Donna Shelley

Donna Shelley
Donna Shelley
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Vice Dean for Research

Professor of Public Health Policy and Management

Director of the Global Center for Implementation Science

Professional overview

Dr. Shelley is a tenured Professor and Vice Dean for Research in the Department of Public Health Policy and Management and the founding Director of the Global Center for Implementation Science and Practice at the NYU School of Global Public Health. She conducts translational, population-based, and policy-relevant research that aims to accelerate dissemination and implementation of tobacco use treatment in safety net health care delivery systems and implementation of tobacco control policies. This research has been funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Drug Abuse, National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the New York State Department of Health.

Dr. Shelley’s implementation research focuses on building the evidence for effective theory-driven strategies that target barriers to implementation and sustainability of evidence-based tobacco use treatment in primary care settings in the U.S and Viet Nam. Her research is also addressing the growing dual burden of noncommunicable and communicable diseases in LMICs and, specifically, the health impact on people living with HIV/AIDS. With funding from the NCI, Dr. Shelley is conducting a randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of behavioral interventions and pharmacotherapy to improve cessation outcomes among people living with HIV/AIDs who use tobacco, and simultaneously, answering questions about the feasibility and effectiveness of implementation strategies to improve adoption of tobacco use treatment in HIV care settings in Viet Nam.  An example of her policy research includes a recently completed NCI-funded study that evaluated the impact of the US federally mandated smoke free public housing policy on exposure to secondhand smoke and explored the implementation process to identify strategies with the potential to improve the process and maximize public health impact.

Education

BS, University of Pennsylvania, PA
MD, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY
MPH, Health Policy and Management, Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health, NY

Areas of research and study

Health Systems Strengthening
Implementation science
Tobacco Cessation
Tobacco Policy

Publications

Publications

State of the Science of Scale-Up of Cancer Prevention and Early Detection Interventions in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Scoping Review

Friebel-Klingner, T. M., Alvarez, G. G., Lappen, H., Pace, L. E., Huang, K. Y., Fernández, M. E., Shelley, D., & Rositch, A. F. (n.d.).

Publication year

2024

Journal title

JCO Global Oncology

Volume

10

Page(s)

e2300238
Abstract
Abstract
PURPOSE: Cancer deaths in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) will nearly double by 2040. Available evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for cancer prevention and early detection can reduce cancer-related mortality, yet there is a lack of evidence on effectively scaling these EBIs in LMIC settings. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review to identify published literature from six databases between 2012 and 2022 that described efforts for scaling cancer prevention and early detection EBIs in LMICs. Included studies met one of two definitions of scale-up: (1) deliberate efforts to increase the impact of effective intervention to benefit more people or (2) an intervention shown to be efficacious on a small scale expanded under real-world conditions to reach a greater proportion of eligible population. Study characteristics, including EBIs, implementation strategies, and outcomes used, were summarized using frameworks from the field of implementation science. RESULTS: This search yielded 3,076 abstracts, with 24 studies eligible for inclusion. Included studies focused on a number of cancer sites including cervical (67%), breast (13%), breast and cervical (13%), liver (4%), and colon (4%). Commonly reported scale-up strategies included developing stakeholder inter-relationships, training and education, and changing infrastructure. Barriers to scale-up were reported at individual, health facility, and community levels. Few studies reported applying conceptual frameworks to guide strategy selection and evaluation. CONCLUSION: Although there were relatively few published reports, this scoping review offers insight into the approaches used by LMICs to scale up cancer EBIs, including common strategies and barriers. More importantly, it illustrates the urgent need to fill gaps in research to guide best practices for bringing the implementation of cancer EBIs to scale in LMICs.

A Matched Analysis of the Association Between Federally Mandated Smoke-Free Housing Policies and Health Outcomes Among Medicaid-Enrolled Children in Subsidized Housing, New York City, 2015-2019

Titus, A. R., Mijanovich, T. N., Terlizzi, K., Ellen, I. G., Anastasiou, E., Shelley, D., Wyka, K., Elbel, B., & Thorpe, L. E. (n.d.).

Publication year

2023

Journal title

American Journal of Epidemiology

Volume

192

Issue

1

Page(s)

25-33
Abstract
Abstract
Smoke-free housing policies are intended to reduce the deleterious health effects of secondhand smoke exposure, but there is limited evidence regarding their health impacts. We examined associations between implementation of a federal smoke-free housing rule by the New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) and pediatric Medicaid claims for asthma, lower respiratory tract infections, and upper respiratory tract infections in the early post-policy intervention period. We used geocoded address data to match children living in tax lots with NYCHA buildings (exposed to the policy) to children living in lots with other subsidized housing (unexposed to the policy). We constructed longitudinal difference-in-differences models to assess relative changes in monthly rates of claims between November 1, 2015, and December 31, 2019 (the policy was introduced on July 30, 2018). We also examined effect modification by baseline age group (=2, 3-6, or 7-15 years). In New York City, introduction of a smoke-free policy was not associated with lower rates of Medicaid claims for any outcomes in the early postpolicy period. Exposure to the smoke-free policy was associated with slightly higher than expected rates of outpatient upper respiratory tract infection claims (incidence rate ratio = 1.05, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.08), a result most pronounced among children aged 3-6 years. Ongoing monitoring is essential to understanding long-term health impacts of smoke-free housing policies.

An effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial of phone-based tobacco cessation interventions in the Lebanese primary healthcare system: protocol for project PHOENICS

Salloum, R. G., Romani, M., Bteddini, D. S., El-Jardali, F., Lee, J. H., Theis, R., LeLaurin, J. H., Hamadeh, R., Osman, M., Abla, R., Khaywa, J., Ward, K. D., Shelley, D., & Nakkash, R. (n.d.).

