Danielle C Ompad
Associate Dean for Education
Associate Professor of Epidemiology
Dr. Danielle Ompad is an epidemiologist whose work is focused in the areas of urban health, HIV, illicit drug use, and adult access to vaccines. With respect to illicit drug use, her work has spanned the entire natural history of addiction – from initiation to cessation, with particular attention paid to risk for infectious diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B and C, and STIs. She has primarily worked with people who use heroin, crack, cocaine, and/or club drugs.
In New York City, she has been examining heroin cessation among current, former, and relapsed heroin users. Working with Alliance for Public Health and the Ukrainian Institute on Public Health Policy, she analyzes harm reduction service utilization among people who inject drugs, in order to optimize service delivery in Ukraine. Since 2013, she has served as faculty for the Fogarty-funded New York State International Training and Research Program with the goal of building research capacity in Ukraine.
Dr. Ompad’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-funded study aims to determine if herpes simplex 1 and 2 infections explain racial disparities in HIV incidence among a cohort of young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (YMSM). In addition, Dr. Ompad and colleagues are assessing HPV infection prevalence, persistence, and clearance among this same cohort.
BS, Biology, Bowie State University, Bowie, MDMHS, Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MDPhD, Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD
Excellence in Public Health Teaching Award, New York University (2014)Excellence in Public Health Teaching Award, New York University (2013)National Hispanic Science Network on Drug Abuse Scientific Development Travel Fellowship (2010)Delta Omega Honorary Society, Alpha Chapter (2002)
EpidemiologyHIV/AIDSInfectious DiseasesSocial Determinants of HealthSTIsSubstance AbuseVaccines
"they look at us like junkies": Influences of drug use stigma on the healthcare engagement of people who inject drugs in New York CityMuncan, B., Walters, S. M., Ezell, J., & Ompad, D. C.
Journal titleHarm Reduction Journal
Issue1AbstractBackground: People who inject drugs (PWID) are a medically and socially vulnerable population with a high incidence of overdose, mental illness, and infections like HIV and hepatitis C. Existing literature describes social and economic correlations to increased health risk, including stigma. Injection drug use stigma has been identified as a major contributor to healthcare disparities for PWID. However, data on this topic, particularly in terms of the interface between enacted, anticipated, and internalized stigma, is still limited. To fill this gap, we examined perspectives from PWID whose stigmatizing experiences impacted their views of the healthcare system and syringe service programs (SSPs) and influenced their decisions regarding future medical care. Methods: Semi-structured interviews conducted with 32 self-identified PWID in New York City. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Interview transcripts were coded using a grounded theory approach by three trained coders and key themes were identified as they emerged. Results: A total of 25 participants (78.1%) reported at least one instance of stigma related to healthcare system engagement. Twenty-three participants (71.9%) reported some form of enacted stigma with healthcare, 19 participants (59.4%) described anticipated stigma with healthcare, and 20 participants (62.5%) reported positive experiences at SSPs. Participants attributed healthcare stigma to their drug injection use status and overwhelmingly felt distrustful of, and frustrated with, medical providers and other healthcare staff at hospitals and local clinics. PWID did not report internalized stigma, in part due to the availability of non-stigmatizing medical care at SSPs. Conclusions: Stigmatizing experiences of PWID in formal healthcare settings contributed to negative attitudes toward seeking healthcare in the future. Many participants describe SSPs as accessible sites to receive high-quality medical care, which may curb the manifestation of internalized stigma derived from negative experiences in the broader healthcare system. Our findings align with those reported in the literature and reveal the potentially important role of SSPs. With the goal of limiting stigmatizing interactions and their consequences on PWID health, we recommend that future research include explorations of mechanisms by which PWID make decisions in stigmatizing healthcare settings, as well as improving medical care availability at SSPs.
Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment in the Dominican Republic: Perspectives of Focus Group Participants in the Santo Domingo AreaLiebermann, E. J., VanDevanter, N., Shirazian, T., Frías Gúzman, N., Niles, M., Healton, C., & Ompad, D.
Journal titleJournal of Transcultural Nursing
Page(s)121-127AbstractIntroduction: Cervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the Dominican Republic, and high rates persist despite existing Pap smear screening programs. The purpose of this study was to explore Dominican women’s knowledge and attitudes regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer, cervical cancer screening practices, and perceived barriers and facilitators to early detection of cervical cancer. Method: Six focus groups (N = 64) were conducted in Spanish in urban, suburban, and rural locations, in private and public school settings, community and workplace settings, in or near Santo Domingo, as part of a larger study on barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccine implementation. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim and translated from Spanish to English. Qualitative data analysis used inductive and deductive approaches. Results: Knowledge regarding HPV and cervical cancer varied across groups, but all agreed there was significant stigma and fear regarding HPV. Most women reported having Pap screening at least yearly. Follow-up of abnormal Pap testing was less consistent, with cost and uncertainty about provider recommendations identified as barriers. Discussion: Broader examination of provider-level and health system barriers and facilitators to cervical cancer prevention in the Dominican Republic is essential, in order to inform interventions to improve the effectiveness of cervical cancer screening and treatment programs and reduce preventable deaths.
