurement for Population-Based StudiesThomas Berube, L., Gross, R., Messito, M. J., Deierlein, A., Katzow, M., & Woolf, K.
Journal titleJournal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Folic Acid Supplementation to Prevent Recurrent Neural Tube Defects: 4 Milligrams Is Too MuchDolin, C. D., Deierlein, A. L., & Evans, M. I.
Journal titleFetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Page(s)161-165AbstractSome medical practices have been ingrained in custom for decades, long after "proof" that they were effective was established. It is necessary to periodically reevaluate these practices, as newer theories and research may challenge the evidence upon which they were based. An example is the decades' old practice of recommending a 4-mg (4,000-μg) supplement of folic acid to women who are at risk for recurrent neural tube defect (NTD) during pregnancy. This recommendation was based on findings from a randomized clinical trial in 1991. Since then, multiple studies have confirmed the utility of 400-800 μg of folic acid in lowering both primary and recurrent risks of NTDs, but no studies have established any further reduction in risk with doses over 1 mg. Current understanding of folic acid metabolism during pregnancy suggests that at higher doses, above ∼1 mg, there is not increased absorption. Recent evidence suggests that 4 mg folic acid supplementation may not be any more effective than lower doses for the prevention of recurrent NTDs. Thus, we recommend that it is time for clinicians to reexamine their reliance on this outdated recommendation and consider using current recommendations of 400-800 μg per day for all patients in conjunction with assessment of maternal folate status.
Persistent Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals and Fatty Liver DiseaseDeierlein, A. L., Rock, S., & Park, S.
Journal titleCurrent environmental health reports
Page(s)439-449AbstractPurpose of Review: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prominent chronic liver disease in Western countries, affecting approximately 25% of the population worldwide. Sex-specific differences in the development of NAFLD are apparent. While obesity and insulin resistance are major contributors to the increasing prevalence of NAFLD, a growing body of literature suggests that exposure to persistent endocrine-disrupting chemicals (pEDCs) may also play a role. This review summarizes recent (2011 and later) scientific literature investigating exposures to pEDCs, specifically persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and NAFLD, with a focus on sex-specific associations. Recent Findings: The overwhelming majority of studies were conducted in single-sex animal models and provide biological evidence that exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin polychlorinated biphenyls, and other POPs or POP mixtures are negatively associated with liver health. There were four cross-sectional epidemiological studies in humans that reported associations for several POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls and perfluorinated chemicals, with elevated liver enzymes. Only one of these studies, using a sample of gastric bypass surgery patients, examined sex-specific associations of POPs and liver enzymes, finding adverse associations among women only. The noticeable lack of studies investigating how differences (i.e., biochemical, physiological, and behavioral) between men and women may influence associations of pEDCs and NAFLD represents a large research gap in environmental health. Sexual dimorphism in metabolic processes throughout the body, including the liver, is established but often overlooked in the designs and analyses of studies. Other factors identified in this review that may also act to modulate associations of environmental chemicals and NAFLD are reproductive status and dietary nutrient intakes, which also remain understudied in the literature. Summary: Despite knowledge of sexual dimorphism in the actions of pEDCs, as well as in metabolic processes related to NAFLD development, few experimental or epidemiological studies have investigated sex-dependent associations. Future studies, especially those in humans, should be designed to address this research need. Consideration of other factors, such as reproductive status, dietary intakes, and mixtures of chemicals with varying endocrine-disrupting capabilities, should be explored.