Publication year

2023

Journal title

Implementation Science Communications

Volume

4

Issue

1
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Tobacco use remains the leading cause of preventable disease, disability, and death in the world. Lebanon has an exceptionally high tobacco use burden. The World Health Organization endorses smoking cessation advice integrated into primary care settings as well as easily accessible and free phone-based counseling and low-cost pharmacotherapy as standard of practice for population-level tobacco dependence treatment. Although these interventions can increase access to tobacco treatment and are highly cost-effective compared with other interventions, their evidence base comes primarily from high-income countries, and they have rarely been evaluated in low- and middle-income countries. Recommended interventions are not integrated as a routine part of primary care in Lebanon, as in other low-resource settings. Addressing this evidence-to-practice gap requires research on multi-level interventions and contextual factors for implementing integrated, scalable, and sustainable cessation treatment within low-resource settings. Methods: The objective of this study is to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of promising multi-component interventions for implementing evidence-based tobacco treatment in primary healthcare centers within the Lebanese National Primary Healthcare Network. We will adapt and tailor an existing in-person smoking cessation program to deliver phone-based counseling to smokers in Lebanon. We will then conduct a three-arm group-randomized trial of 1500 patients across 24 clinics comparing (1) ask about tobacco use; advise to quit; assist with brief counseling (AAA) as standard care; (2) ask; advise; connect to phone-based counseling (AAC); and (3) AAC + nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). We will also evaluate the implementation process to measure factors that influence implementation. Our central hypothesis is that connecting patients to phone-based counseling with NRT is the most effective alternative. This study will be guided by the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment (EPIS) framework, supported by Proctor’s framework for implementation outcomes. Discussion: The project addresses the evidence-to-practice gap in the provision of tobacco dependence treatment within low-resource settings by developing and testing contextually tailored multi-level interventions while optimizing implementation success and sustainability. This research is significant for its potential to guide the large-scale adoption of cost-effective strategies for implementing tobacco dependence treatment in low-resource settings, thereby reducing tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05628389, Registered 16 November 2022.

Attitudes, perceptions, and preferences towards SARS CoV-2 testing and vaccination among African American and Hispanic public housing residents, New York City: 2020–2021

Izeogu, C., Gill, E., Van Allen, K., Williams, N., Thorpe, L. E., & Shelley, D. (n.d.).

Publication year

2023

Journal title

PloS one

Volume

18

Issue

1
Abstract
Abstract
Background African American and Hispanic populations have been affected disproportionately by COVID-19. Reasons are multifactorial and include social and structural determinants of health. During the onset and height of the pandemic, evidence suggested decreased access to SARS CoV-2 testing. In 2020, the National Institutes of Health launched the Rapid Acceleration of Diagnostics (RADx)- Underserved Populations initiative to improve SARS CoV-2 testing in underserved communities. In this study, we explored attitudes, experiences, and barriers to SARS CoV-2 testing and vaccination among New York City public housing residents. Methods Between December 2020 and March 2021, we conducted 9 virtual focus groups among 36 low-income minority residents living in New York City public housing. Results Among residents reporting a prior SARS CoV-2 test, main reasons for testing were to prepare for a medical procedure or because of a high-risk exposure. Barriers to testing included fear of discomfort from the nasal swab, fear of exposure to COVID-19 while traveling to get tested, concerns about the consequences of testing positive and the belief that testing was not necessary. Residents reported a mistrust of information sources and the health care system in general; they depended more on “word of mouth” for information. The major barrier to vaccination was lack of trust in vaccine safety. Residents endorsed more convenient testing, onsite testing at residential buildings, and home self-test kits. Residents also emphasized the need for language-concordant information sharing and for information to come from “people who look like [them] and come from the same background as [them]”. Conclusions Barriers to SARS CoV-2 testing and vaccination centered on themes of a lack of accurate information, fear, mistrust, safety, and convenience. Resident-endorsed strategies to increase testing include making testing easier to access either through home or onsite testing locations. Education and information sharing by trusted members of the community are important tools to combat misinformation and build trust.

Could international human rights obligations motivate countries to implement tobacco cessation support?

Meier, B. M., Raw, M., Shelley, D., Bostic, C., Gupta, A., Romeo-Stuppy, K., & Huber, L. (n.d.).

Publication year

2023

Journal title

Addiction

Volume

118

Issue

3

Page(s)

399-406
Abstract
Abstract
Background and aims: The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) seeks to realize the right to health through national tobacco control policies. However, few states have met their obligations under Article 14 of the FCTC to develop evidence-based policies to support tobacco cessation. This article examines how human rights obligations could provide a legal and moral basis for states to implement greater support for individuals to overcome their addiction to tobacco. Analysis: The United Nations (UN) has a well-established legal framework for promoting human rights, looking to the right to health to realize health autonomy. Where addiction undermines autonomy, it is widely acknowledged that addiction presents a significant barrier to cessation for individuals who use tobacco, undermining the right to health. The UN human rights system could, therefore, provide a complementary basis for monitoring state obligations under Article 14 of the FCTC, identifying challenges to FCTC implementation and motivating states to support tobacco cessation. Conclusions: The United Nations' human rights system offers a mechanism that could be used to monitor Framework Convention on Tobacco Control implementation in national policy, facilitating accountability for the progressive realization of cessation support.

Data envelopment analysis to evaluate the efficiency of tobacco treatment programs in the NCI Moonshot Cancer Center Cessation Initiative

Pluta, K., Hohl, S. D., D’Angelo, H., Ostroff, J. S., Shelley, D., Asvat, Y., Chen, L. S., Cummings, K. M., Dahl, N., Day, A. T., Fleisher, L., Goldstein, A. O., Hayes, R., Hitsman, B., Buckles, D. H., King, A. C., Lam, C. Y., Lenhoff, K., Levinson, A. H., … Salloum, R. G. (n.d.).

Publication year

2023

Journal title

Implementation Science Communications

Volume

4

Issue

1
Abstract
Abstract
Background: The Cancer Center Cessation Initiative (C3I) is a National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Moonshot Program that supports NCI-designated cancer centers developing tobacco treatment programs for oncology patients who smoke. C3I-funded centers implement evidence-based programs that offer various smoking cessation treatment components (e.g., counseling, Quitline referrals, access to medications). While evaluation of implementation outcomes in C3I is guided by evaluation of reach and effectiveness (via RE-AIM), little is known about technical efficiency—i.e., how inputs (e.g., program costs, staff time) influence implementation outcomes (e.g., reach, effectiveness). This study demonstrates the application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) as an implementation science tool to evaluate technical efficiency of C3I programs and advance prioritization of implementation resources. Methods: DEA is a linear programming technique widely used in economics and engineering for assessing relative performance of production units. Using data from 16 C3I-funded centers reported in 2020, we applied input-oriented DEA to model technical efficiency (i.e., proportion of observed outcomes to benchmarked outcomes for given input levels). The primary models used the constant returns-to-scale specification and featured cost-per-participant, total full-time equivalent (FTE) effort, and tobacco treatment specialist effort as model inputs and reach and effectiveness (quit rates) as outcomes. Results: In the DEA model featuring cost-per-participant (input) and reach/effectiveness (outcomes), average constant returns-to-scale technical efficiency was 25.66 (SD = 24.56). When stratified by program characteristics, technical efficiency was higher among programs in cohort 1 (M = 29.15, SD = 28.65, n = 11) vs. cohort 2 (M = 17.99, SD = 10.16, n = 5), with point-of-care (M = 33.90, SD = 28.63, n = 9) vs. no point-of-care services (M = 15.59, SD = 14.31, n = 7), larger (M = 33.63, SD = 30.38, n = 8) vs. smaller center size (M = 17.70, SD = 15.00, n = 8), and higher (M = 29.65, SD = 30.99, n = 8) vs. lower smoking prevalence (M = 21.67, SD = 17.21, n = 8). Conclusion: Most C3I programs assessed were technically inefficient relative to the most efficient center benchmark and may be improved by optimizing the use of inputs (e.g., cost-per-participant) relative to program outcomes (e.g., reach, effectiveness). This study demonstrates the appropriateness and feasibility of using DEA to evaluate the relative performance of evidence-based programs.