Dominican Provider Attitudes Towards HPV Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening and, Current Challenges to Cervical Cancer Prevention in the Dominican Republic: a Mixed Methods StudyLiebermann, E., Van Devanter, N., Frías Gúzman, N., Hammer, M. J., & Ompad, D.
Journal titleJournal of Cancer EducationAbstractCreating effective programs for cervical cancer prevention is essential to avoid premature deaths from cervical cancer. The Dominican Republic has persistently high rates of cervical cancer, despite the availability of Pap smear screening. This study explored Dominican provider attitudes towards human papillomavirus (HPV) testing and current challenges to effective cervical cancer prevention. In this Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR)–driven mixed methods study, we conducted in-depth interviews (N = 21) and surveys (N = 202) with Dominican providers in Santo Domingo and Monte Plata provinces regarding their perspectives on barriers to cervical cancer prevention and their knowledge and attitudes towards HPV testing as an alternative to Pap smear. Providers believed the main barrier to cervical cancer prevention was lack of cervical cancer awareness and resulting inadequate population screening coverage. Providers felt that Pap smear was widely available to women in the Dominican Republic and were unsure how a change to HPV testing for screening would address gaps in current cervical cancer screening programs. A subset of providers felt HPV testing offered important advantages for early detection of cervical cancer and were in favor of more widespread use. Cost of the HPV test and target age for screening with HPV testing were the main barriers to acceptability. Providers had limited knowledge of HPV testing as a screening test. The group was divided in terms of the potential impact of a change in screening test in addressing barriers to cervical cancer prevention in the Dominican Republic. Findings may inform interventions to disseminate global evidence-based recommendations for cervical cancer screening.
Dominican Provider Practices for Cervical Cancer Screening in Santo Domingo and Monte Plata ProvincesLiebermann, E., Hammer, M. J., Gúzman, N. F., Van Devanter, N., & Ompad, D.
Journal titleJournal of Cancer EducationAbstractCervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death for women in the Dominican Republic. Pap smear screening in the Dominican Republic has not achieved adequate reduction in cervical cancer mortality. The purpose of this study was to examine Dominican provider practices for cervical cancer screening and the use of national or international screening guidelines. We surveyed 101 gynecology specialists, 50 non-specialists, and 51 obstetrics-gynecology residents in the Santo Domingo and Monte Plata provinces of the Dominican Republic regarding their cervical cancer screening practices and use of guidelines. Bivariate (chi-square) analyses were conducted to compare screening practices by demographic and practice characteristics. The majority of providers followed WHO guidelines (62.9%) and/or Dominican national norms (59.4%). The majority (87%) of providers use time since first sexual activity as the basis for screening initiation; 96% advise screening every 6–12 months. The most commonly used screening test is the conventional Pap smear. Colposcopy was recommended most often for all abnormal Pap results. Dominican providers report they follow national and/or international cervical cancer screening guidelines. They do not follow age-based screening guidelines, nor have they adopted an extended interval for screening and continue to recommend screening at least annually. A culture of early and frequent screening has consequences in terms of cost, high demand for follow-up services, and reduced capacity to reach the populations at highest risk. Early screening also may challenge the acceptability of adopting alternative screening technologies such as HPV testing.
Pandemic preparedness and hard to reach populationsVlahov, D., Coady, M. H., Galea, S., Ompad, D. C., & Barondess, J. A.
Journal titleAmerican journal of disaster medicine
Parent-Level Barriers and Facilitators to HPV Vaccine Implementation in Santo Domingo, Dominican RepublicLiebermann, E., Devanter, N. V., Frías Gúzman, N., Ompad, D., Shirazian, T., & Healton, C.
Journal titleJournal of Community Health
Page(s)1061-1066AbstractCervical cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death for women in the Dominican Republic. Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) could reduce mortality from cervical cancer globally by as much as 90%. The purpose of our study was to explore multi-level barriers and facilitators to implementation of a national HPV vaccine program in the Dominican Republic; this article focuses on parent-level barriers and facilitators. In this qualitative study, we conducted six focus groups (N = 64) with parents of school-age children in the Santo Domingo area of the Dominican Republic, representing diverse socioeconomic groups and geographic settings. Thematic content analysis, using inductive and deductive approaches, was done following transcription and translation of audio-recordings from focus group discussions. Among this group of parents in the Santo Domingo area, facilitators to vaccine uptake were favorable attitudes towards vaccines in general and concern about cervical cancer as a health issue. Barriers found were low to moderate knowledge of HPV and cervical cancer, especially in the rural and suburban groups, and cost and lack of public awareness of the vaccine. This study identified key barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccine implementation in the Dominican Republic. Health messaging, incorporating specialist providers as opinion leaders, will need to be tailored to broad audiences with varying levels of information and awareness, anticipating misinformation and concerns, and will need to emphasize HPV vaccine as a method to prevent cancer.