Emergency Nurses’ Perceived Barriers and Solutions to Engaging Patients With Life-Limiting Illnesses in Serious Illness Conversations: A United States Multicenter Mixed-Method Analysis

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Publication year

2023

Journal title

Journal of Emergency Nursing
Abstract
Abstract
Introduction: This study aimed to assess emergency nurses’ perceived barriers toward engaging patients in serious illness conversations. Methods: Using a mixed-method (quant + QUAL) convergent design, we pooled data on the emergency nurses who underwent the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium training across 33 emergency departments. Data were extracted from the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium post-training questionnaire, comprising a 5-item survey and 1 open-ended question. Our quantitative analysis employed a cross-sectional design to assess the proportion of emergency nurses who report that they will encounter barriers in engaging seriously ill patients in serious illness conversations in the emergency department. Our qualitative analysis used conceptual content analysis to generate themes and meaning units of the perceived barriers and possible solutions toward having serious illness conversations in the emergency department. Results: A total of 2176 emergency nurses responded to the survey. Results from the quantitative analysis showed that 1473 (67.7%) emergency nurses reported that they will encounter barriers while engaging in serious illness conversations. Three thematic barriers—human factors, time constraints, and challenges in the emergency department work environment—emerged from the content analysis. Some of the subthemes included the perceived difficulty of serious illness conversations, delay in daily throughput, and lack of privacy in the emergency department. The potential solutions extracted included the need for continued training, the provision of dedicated emergency nurses to handle serious illness conversations, and the creation of dedicated spaces for serious illness conversations. Discussion: Emergency nurses may encounter barriers while engaging in serious illness conversations. Institutional-level policies may be required in creating a palliative care-friendly emergency department work environment.

Facilitation of team-based care to improve HTN management and outcomes: a protocol for a randomized stepped wedge trial

Shelley, D. R., Brown, D., Cleland, C. M., Pham-Singer, H., Zein, D., Chang, J. E., & Wu, W. Y. (n.d.).

Publication year

2023

Journal title

BMC health services research

Volume

23

Issue

1
Abstract
Abstract
Background: There are well-established guidelines for treating hypertension (HTN), yet only half of patients with HTN meet the defined target of < 140/90. Team-based care (TBC) is an evidence-based strategy for improving blood pressure (BP) management and control. TBC is defined as the provision of health services by at least two health professionals “who work collaboratively with patients and their caregivers to accomplish shared goals to achieve coordinated, high-quality care”. However, primary care practices experience challenges to implementing TBC principles and care processes; these are more pronounced in small independent practice settings (SIPs). Practice facilitation (PF) is an implementation strategy that may overcome barriers to adopting evidence-based TBC to improve HTN management in SIPs. Methods: Using a stepped wedge randomized controlled trial design, we will test the effect of PF on the adoption of TBC to improve HTN management in small practices (< 5 FTE clinicians) in New York City, and the impact on BP control compared with usual care. We will enroll 90 SIPs and randomize them into one of three 12-month intervention waves. Practice facilitators will support SIPs to adopt TBC principles to improve implementation of five HTN management strategies (i.e., panel management, population health, measuring BP, supporting medication adherence, self-management). The primary outcome is the adoption of TBC for HTN management measured at baseline and 12 months. Secondary outcomes include the rate of BP control and sustainability of TBC and BP outcomes at 18 months. Aggregated data on BP measures are collected every 6 months in all clusters so that each cluster provides data points in both the control and intervention conditions. Using a mixed methods approach, we will also explore factors that influence the effectiveness of PF at the organization and team level. Discussion: This study will provide much-needed guidance on how to optimize adoption and sustainability of TBC in independent primary care settings to reduce the burden of disease related to suboptimal BP control and advance understanding of how facilitation works to improve implementation of evidence-based interventions. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT05413252 .

Four very basic ways to think about policy in implementation science

Purtle, J., Moucheraud, C., Yang, L. H., & Shelley, D. (n.d.).

Publication year

2023

Journal title

Implementation Science Communications

Volume

4

Issue

1
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Policy is receiving increasing attention in the field of implementation science. However, there remains a lack of clear, concise guidance about how policy can be conceptualized in implementation science research. Building on Curran’s article “Implementation science made too simple”—which defines “the thing” as the intervention, practice, or innovation in need of implementation support—we offer a typology of four very basic ways to conceptualize policy in implementation science research. We provide examples of studies that have conceptualized policy in these different ways and connect aspects of the typology to established frameworks in the field. The typology simplifies and refines related typologies in the field. Four very basic ways to think about policy in implementation science research. 1) Policy as something to adopt: an evidence-supported policy proposal is conceptualized as “the thing” and the goal of research is to understand how policymaking processes can be modified to increase adoption, and thus reach, of the evidence-supported policy. Policy-focused dissemination research is well-suited to achieve this goal. 2) Policy as something to implement: a policy, evidence-supported or not, is conceptualized as “the thing” and the goal of research is to generate knowledge about how policy rollout (or policy de-implementation) can be optimized to maximize benefits for population health and health equity. Policy-focused implementation research is well-suited to achieve this goal. 3) Policy as context to understand: an evidence-supported intervention is “the thing” and policies are conceptualized as a fixed determinant of implementation outcomes. The goal of research is to understand the mechanisms through which policies affect implementation of the evidence-supported intervention. 4) Policy as strategy to use: an evidence-supported intervention is “the thing” and policy is conceptualized as a strategy to affect implementation outcomes. The goal of research is to understand, and ideally test, how policy strategies affect implementation outcomes related to the evidence-supported intervention. Conclusion: Policy can be conceptualized in multiple, non-mutually exclusive ways in implementation science. Clear conceptualizations of these distinctions are important to advancing the field of policy-focused implementation science and promoting the integration of policy into the field more broadly.