The Opioid/Overdose Crisis as a Dialectics of Pain, Despair, and One-Sided StruggleFriedman, S. R., Krawczyk, N., Perlman, D. C., Mateu-Gelabert, P., Ompad, D. C., Hamilton, L., Nikolopoulos, G., Guarino, H., & Cerdá, M.
Journal titleFrontiers in Public Health
Volume8AbstractThe opioid/overdose crisis in the United States and Canada has claimed hundreds of thousands of lives and has become a major field for research and interventions. It has embroiled pharmaceutical companies in lawsuits and possible bankruptcy filings. Effective interventions and policies toward this and future drug-related outbreaks may be improved by understanding the sociostructural roots of this outbreak. Much of the literature on roots of the opioid/overdose outbreak focuses on (1) the actions of pharmaceutical companies in inappropriately promoting the use of prescription opioids; (2) “deaths of despair” based on the deindustrialization of much of rural and urban Canada and the United States, and on the related marginalization and demoralization of those facing lifetimes of joblessness or precarious employment in poorly paid, often dangerous work; and (3) increase in occupationally-induced pain and injuries in the population. All three of these roots of the crisis—pharmaceutical misconduct and unethical marketing practices, despair based on deindustrialization and increased occupational pain—can be traced back, in part, to what has been called the “one-sided class war” that became prominent in the 1970s, became institutionalized as neo-liberalism in and since the 1980s, and may now be beginning to be challenged. We describe this one-sided class war, and how processes it sparked enabled pharmaceutical corporations in their misconduct, nurtured individualistic ideologies that fed into despair and drug use, weakened institutions that created social support in communities, and reduced barriers against injuries and other occupational pain at workplaces by reducing unionization, weakening surviving unions, and weakening the enforcement of rules about workplace safety and health. We then briefly discuss the implications of this analysis for programs and policies to mitigate or reverse the opioid/overdose outbreak.
The role of access to integrated services at opioid agonist treatment sites in reaching 90-90-90 cascade in people who inject drugs in Ukraine: Country-level dataMeteliuk, A., Prokhorova, T., Filippovych, S., Ompad, D. C., & Zaller, N.
Journal titleDrug and alcohol dependence
Volume216AbstractIntroduction: Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) is an effective means to prevent HIV transmission. Ukraine started integrating HIV services into OAT sites to improve people who inject drugs' (PWID) access to treatment. Methods: Data from the national registry of OAT patients (n = 9,983) were analyzed. These data are collected from all 179 OAT sites countrywide. For the cascade, HIV-positive OAT patients (n = 4,084) were stratified into two categories: OAT alone (received OAT at one site and antiretroviral therapy (ART) at different location, n = 1,789) and integrated care (received OAT and ART at one location, n = 2,295) for comparison. Results: Most HIV-positive OAT patients in Ukraine are male (85.6 %) and the mean age is 40.3 years old. The mean length of injecting before OAT is 17.2 years and the mean length on OAT is 4.2 years. All HIV-positive OAT clients are aware of their HIV status. The proportion of HIV-positive clients receiving ART was higher at integrated care sites compared to OAT alone sites (84.2 vs. 73.1 %, p- = 0.012); distribution of viral suppression among those receiving ART across the strata were 79.4 and 59.2 % for 'integrated care sites' vs. 'OAT only sites' respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This analysis clearly demonstrates much better progress towards the 90−90-90 goals among those OAT patients who receive integrated care services (both OAT and ART) at one site at each stage of the HIV care cascade as compared to receiving OAT and ART at different sites. There is an urgent need to further expand the integration of OAT and HIV services in Ukraine.
A New Generation of Drug Users in St. Petersburg, Russia? HIV, HCV, and Overdose Risks in a Mixed-Methods Pilot Study of Young Hard Drug UsersMeylakhs, P., Friedman, S. R., Meylakhs, A., Mateu-Gelabert, P., Ompad, D. C., Alieva, A., & Dmitrieva, A.
Journal titleAIDS and Behavior
Page(s)3350-3365AbstractRussia has a widespread injection drug use epidemic with high prevalence of HIV and HCV among people who inject drugs (PWID). We conducted a mixed methods study of young (age 18–26) hard drug users in St. Petersburg. Thirty-nine structured and 10 semi-structured interviews were conducted. No HIV cases and two HCV cases were detected among the PWID subsample (n = 29). Amphetamine and other stimulants were common (70%), opioid use was rare and episodic. Consistent condom use was 10%. No PWID reported syringe-sharing, 51% reported other drug paraphernalia sharing. Most (89%) never or rarely communicated with older (30 +) opiate users. A new cohort of drug users in St. Petersburg may have emerged, which is much safer in its injection practices compared to previous cohorts. However, risky sexual practices among this new cohort may expose them to the possibility of sexual transmission of HIV and widespread drug paraphernalia sharing to the HCV epidemic.