How does facilitation in healthcare work? Using mechanism mapping to illuminate the black box of a meta-implementation strategy

Kilbourne, A. M., Geng, E., Eshun-Wilson, I., Sweeney, S., Shelley, D., Cohen, D. J., Kirchner, J. A. E., Fernandez, M. E., & Parchman, M. L. (n.d.).

Publication year

2023

Journal title

Implementation Science Communications

Volume

4

Issue

1
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Healthcare facilitation, an implementation strategy designed to improve the uptake of effective clinical innovations in routine practice, has produced promising yet mixed results in randomized implementation trials and has not been fully researched across different contexts. Objective: Using mechanism mapping, which applies directed acyclic graphs that decompose an effect of interest into hypothesized causal steps and mechanisms, we propose a more concrete description of how healthcare facilitation works to inform its further study as a meta-implementation strategy. Methods: Using a modified Delphi consensus process, co-authors developed the mechanistic map based on a three-step process. First, they developed an initial logic model by collectively reviewing the literature and identifying the most relevant studies of healthcare facilitation components and mechanisms to date. Second, they applied the logic model to write vignettes describing how facilitation worked (or did not) based on recent empirical trials that were selected via consensus for inclusion and diversity in contextual settings (US, international sites). Finally, the mechanistic map was created based on the collective findings from the vignettes. Findings: Theory-based healthcare facilitation components informing the mechanistic map included staff engagement, role clarification, coalition-building through peer experiences and identifying champions, capacity-building through problem solving barriers, and organizational ownership of the implementation process. Across the vignettes, engagement of leaders and practitioners led to increased socialization of the facilitator’s role in the organization. This in turn led to clarifying of roles and responsibilities among practitioners and identifying peer experiences led to increased coherence and sense-making of the value of adopting effective innovations. Increased trust develops across leadership and practitioners through expanded capacity in adoption of the effective innovation by identifying opportunities that mitigated barriers to practice change. Finally, these mechanisms led to eventual normalization and ownership of the effective innovation and healthcare facilitation process. Impact: Mapping methodology provides a novel perspective of mechanisms of healthcare facilitation, notably how sensemaking, trust, and normalization contribute to quality improvement. This method may also enable more efficient and impactful hypothesis-testing and application of complex implementation strategies, with high relevance for lower-resourced settings, to inform effective innovation uptake.

Long-Term Trends in Secondhand Smoke Exposure in High-Rise Housing Serving Low-Income Residents in New York City: Three-Year Evaluation of a Federal Smoking Ban in Public Housing, 2018-2021

Anastasiou, E., Gordon, T., Wyka, K., Tovar, A., Gill, E., Rule, A. M., Elbel, B., Kaplan, J. D., Shelley, D., & Thorpe, L. E. (n.d.).

Publication year

2023

Journal title

Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco

Volume

25

Issue

1

Page(s)

164-169
Abstract
Abstract
INTRODUCTION: In July 2018, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development passed a rule requiring public housing authorities to implement smoke-free housing (SFH) policies. We measured secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure immediately before, and repeatedly up to 36 months post-SFH policy implementation in a purposeful sample of 21 New York City (NYC) high-rise buildings (>15 floors): 10 NYC Housing Authority (NYCHA) buildings subject to the policy and 11 privately managed buildings in which most residents received housing vouchers (herein "Section 8"). AIMS AND METHODS: We invited participants from nonsmoking households (NYCHA n = 157, Section-8 n = 118) to enroll in a longitudinal air monitoring study, measuring (1) nicotine concentration with passive, bisulfate-coated filters, and (2) particulate matter (PM2.5) with low-cost particle sensors. We also measured nicotine concentrations and counted cigarette butts in common areas (n = 91 stairwells and hallways). We repeated air monitoring sessions in households and common areas every 6 months, totaling six post-policy sessions. RESULTS: After 3 years, we observed larger declines in nicotine concentration in NYCHA hallways than in Section-8, [difference-in-difference (DID) = -1.92 µg/m3 (95% CI -2.98, -0.87), p = .001]. In stairwells, nicotine concentration declines were larger in NYCHA buildings, but the differences were not statistically significant [DID= -1.10 µg/m3 (95% CI -2.40, 0.18), p = .089]. In households, there was no differential change in nicotine concentration (p = .093) or in PM2.5 levels (p = .385). CONCLUSIONS: Nicotine concentration reductions in NYCHA common areas over 3 years may be attributable to the SFH policy, reflecting its gradual implementation over this time. IMPLICATIONS: Continued air monitoring over multiple years has demonstrated that SHS exposure may be declining more rapidly in NYCHA common areas as a result of SFH policy adherence. This may have positive implications for improved health outcomes among those living in public housing, but additional tracking of air quality and studies of health outcomes are needed. Ongoing efforts by NYCHA to integrate the SFH policy into wider healthier-homes initiatives may increase policy compliance.

Practice facilitation for scale up of clinical decision support for hypertension management: study protocol for a cluster randomized control trial

Blecker, S., Gannon, M., De Leon, S., Shelley, D., Wu, W. Y., Tabaei, B., Magno, J., & Pham-Singer, H. (n.d.).

Publication year

2023

Journal title

Contemporary Clinical Trials

Volume

129
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Only half of patients with hypertension have adequately controlled blood pressure. Clinical decision support (CDS) has the potential to overcome barriers to delivering guideline-recommended care and improve hypertension management. However, optimal strategies for scaling CDS have not been well established, particularly in small, independent primary care practices which often lack the resources to effectively change practice routines. Practice facilitation is an implementation strategy that has been shown to support process changes. Our objective is to evaluate whether practice facilitation provided with hypertension-focused CDS can lead to improvements in blood pressure control for patients seen in small primary care practices. Methods/design: We will conduct a cluster randomized control trial to compare the effect of hypertension-focused CDS plus practice facilitation on BP control, as compared to CDS alone. The practice facilitation intervention will include an initial training in the CDS and a review of current guidelines along with follow-up for coaching and integration support. We will randomize 46 small primary care practices in New York City who use the same electronic health record vendor to intervention or control. All patients with hypertension seen at these practices will be included in the evaluation. We will also assess implementation of CDS in all practices and practice facilitation in the intervention group. Discussion: The results of this study will inform optimal implementation of CDS into small primary care practices, where much of care delivery occurs in the U.S. Additionally, our assessment of barriers and facilitators to implementation will support future scaling of the intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov

Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation during the Shanghai 2022 Lockdown: A cross-sectional study

Hall, B. J., Li, G., Chen, W., Shelley, D., & Tang, W. (n.d.).

Publication year

2023

Journal title

Journal of Affective Disorders

Volume

330

Page(s)

283-290
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Common mental disorders and suicidal ideation are associated with exposures to COVID-19 pandemic stressors, including lockdown. Limited data is available on the effect of city-wide lockdowns on population mental health. In April 2022, Shanghai entered a city-wide lockdown that sealed 24 million residents in their homes or residential compounds. The rapid initiation of the lockdown disrupted food systems, spurred economic losses, and widespread fear. The associated mental health effects of a lockdown of this magnitude are largely unknown. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation during this unprecedented lockdown. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data were obtained via purposive sampling across 16 districts in Shanghai. Online surveys were distributed between April 29 and June 1, 2022. All participants were physically present and residents of Shanghai during the lockdown. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between lockdown-related stressors and study outcomes, adjusting for covariates. Findings: A total of 3230 Shanghai residents who personally experienced the lockdown participated the survey, with 1657 (55.5 %) men, 1563 (44.3 %) women, and 10 (0.02 %) other, and a median age of 32 (IQR 26–39), who were predominately 3242 (96.9 %) Han Chinese. The overall prevalence of depression based on PHQ-9 was 26.1 % (95 % CI, 24.8 %–27.4 %), 20.1 % (18.3 %–22.0 %) for anxiety based on GAD-7, and 3.8 % (2.9 %–4.8 %) for suicidal ideation based on ASQ. The prevalence of all outcomes was higher among younger adults, single people, lower income earners, migrants, those in poor health, and with a previous psychiatric diagnosis or suicide attempt. The odds of depression and anxiety were associated with job loss, income loss, and lockdown-related fear. Higher odds of anxiety and suicidal ideation were associated with being in close contact with a COVID-19 case. Moderate food insecurity was reported by 1731 (51.8 %), and 498 (14.6 %) reported severe food insecurity. Moderate food insecurity was associated with a >3-fold increase in the odds of screening for depression and anxiety and reporting suicidal ideation (aOR from 3.15 to 3.84); severe food insecurity was associated with >5-fold increased odds for depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation (aOR from 5.21 to 10.87), compared to being food secure. Interpretation: Lockdown stressors, including food insecurity, job and income loss, and lockdown-related fears, were associated with increased odds of mental health outcomes. COVID-19 elimination strategies including lockdowns should be balanced against the effects on population wellbeing. Strategies to avoid unneeded lockdown, and policies that can strengthen food systems and protect against economic shocks are needed. Funding: Funding was provided by the NYU Shanghai Center for Global Health Equity.

Synchronous Home-Based Telemedicine for Primary Care: A Review

Lindenfeld, Z., Berry, C., Albert, S., Massar, R., Shelley, D., Kwok, L., Fennelly, K., & Chang, J. E. (n.d.).

Publication year

2023

Journal title

Medical Care Research and Review

Volume

80

Issue

1

Page(s)

3-15
Abstract
Abstract
Synchronous home-based telemedicine for primary care experienced growth during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. A review was conducted on the evidence reporting on the feasibility of synchronous telemedicine implementation within primary care, barriers and facilitators to implementation and use, patient characteristics associated with use or nonuse, and quality and cost/revenue-related outcomes. Initial database searches yielded 1,527 articles, of which 22 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Synchronous telemedicine was considered appropriate for visits not requiring a physical examination. Benefits included decreased travel and wait times, and improved access to care. For certain services, visit quality was comparable to in-person care, and patient and provider satisfaction was high. Facilitators included proper technology, training, and reimbursement policies that created payment parity between telemedicine and in-person care. Barriers included technological issues, such as low technical literacy and poor internet connectivity among certain patient populations, and communication barriers for patients requiring translators or additional resources to communicate.

The POP (Permanent Supportive Housing Overdose Prevention) Study: protocol for a hybrid type 3 stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial

Doran, K. M., Torsiglieri, A., Blaufarb, S., Hernandez, P., Melnick, E., Velez, L., Cleland, C. M., Neighbors, C., O’Grady, M. A., & Shelley, D. (n.d.).

Publication year

2023

Journal title

Implementation Science

Volume

18

Issue

1
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Permanent supportive housing (PSH)—subsidized housing paired with support services such as case management—is a key part of national strategic plans to end homelessness. PSH tenants face high overdose risk due to a confluence of individual and environmental risk factors, yet little research has examined overdose prevention in PSH. Methods: We describe the protocol for a hybrid type 3 stepped-wedge cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) of overdose prevention practice implementation in PSH. We adapted evidence-based overdose prevention practices and implementation strategies for PSH using input from stakeholder focus groups. The trial will include 20 PSH buildings (with building size ranging from 20 to over 150 tenants) across New York City and New York’s Capital Region. Buildings will be randomized to one of four 6-month intervention waves during which they will receive a package of implementation support including training in using a PSH Overdose Prevention (POP) Toolkit, time-limited practice facilitation, and learning collaboratives delivered to staff and tenant implementation champions appointed by each building. The primary outcome is building-level fidelity to a defined list of overdose prevention practices. Secondary and exploratory implementation and effectiveness outcomes will be examined using PSH staff and tenant survey questionnaires, and analysis of tenant Medicaid data. We will explore factors related to implementation success, including barriers and facilitators, using qualitative interviews with key stakeholders. The project is being conducted through an academic-community partnership, and an Advisory Board including PSH tenants and other key stakeholders will be engaged in all stages of the project. Discussion: We describe the protocol for a hybrid type 3 stepped-wedge cluster RCT of overdose prevention practice implementation in PSH. This study will be the first controlled trial of overdose prevention implementation in PSH settings. The research will make a significant impact by testing and informing future implementation strategies to prevent overdose for a population at particularly high risk for overdose mortality. Findings from this PSH-focused research are expected to be broadly applicable to other housing settings and settings serving people experiencing homelessness. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05786222 , registered 27 March 2023.