Construction trade and extraction workers: A population at high risk for drug use in the United States, 2005–2014Ompad, D. C., Gershon, R. R., Sandh, S., Acosta, P., & Palamar, J. J.
Journal titleDrug and alcohol dependence
Volume205AbstractObjective: To estimate prevalence of past-month marijuana, cocaine, and nonmedical prescription opioid (NPO) use and determine employment-related correlates of drug use among construction trade/extraction workers (CTEW). Methods: We analyzed ten years of data (2005–2014) from 293,492 adults (age≥18) in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, comparing CTEW and non-CTEW. Results: CTEW were 5.6% (n = 16,610) of the sample. Compared to non-CTEW, CTEW were significantly more likely to report past-month marijuana (12.3% vs. 7.5%), cocaine (1.8% vs. 0.8%), and/or NPO use (3.4% vs. 2.0%; Ps<.001). Among CTEW, past-week unemployment and working for >3 employers was associated with increased odds of marijuana and NPO use. Missing 1–2 days in the past month because the participant did not want to go into work was associated with increased odds for use of marijuana, cocaine, and NPO use. Missing 3–5 days of work in the past month because sick or injured was associated with double the odds (aOR = 2.00 [95% CI: 1.33–3.02]) of using NPO. Having written drug policies was associated with reduced odds for cocaine use, and workplace tests for drug use during hiring and random drug testing were also associated with lower odds of marijuana use. Conclusions: CTEW are a high-risk population for drug use. Precarious employment is associated with higher prevalence of drug use while some workplace drug policies were associated with lower prevalence. Coupled with reports of high overdose mortality among CTEW, these findings suggest that prevention and harm reduction programming is needed to prevent drug-related morbidity and mortality among CTEW.
Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Infection in Young Sexual Minority Men: The P18 Cohort StudyHalkitis, P. N., Valera, P., Loschiavo, C. E., Goldstone, S. E., Kanztanou, M., Maiolatesi, A. J., Ompad, D. C., Greene, R. E., & Kapadia, F.
Journal titleAIDS patient care and STDs
Page(s)149-156AbstractWe examined the prevalence of infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) and HIV in a cohort of young gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men [sexual minority men (SMM)]. HPV vaccination uptake was assessed; HIV antibody testing was performed and genetic testing for oral and anal HPV infection was undertaken. We examined both HPV vaccination and infection in relation to key demographic and structural variables. Participants (n = 486) were on average 23 years old; 70% identified as a member of a racial/ethnic minority group, and 7% identified as transgender females. Only 18.1% of the participants indicated having received the full dosage of HPV vaccination and 45.1% were unvaccinated. Slightly over half the participants (58.6%) were infected with HPV, with 58.1% testing positive for anal infection and 8.8% for oral infection. HIV seropositivity was associated with infection to oral HPV [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 4.03] and vaccine-preventable HPV, whereas both neighborhood-level poverty (AOR = 1.68) and HIV infection (AOR = 31.13) were associated with anal infection to HPV (AOR = 1.68). Prevalence of HPV infection is high among unvaccinated young SMM, despite the availability and eligibility for vaccination. HPV infection adds further health burden to these populations and is particularly concerning for those who are HIV positive as HIV infection increases the risk of developing HPV-related cancers. These findings underscore a missed prevention opportunity for an at-risk and underserved population and suggest the need for active strategies to increase HPV vaccination uptake in young SMM before the onset of sexual behavior.
Incidence of Guillain-BarréSyndrome (GBS) in Latin America and the Caribbean before and during the 2015-2016 Zika virus epidemic: A systematic review and meta-analysisCapasso, A., Ompad, D. C., Vieira, D. L., Wilder-Smith, A., & Tozan, Y.
Journal titlePLoS neglected tropical diseases
Issue8AbstractBackground A severe neurological disorder, Guillain-Barrésyndrome (GBS) is the leading cause of acute flaccid paralysis. Enhanced surveillance of GBS in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) following the 2015-2016 Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic presents an opportunity to estimate, for the first time, the regional incidence of GBS. Methods and findings For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched nine scientific databases and grey literature from January 1, 1980 to October 1, 2018. Sources with primary data on incident GBS cases in LAC within a well-defined population and timeframe, published in English, Spanish, Portuguese, or French, were included. We calculated the annual GBS incidence rates (IRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each source based on published data. Following an assessment of heterogeneity, we used random-effects meta-analysis to calculate the pooled annual IR of GBS. The study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42018086659. Of the 6568 initial citation hits, 31 were eligible for inclusion. Background annual GBS IRs in Latin America ranged from 0.40 in Brazil to 2.12/100,000 in Chile. The pooled annual IR in the Caribbean was 1.64 (95% CI 1.29-2.12, I2<0.01, p = 0.44). During the ZIKV epidemic, GBS IRs ranged from 0.62 in Mexico to 9.35/100,000 in Martinique. GBS increased 2.6 (95% CI 2.3-2.9) times during ZIKV and 1.9 (95% CI 1.1- 3.4) times during chikungunya outbreaks over background rates. A limitation of this review is that the studies included employed different methodologies to find and ascertain cases of GBS, which could contribute to IR heterogeneity. In addition, it is important to consider that data on GBS are lacking for many countries in the region. Conclusions Background IRs of GBS appear to peak during arboviral disease outbreaks. The current review contributes to an understanding of the epidemiology of GBS in the LAC region, which can inform healthcare system planning and preparedness, particularly during arboviral epidemics.