Accelerating integration of tobacco use treatment in the context of lung cancer screening: Relevance and application of implementation science to achieving policy and practice

Shelley, D., Wang, V. H. C., Taylor, K., Williams, R., Toll, B., Rojewski, A., Foley, K. L., Rigotti, N., & Ostroff, J. S. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

Translational Behavioral Medicine

Volume

12

Issue

11

Page(s)

1076-1083
Abstract
Abstract
Based on the findings from the National Lung Screening Trial, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends annual low dose computed tomography (LDCT) lung cancer screening (LCS) among high-risk adults. Approximately 54% of individuals seeking LCS report current cigarette smoking. Effective smoking cessation interventions, offered at the time of LCS, enhances the health benefits of screening that are attributable to reductions in lung cancer overall and tobacco-related mortality. Considering these data, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' (CMS) 2015 decision to cover LCS with LDCT required that radiology imaging facilities make tobacco cessation interventions available for people who smoke. In February 2022, CMS reversed their 2015 coverage requirement for delivering tobacco use treatment at the time of LDCT; CMS retained the requirement for counseling during the shared decision-making visit prior to the exam. The policy change does not diminish the importance of offering high-quality tobacco cessation services in conjunction with routine LDCT for LCS. However, LCS programs face a range of barriers to implementing tobacco use treatment in their settings. As a result, implementation has lagged. Closing the "evidence to practice"gap is the focus of implementation science, a field that offers a set of rigorous methods and a systematic approach to identifying and overcoming contextual barriers to implementing evidence-based guidelines in a range of clinical settings. In this paper, we describe how implementation science frameworks and methods can be used to help guide LCS programs in their efforts to integrate tobacco use treatment and discuss policy changes needed to further facilitate the delivery of TUT as an essential component of the LCS process.

Adapting a tobacco cessation treatment intervention and implementation strategies to enhance implementation effectiveness and clinical outcomes in the context of HIV care in Vietnam: a case study

Shelley, D., Alvarez, G. G., Nguyen, T., Nguyen, N., Goldsamt, L., Cleland, C., Tozan, Y., Shuter, J., & Armstrong-Hough, M. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

Implementation Science Communications

Volume

3

Issue

1
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Smoking rates remain high in Vietnam, particularly among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH), but tobacco cessation services are not available in outpatient HIV clinics (OPCs). The research team is conducting a type II hybrid randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the cost-effectiveness of three tobacco cessation interventions among PLWH receiving care in HIV clinics in Vietnam. The study is simultaneously evaluating the implementation processes and outcomes of strategies aimed at increasing the implementation of tobacco dependence treatment (TDT) in the context of HIV care. This paper describes the systematic, theory-driven process of adapting intervention components and implementation strategies with demonstrated effectiveness in high-income countries, and more recently in Vietnam, to a new population (i.e., PLWH) and new clinical setting, prior to launching the trial. Methods: Data collection and analyses were guided by two implementation science frameworks and the socio-ecological model. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 13 health care providers and 24 patients in three OPCs. Workflow analyses were conducted in each OPC. Qualitative data were analyzed using rapid qualitative analysis procedures. Based on findings, components of the intervention and implementation strategies were adapted, followed by a 3-month pilot study in one OPC with 16 patients randomized to one of two intervention arms. Results: The primary adaptations included modifying the TDT intervention counseling content to address barriers to quitting among PLWH and Vietnamese sociocultural norms that support smoking cessation. Implementation strategies (i.e., training and system changes) were adapted to respond to provider- and clinic-level determinants of implementation effectiveness (e.g., knowledge gaps, OPC resource constraints, staffing structure, compatibility). Conclusions: Adaptations were facilitated through a mixed method, stakeholder (patient and health care provider, district health leader)-engaged evaluation of context-specific influences on intervention and implementation effectiveness. This data-driven approach to refining and adapting components aimed to optimize intervention effectiveness and implementation in the context of HIV care. Balancing pragmatism with rigor through the use of rapid analysis procedures and multiple methods increased the feasibility of the adaptation process. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05162911 . Registered on December 16, 2021.

Analyzing Trajectories of Acute Cigarette Reduction Post-Introduction of an E-Cigarette Using Ecological Momentary Assessment Data

Guttentag, A., Tseng, T. Y., Shelley, D., & Kirchner, T. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

International journal of environmental research and public health

Volume

19

Issue

12
Abstract
Abstract
Electronic cigarettes (ECs) may hold great potential for helping smokers transition off combustible cigarettes (CCs); however, little is known about the patterns that smokers follow when using an EC as a CC-substitute in order to ultimately reduce and quit smoking. Our primary aim in this study was to evaluate whether common patterns of CC use exist amongst individuals asked to substitute an EC for at least half of the CCs they would normally smoke. These patterns may eluci-date the immediate switching and reduction behaviors of individuals using ECs as a reduction/ces-sation tool. This analysis uses data from a randomized controlled trial of 84 adult smokers assigned to receive either 4.5% nicotine or placebo (0% nicotine) EC. Participants were advised to use the EC to help them reach a 50% reduction in cigarettes-per-day (CPD) within 3 weeks. Longitudinal trajectory analysis was used to identify CPD reduction classes amongst the sample; participants clus-tered into four distinct, linear trajectories based on daily CC use during the 3-week intervention. Higher readiness to quit smoking, prior successful quit attempts, and lower baseline CC consumption were associated with assignment into “more successful” CC reduction classes. ECs may be a useful mechanism to promote CC reduction. This study demonstrates that a fine-grained trajectory approach can be applied to examine switching patterns in the critical first weeks of an attempt.

Development of a homelessness risk screening tool for emergency department patients

Doran, K. M., Johns, E., Zuiderveen, S., Shinn, M., Dinan, K., Schretzman, M., Gelberg, L., Culhane, D., Shelley, D., & Mijanovich, T. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

Health Services Research

Volume

57

Issue

2

Page(s)

285-293
Abstract
Abstract
Objective: To develop a screening tool to identify emergency department (ED) patients at risk of entering a homeless shelter, which could inform targeting of interventions to prevent future homelessness episodes. Data sources: Linked data from (1) ED patient baseline questionnaires and (2) citywide administrative homeless shelter database. Study design: Stakeholder-informed predictive modeling utilizing ED patient questionnaires linked with prospective shelter administrative data. The outcome was shelter entry documented in administrative data within 6 months following the baseline ED visit. Exposures were responses to questions on homelessness risk factors from baseline questionnaires. Data collection/extraction methods: Research assistants completed questionnaires with randomly sampled ED patients who were medically stable, not in police/prison custody, and spoke English or Spanish. Questionnaires were linked to administrative data using deterministic and probabilistic matching. Principal findings: Of 1993 ED patients who were not homeless at baseline, 5.6% entered a shelter in the next 6 months. A screening tool consisting of two measures of past shelter use and one of past criminal justice involvement had 83.0% sensitivity and 20.4% positive predictive value for future shelter entry. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the potential of using cross-sector data to improve hospital initiatives to address patients' social needs.

Development of the ASSESS tool: a comprehenSive tool to Support rEporting and critical appraiSal of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods implementation reSearch outcomes

Ryan, N., Vieira, D., Gyamfi, J., Ojo, T., Shelley, D., Ogedegbe, O., Iwelunmor, J., & Peprah, E. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

Implementation Science Communications

Volume

3

Issue

1
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Several tools to improve reporting of implementation studies for evidence-based decision making have been created; however, no tool for critical appraisal of implementation outcomes exists. Researchers, practitioners, and policy makers lack tools to support the concurrent synthesis and critical assessment of outcomes for implementation research. Our objectives were to develop a comprehensive tool to (1) describe studies focused on implementation that use qualitative, quantitative, and/or mixed methodologies and (2) assess risk of bias of implementation outcomes. Methods: A hybrid consensus-building approach combining Delphi Group and Nominal Group techniques (NGT) was modeled after comparative methodologies for developing health research reporting guidelines and critical appraisal tools. First, an online modified NGT occurred among a small expert panel (n = 5), consisting of literature review, item generation, round robin with clarification, application of the tool to various study types, voting, and discussion. This was followed by a larger e-consensus meeting and modified Delphi process with implementers and implementation scientists (n = 32). New elements and elements of various existing tools, frameworks, and taxonomies were combined to produce the ASSESS tool. Results: The 24-item tool is applicable to a broad range of study designs employed in implementation science, including qualitative studies, randomized-control trials, non-randomized quantitative studies, and mixed methods studies. Two key features are a section for assessing bias of the implementation outcomes and sections for describing the implementation strategy and intervention implemented. An accompanying explanation and elaboration document that identifies and describes each of the items, explains the rationale, and provides examples of reporting and appraising practice, as well as templates to allow synthesis of extracted data across studies and an instructional video, has been prepared. Conclusions: The comprehensive, adaptable tool to support both reporting and critical appraisal of implementation science studies including quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods assessment of intervention and implementation outcomes has been developed. This tool can be applied to a methodologically diverse and growing body of implementation science literature to support reviews or meta-analyses that inform evidence-based decision-making regarding processes and strategies for implementation.

ED-Home: Pilot feasibility study of a targeted homelessness prevention intervention for emergency department patients with drug or unhealthy alcohol use

Fazio, D., Zuiderveen, S., Guyet, D., Reid, A., Lalane, M., McCormack, R. P., Wall, S. P., Shelley, D., Mijanovich, T., Shinn, M., & Doran, K. M. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

Academic Emergency Medicine

Volume

29

Issue

12

Page(s)

1453-1465
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Housing insecurity is prevalent among emergency department (ED) patients. Despite a surge of interest in screening for patients' social needs including housing insecurity, little research has examined ED social needs interventions. We worked together with government and community partners to develop and pilot test a homelessness prevention intervention targeted to ED patients with drug or unhealthy alcohol use. Methods: We approached randomly sampled patients at an urban public hospital ED, May to August 2019. Adult patients were eligible if they were medically stable, not incarcerated, spoke English, had unhealthy alcohol or any drug use, and were not currently homeless but screened positive for risk of future homelessness using a previously developed risk screening tool. Participants received a three-part intervention: (1) brief counseling and referral to treatment for substance use delivered through a preexisting ED program; (2) referral to Homebase, an evidence-based community homelessness prevention program; and (3) up to three troubleshooting phone calls by study staff. Participants completed surveys at baseline and 6 months. Results: Of 2183 patients screened, 51 were eligible and 40 (78.4%) participated; one later withdrew, leaving 39 participants. Participants were diverse in age, gender, race, and ethnicity. Of the 32 participants reached at 6 months, most said it was very or extremely helpful to talk to someone about their housing situation (n = 23, 71.9%) at the baseline ED visit. Thirteen (40.6%) said their housing situation had improved in the past 6 months and 16 (50.0%) said it had not changed. Twenty participants (62.5%) had made contact with a Homebase office. Participants shared ideas of how to improve the intervention. Conclusions: This pilot intervention was feasible and well received by participants though it required a large amount of screening to identify potentially eligible patients. Our findings will inform a larger future trial and may be informative for others seeking to develop similar interventions.

Effectiveness of a Multicomponent Strategy for Implementing Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use in Vietnam Commune Health Centers

Shelley, D., Cleland, C. M., Nguyen, T., Vandevanter, N., Siman, N., Van Minh, H., & Nguyen, N. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

Nicotine and Tobacco Research

Volume

24

Issue

2

Page(s)

196-203
Abstract
Abstract
Introduction: Strategies are needed to increase implementation of evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment (TDT) in health care systems in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). Aims and Methods: We conducted a two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of two strategies for implementing TDT guidelines in community health centers (n = 26) in Vietnam. Arm 1 included training and a tool kit (eg, reminder system) to promote and support delivery of the 4As (Ask about tobacco use, Advise to quit, Assess readiness, Assist with brief counseling) (Arm 1). Arm 2 included Arm 1 components plus a system to refer smokers to a community health worker (CHW) for more intensive counseling (4As + R). Provider surveys were conducted at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months to assess the hypothesized effect of the strategies on provider and organizational-level factors. The primary outcome was provider adoption of the 4As. Results: Adoption of the 4As increased significantly across both study arms (all p <. 001). Perceived organizational priority for TDT, compatibility with current workflow, and provider attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy related to TDT also improved significantly across both arms. In Arm 2 sites, 41% of smokers were referred to a CHW for additional counseling. Conclusions: The study demonstrated the effectiveness of a multicomponent and multilevel strategy (ie, provider and system) for implementing evidence-based TDT in the Vietnam public health system. Combining provider-delivered brief counseling with opportunities for more in-depth counseling offered by a trained CHW may optimize outcomes and offers a potentially scalable model for increasing access to TDT in health care systems like Vietnam. Implications: Improving implementation of evidence-based TDT guidelines is a necessary step toward reducing the growing burden of noncommunicable diseases and premature death in LMICs. The findings provide new evidence on the effectiveness of multilevel strategies for adapting and implementing TDT into routine care in Vietnam and offer a potentially scalable model for meeting Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Article 14 goals in other LMICs with comparable public health systems. The study also demonstrates that combining provider-delivered brief counseling with referral to a CHW for more in-depth counseling and support can optimize access to evidence-based treatment for tobacco use.