On the way to Hepatitis C elimination in the Republic of Georgia—Barriers and facilitators for people who inject drugs for engaging in the treatment program: A formative qualitative studyChikovani, I., Ompad, D. C., Uchaneishvili, M., Sulaberidze, L., Sikharulidze, K., Hagan, H., & Van Devanter, N. L.
Journal titlePloS one
Issue4AbstractHepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant public health concern worldwide. Georgia is among the countries with a high burden of HCV infection. People who inject drugs (PWID) have the highest burden of infection in Georgia. In 2015, the Government of Georgia, with partners’ support, initiated one of the world’s first Hepatitis C Elimination Programs. Despite notable progress, challenges to achieving targets persist. This qualitative study is aimed to better understand some of the barriers and facilitators to HCV testing and treatment services for PWID to inform HCV treatment policies and practices. The study instrument examined social, structural, and individual factors influencing HCV testing and treatment practices. We started with key informant interviews to guide the study instrument development and compare the study findings against health care planners’ and health care providers’ views. Forty PWID with various HCV testing and treatment experiences were recruited through the snowball method. The study found that along with structural factors such as political commitment, co-financing of diagnostic and monitoring tests, and friendly clinic environments, knowledge about HCV infection and elimination program benefits, and support from family and peers also play facilitating roles in accessing testing and treatment services. On the other hand, inability to co-pay for diagnostic tests, fear of side effects associated with treatment, poor knowledge about HCV infection, and lack of social support hampered testing and treatment practices among PWID. Findings from this study are important for increasing the effectiveness of this unique program that targets a population at high risk of HCV infection.
Substance use among older people living with HIV: Challenges for health care providersDeren, S., Cortes, T., Dickson, V. V., Guilamo-Ramos, V., Han, B. H., Karpiak, S., Naegle, M., Ompad, D. C., & Wu, B.
Journal titleFrontiers in Public Health
Volume7AbstractOlder people living with HIV (OPLWH) have higher rates of substance use (tobacco, alcohol and other drugs) than their HIV-negative peers. Addressing health care needs of OPLWH who use substances is more challenging than for those who do not: they are highly impacted by comorbid conditions, substance use can interact with other medications (including antiretroviral therapy-ART) and reduce their effectiveness, and substance use has been associated with reduced adherence to ART and increased risky behaviors (including sexual risks). People who use substances also suffer disparities along the HIV continuum of care, resulting in lower viral suppression rates and poorer health outcomes. They are especially impacted by stigma and stress, which have implications for HIV treatment and care. Recommendations for health care providers working with OPLWH who use substances include: 1) the need to screen and refer for multiple associated conditions, and 2) training/continuing education to enhance care management and maximize health outcomes.
Substance Use Among Older People Living with HIV: Issues for Nurses and Other Health Care ProvidersDeren, S., Cortes, T., Vaughan Dickson, V., Guilamo-Ramos, V., Han, B. H., Karpiak, S., Naegle, M., Ompad, D., & Wu, B.
Journal titleFrontiers in Public Health
A comparison of self-reported sexual effects of alcohol, marijuana, and ecstasy in a sample of young adult nightlife attendeesPalamar, J. J., Griffin-Tomas, M., Acosta, P., Ompad, D. C., & Cleland, C. M.
Journal titlePsychology and Sexuality
Page(s)54-68AbstractAlcohol, marijuana, and ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA], ‘Molly’) are among the most prevalent substances used by young adults; however, few studies have focused on the specific sexual effects associated with use. Examining subjective sexual effects (e.g. increased libido) associated with use can inform prevention efforts. Data were analysed from 679 nightclub and dance festival attendees in New York City (ages 18–25) to examine and compare self-reported sexual effects associated with use of alcohol, marijuana, and ecstasy. Results suggest that compared to marijuana, alcohol and ecstasy were more strongly associated with heightened perceived sexual effects (i.e. perceived sexual attractiveness of self and others, sexual desire, length of intercourse, and sexual outgoingness). Increased body and sex organ sensitivity and increased sexual intensity were most commonly associated with ecstasy use. Sexual dysfunction was most common while using alcohol or ecstasy, especially among males, and females were more likely to report sexual dysfunction after using marijuana. Post-sex regret was most common with alcohol use. Alcohol, marijuana, and ecstasy each have different sexual effects; therefore, each is associated with different risks and benefits for users. Findings can inform prevention and harm reduction as young adults are prone to use these substances.
A Qualitative Investigation Comparing Psychosocial and Physical Sexual Experiences Related to Alcohol and Marijuana Use among AdultsPalamar, J. J., Acosta, P., Ompad, D. C., & Friedman, S. R.
Journal titleArchives of Sexual Behavior
Page(s)757-770AbstractAlcohol and marijuana are two of the most prevalent psychoactive substances and each may result in distinct psychosocial and physical sexual experiences and different sexual risk behaviors. With marijuana becoming more accepted in the US along with more liberal state-level policies, it is important to examine and compare users’ psychosocial and physical sexual experiences and sexual risk behavior associated with these drugs. In this study, we interviewed 24 adults who recently used marijuana before sex. Participants were 50 % female and all self-identified as heterosexual and HIV-negative. Using thematic analysis, we compared self-reported psychosocial and physical sexual experiences of alcohol and marijuana. Participants described differences between drugs with regard to psychosocial (e.g., partner interactions and contexts before sex, partner choice, perceived attractiveness of self and others, disinhibition, and feelings of regret after sex) and physical sexual experiences (e.g., sexual dysfunction, dose effects, sensations of body/sex organs, length and intensity of sex, and orgasm). Alcohol use was commonly associated with social outgoingness and use facilitated connections with potential sexual partners; however, alcohol was more likely than marijuana to lead to atypical partner choice or post-sex regret. Both alcohol and marijuana had a variety of negative sexual effects, and the illegality of marijuana reportedly facilitated intimate encounters. While sexual experiences tended to be similar across males and females, we did find some variation by gender. Results can inform prevention and harm reduction programming that will allow us to design more realistic programs and to craft interventions, which guide potential users to make safer choices.
Reliability and Validity of a Material Resources Scale and Its Association With Depression Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men: The P18 Cohort StudyOmpad, D. C., Palamar, J. J., Krause, K. D., Kapadia, F., & Halkitis, P. N.
Journal titleAmerican Journal of Men's Health
Page(s)1384-1397AbstractSocioeconomic status (SES) is a fundamental cause of ill health, but an understudied determinant of health for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). Surprisingly, few studies have examined the relations between poverty and depression among young MSM. The aims of this study were to determine the reliability and validity of an 18-item Family Resource Scale (FRS) as a measure of SES among YMSM and examine the relations between SES and depression, while taking into account factors associated with resilience or risk for poor mental health. Reliability of the SES scale was determined with Cronbach’s alpha. Validity was assessed with factor analysis and bivariable comparisons with other SES measures. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the relations between depressive symptomology (via the Beck Depression Inventory–II), SES, and gay-related psychosocial variables. In this racially/ethnically diverse sample (mean age = 21.8 years, 37.3% Hispanic/Latino, 30.5% White, 14.9% Black, and 17.0% other race/ethnicity), 70.8% reported incomes ≤ $10,000 and the mean FRS score was 4.1 (SD = 0.9, range 0-5). The FRS demonstrated reliability (α =.91) and criterion and construct validity. The Beck Depression Inventory–II rated 17.6% with depressive symptomology. Higher FRS scores were associated with a lower odds of depression (adjusted odds ratio = 0.58; 95% confidence interval = 0.46-0.74) in logistic regression models controlling for gay community affinity and internalized homophobia. This diverse sample of YMSM in New York City reported substantial financial hardship and those who were more gay-identified had fewer material resources. Fewer material resources and internalized homophobia were both associated with higher odds of depression.
Young Drug Users: a Vulnerable Population and an Underutilized Resource in HIV/HCV PreventionMateu-Gelabert, P., Guarino, H., Quinn, K., Meylakhs, P., Campos, S., Meylakhs, A., Berbesi, D., Toro-Tobón, D., Goodbody, E., Ompad, D. C., & Friedman, S. R.
Journal titleCurrent HIV/AIDS Reports
Page(s)324-335AbstractPurpose of Review: The social networks of people who inject drugs (PWID) have long been studied to understand disease transmission dynamics and social influences on risky practices. We illustrate how PWID can be active agents promoting HIV, HCV, and overdose prevention. Recent Findings: We assessed drug users’ connections and interactions with others at risk for HIV/HCV in three cities: New York City (NYC), USA (n = 539); Pereira, Colombia (n = 50); and St. Petersburg, Russia (n = 49). In all three cities, the majority of participants’ network members were of a similar age as themselves, yet connections across age groups were also present. In NYC, knowing any opioid user(s) older than 29 was associated with testing HCV-positive. In NYC and St. Petersburg, a large proportion of PWID engaged in intravention activities to support safer injection and overdose prevention; in Pereira, PWID injected, had sex, and interacted with other key groups at risk. Summary: People who use drugs can be active players in HIV/HCV and overdose risk- reduction; their networks provide them with ample opportunities to disseminate harm reduction knowledge, strategies, and norms to others at risk. Local communities could augment prevention programming by empowering drug users to be allies in the fight against HIV and facilitating their pre-existing health-protective actions.