Generating and Reporting Electronic Clinical Quality Measures from Electronic Health Records: Strategies from EvidenceNOW Cooperatives

Richardson, J. E., Rasmussen, L. V., Dorr, D. A., Sirkin, J. T., Shelley, D., Rivera, A., Wu, W., Cykert, S., Cohen, D. J., & Kho, A. N. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

Applied Clinical Informatics

Volume

13

Issue

2

Page(s)

485-494
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Electronic clinical quality measures (eCQMs) from electronic health records (EHRs) are a key component of quality improvement (QI) initiatives in small-to-medium size primary care practices, but using eCQMs for QI can be challenging. Organizational strategies are needed to effectively operationalize eCQMs for QI in these practice settings. Objective: This study aimed to characterize strategies that seven regional cooperatives participating in the EvidenceNOW initiative developed to generate and report EHR-based eCQMs for QI in small-to-medium size practices. Methods: A qualitative study comprised of 17 interviews with representatives from all seven EvidenceNOW cooperatives was conducted. Interviewees included administrators were with both strategic and cooperative-level operational responsibilities and external practice facilitators were with hands-on experience helping practices use EHRs and eCQMs. A subteam conducted 1-hour semistructured telephone interviews with administrators and practice facilitators, then analyzed interview transcripts using immersion crystallization. The analysis and a conceptual model were vetted and approved by the larger group of coauthors. Results: Cooperative strategies consisted of efforts in four key domains. First, cooperative adaptation shaped overall strategies for calculating eCQMs whether using EHRs, a centralized source, or a hybrid strategy of the two. Second, the eCQM generation described how EHR data were extracted, validated, and reported for calculating eCQMs. Third, practice facilitation characterized how facilitators with backgrounds in health information technology (IT) delivered services and solutions for data capture and quality and practice support. Fourth, performance reporting strategies and tools informed QI efforts and how cooperatives could alter their approaches to eCQMs. Conclusion: Cooperatives ultimately generated and reported eCQMs using hybrid strategies because they determined neither EHRs alone nor centralized sources alone could operationalize eCQMs for QI. This required cooperatives to devise solutions and utilize resources that often are unavailable to typical small-to-medium-sized practices. The experiences from EvidenceNOW cooperatives provide insights into how organizations can plan for challenges and operationalize EHR-based eCQMs.

Implementation, interrupted: Identifying and leveraging factors that sustain after a programme interruption

Hennein, R., Ggita, J., Ssuna, B., Shelley, D., Akiteng, A. R., Davis, J. L., Katamba, A., & Armstrong-Hough, M. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

Global Public Health

Volume

17

Issue

9

Page(s)

1868-1882
Abstract
Abstract
Many implementation efforts experience interruptions, especially in settings with developing health systems. Approaches for evaluating interruptions are needed to inform re-implementation strategies. We sought to devise an approach for evaluating interruptions by exploring the sustainability of a programme that implemented diabetes mellitus (DM) screening within tuberculosis clinics in Uganda in 2017. In 2019, we conducted nine interviews with clinic staff and observed clinic visits to determine their views and practices on providing integrated care. We mapped themes to a social ecological model with three levels derived from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR): outer setting (i.e. community), inner setting (i.e. clinic), and individuals (i.e. clinicians). Respondents explained that DM screening ceased due to disruptions in the national supply chain for glucose test strips, which had cascading effects on clinics and clinicians. Lack of screening supplies in clinics limited clinicians’ opportunities to perform DM screening, which contributed to diminished self-efficacy. However, culture, compatibility and clinicians’ beliefs about DM screening sustained throughout the interruption. We propose an approach for evaluating interruptions using the CFIR and social ecological model; other programmes can adapt this approach to identify cascading effects of interruptions and target them for re-implementation.

Leveraging technology to address unhealthy drug use in primary care: Effectiveness of the Substance use Screening and Intervention Tool (SUSIT)

McNeely, J., Mazumdar, M., Appleton, N., Bunting, A. M., Polyn, A., Floyd, S., Sharma, A., Shelley, D., & Cleland, C. M. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

Substance Abuse

Volume

43

Issue

1

Page(s)

564-572
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Screening for unhealthy drug use is now recommended for adult primary care patients, but primary care providers (PCPs) generally lack the time and knowledge required to screen and deliver an intervention during the medical visit. To address these barriers, we developed a tablet computer-based ‘Substance Use Screening and Intervention Tool (SUSIT)’. Using the SUSIT, patients self-administer screening questionnaires prior to the medical visit, and results are presented to the PCP at the point of care, paired with clinical decision support (CDS) that guides them in providing a brief intervention (BI) for unhealthy drug use. Methods: PCPs and their patients with moderate-risk drug use were recruited from primary care and HIV clinics. A pre-post design compared a control ‘screening only’ (SO) period to an intervention ‘SUSIT’ period. Unique patients were enrolled in each period. In both conditions, patients completed screening and identified their drug of most concern (DOMC) before the visit, and completed a questionnaire about BI delivery by the PCP after the visit. In the SUSIT condition only, PCPs received the tablet with the patient’s screening results and CDS. Multilevel models with random intercepts and patients nested within PCPs examined the effect of the SUSIT intervention on PCP delivery of BI. Results: 20 PCPs and 79 patients (42 SO, 37 SUSIT) participated. Most patients had moderate-risk marijuana use (92.4%), and selected marijuana as the DOMC (68.4%). Moderate-risk use of drugs other than marijuana included cocaine (15.2%), hallucinogens (12.7%), and sedatives (12.7%). Compared to the SO condition, patients in SUSIT had higher odds of receiving any BI for drug use, with an adjusted odds ratio of 11.59 (95% confidence interval: 3.39, 39.25), and received more elements of BI for drug use. Conclusions: The SUSIT significantly increased delivery of BI for drug use by PCPs during routine primary care encounters.

Contact

donna.shelley@nyu.edu 708 Broadway New York, NY, 10003