Associations Among Neighborhood Characteristics and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Black and White MSM Living in a Major Urban AreaFrye, V., Nandi, V., Egan, J. E., Cerda, M., Rundle, A., Quinn, J. W., Sheehan, D., Ompad, D. C., Van Tieu, H., Greene, E., & Koblin, B.
Journal titleAIDS and Behavior
Page(s)870-890AbstractIdentifying neighborhood characteristics associated with sexual HIV risk behavior among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) living in urban areas may inform the development of policies and programs to reduce risk and subsequently HIV prevalence in urban areas. New York City M2M was a cross-sectional study designed to identify neighborhood-level characteristics associated with sexual risk behaviors among MSM living in New York City. This paper presents results of an analysis of neighborhood-level indicators of three distinct social theories of influence of the neighborhood environment on human behavior: physical disorder, social disorganization and social norms theories. Using multilevel modeling on a sample of 766 MSM stratified by race/ethnicity, we found little support for the role of social disorganization on the sexual risk behavior of MSM, whereas different indicators of physical disorder exerted negative effects across race groups. Our results suggest that the beneficial effects of housing stock maintenance and general neighborhood physical orderliness and cleanliness may have positive effects beyond those traditionally studied for African American MSM and that the field needs novel theorizing regarding whether and how neighborhood or virtual community-level factors relate to sexual behavior among MSM.
Congruence of Home, Social and Sex Neighborhoods among Men Who Have Sex with Men, NYCM2M StudyKoblin, B. A., Egan, J. E., Nandi, V., Sang, J. M., Cerdá, M., Tieu, H. V., Ompad, D. C., Hoover, D. R., & Frye, V.
Journal titleJournal of Urban Health
Page(s)364-374AbstractSubstantial literature demonstrates the influence of the neighborhood environment on health behaviors and outcomes. But limited research examines on how gay and bisexual men experience and exist in various geographic and virtual spaces and how this relates to their sexual behavior. New York City Men 2 Men (NYCM2M) was a cross-sectional study designed to identify neighborhood-level characteristics within the urban environment that influence sexual risk behaviors, substance use, and depression among men who have sex with men (MSM) living in NYC. The sample was recruited using a modified venue-based time-space sampling methodology and through select websites and mobile applications. Whether key neighborhoods of human activity, where a participant resided (termed home), socialized (termed social), or had sex most often (termed sex), were the same or different was evaluated. “Congruence” (or the sameness) of home, social, and most often sex neighborhood was reported by 17 % of men, while 30 % reported that none of their neighborhoods were the same. The largest group of men (39 %) reported that their home and sex neighborhoods were the same but their social neighborhood was different while 10 % reported that their home neighborhood was different than their social and sex neighborhood; 5 % men reported same home and social neighborhoods with a different sex neighborhood. Complete neighborhood incongruence was highest among men who were Black and/or Latino, had lower education and personal income levels, and had greater financial insecurity. In adjusted analysis, serodiscordant condomless anal intercourse and condomless anal intercourse with partners from the Internet or mobile applications were significantly associated with having the same social and sex (but not home) neighborhoods. Understanding the complexity of how different spaces and places relate to the health and sexual behavior of MSM is essential for focusing interventions to best reach various populations of interest.
Continuing Links Between Substance Use and HIV Highlight the Importance of Nursing RolesDeren, S., Naegle, M., Hagan, H., & Ompad, D. C.
Journal titleJournal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care
Page(s)622-632AbstractLinks between HIV and substance use were identified early in the U.S. HIV epidemic. People who use drugs are at risk of HIV infection through shared injection equipment and risky sexual behaviors. In addition, substance use has negative health consequences for people living with HIV. The prescription opioid misuse epidemic, linked to injection drug use, hepatitis C infection, and HIV, poses a new threat to declining HIV rates. We reviewed evidence-based interventions that decrease HIV risk in people who use drugs (needle/syringe programs, medication-assisted treatment, engagement in HIV care, and preexposure prophylaxis/postexposure prophylaxis). The critical roles of nurses in HIV prevention/care for this population are described, including applying the principles of harm reduction, screening for substance use, and undertaking implementation and research efforts. As the nation's largest health care profession, nurses are positioned to contribute to the quality of HIV-related prevention/care for people who use drugs and to lead practice initiatives.
Neighborhood determinants of mood and anxiety disorders among men who have sex with men in New York CityCerdá, M., Nandi, V., Frye, V., Egan, J. E., Rundle, A., Quinn, J. W., Sheehan, D., Hoover, D. R., Ompad, D. C., Van Tieu, H., Greene, E., & Koblin, B.
Journal titleSocial psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology
Page(s)749-760AbstractPurpose: We examined the relationship between economic, physical, and social characteristics of neighborhoods, where men who have sex with men (MSM) lived and socialized, and symptom scores of depression and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods: Participants came from a cross-sectional study of a population-based sample of New York City MSM recruited in 2010–2012 (n = 1126). Archival and survey-based data were obtained on neighborhoods, where the men lived and where they socialized most often. Results: MSM who socialized in neighborhoods with more economic deprivation and greater general neighborhood attachment experienced higher GAD symptoms. The relationship between general attachment to neighborhoods where MSM socialized and mental health depended on the level of gay community attachment: in neighborhoods characterized by greater gay community attachment, general neighborhood attachment was negatively associated with GAD symptoms, while in low gay community attachment neighborhoods, general neighborhood attachment had a positive association with GAD symptoms. Conclusions: This study illustrates the downsides of having deep ties to social neighborhoods when they occur in the absence of broader access to ties with the community of one’s sexual identity. Interventions that help MSM cross the spatial boundaries of their social neighborhoods and promote integration of MSM into the broader gay community may contribute to the reduction of elevated rates of depression and anxiety in this population.
Patterns of harm reduction service utilization and HIV incidence among people who inject drugs in Ukraine: A two-part latent profile analysisOmpad, D. C., Wang, J., Dumchev, K., Barska, J., Samko, M., Zeziulin, O., Saliuk, T., Varetska, O., & DeHovitz, J.
Journal titleInternational Journal of Drug Policy
Page(s)7-15AbstractBackground Program utilization patterns are described within a large network of harm reduction service providers in Ukraine. The relationship between utilization patterns and HIV incidence is determined among people who inject drugs (PWID) controlling for oblast-level HIV incidence and treatment/syringe coverage. Methods Data were extracted from the network's monitoring and evaluation database (January 2011–September 2014, n = 327,758 clients). Latent profile analysis was used to determine harm reduction utilization patterns using the number of HIV tests received annually and the number of condoms, syringes, and services (i.e., information and counseling sessions) received monthly over a year. Cox proportional hazards regression determined the relations between HIV seroconversion and utilization class membership. Results In the final 4-class model, class 1 (34.0% of clients) received 0.1 HIV tests, 1.3 syringes, 0.6 condom and minimal counseling and information sessions per month; class 2 (33.6%) received 8.6 syringes, 3.2 condoms, and 0.5 HIV tests and counseling and information sessions; class 3 (19.1%) received 1 HIV test, 11.9 syringes, 4.3 condoms, and 0.7 information and counseling sessions; class 4 (13.3%) received 1 HIV test, 26.1 syringes, 10.3 condoms, and 1.8 information and 1.9 counseling sessions. Class 4 clients had significantly decreased risk for HIV seroconversion as compared to those in class 1 after controlling for oblast-level characteristics. Conclusion Injection drug use continues to be a major mode of HIV transmission in Ukraine, making evaluation of harm reduction efforts in reducing HIV incidence among PWID critical. These analyses suggest that receiving more syringes and condoms decreased risk of HIV. Scaling up HIV testing and harm reduction services is warranted.
Self-Reported Ecstasy/MDMA/“Molly” Use in a Sample of Nightclub and Dance Festival Attendees in New York CityPalamar, J. J., Acosta, P., Ompad, D. C., & Cleland, C. M.
Journal titleSubstance Use and Misuse
Page(s)82-91AbstractBackground: Ecstasy (MDMA) use has regained popularity in the United States, particularly in the form of “Molly,” which is often marketed as pure MDMA. Surveys have generally not included “Molly” in the definition of ecstasy, so rates of use may be underestimated. As popularity of ecstasy increases, research is needed to examine use among those at highest risk for use—nightlife attendees. Methods: We surveyed 679 young adults (age 18–25) entering nightclubs and festivals holding electronic dance music (EDM) parties in New York City in 2015. A variation of time-space sampling was utilized. We examined prevalence and correlates of self-reported lifetime ecstasy use. Results: Self-reported lifetime ecstasy use was common (42.8%, 95% CI: 32.8, 52.7). Use was most common among older participants, frequent party attendees, and those reporting higher levels of exposure to users. Those surveyed outside of festivals were less likely to report use compared to those surveyed outside of nightclubs (AOR = 0.37, p =.015). Over a third of ecstasy users (36.8%)reported use in pill, powder, and crystal form. Ecstasy users were also more likely to report use of other drugs, including novel psychoactive substances (e.g., 2C series drugs, synthetic cathinones [“bath salts”]). Half (50.4%) reported suspecting (21.9%) or finding out (28.5%) that their ecstasy had ever contained a drug other than MDMA. Conclusion: A large percentage of nightlife attendees in NYC report lifetime ecstasy use. Findings should inform prevention and harm reduction programming. Further research is needed as ecstasy continues to change (e.g., in form, purity, and name).