Professor of Public Health Policy and Management
Director of Global Center for Implementation Science
Dr. Shelley is a tenured Professor of Global Public Health in the NYU School of Global Public Health in the Department of Policy and Public Health Management. She is founding Director of the School’s Global Center for Implementation Science and is Co-Director of the Epidemiology and Cancer Control Program at the NYU Perlmutter Cancer Center. Her work is motivated by a deep commitment to reducing tobacco-related disparities in morbidity and mortality in the US and Viet Nam. In pursuit of this goal, she has built a rigorous program of translational, population-based, and policy-relevant research to optimize implementation of tobacco use treatment in health care delivery systems, accelerate implementation of tobacco control policies and to develop innovative ways to improve access to and treatment of nicotine addiction among people with comorbid conditions.
Her record of extramural funding includes awards from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the New York State Department of Health . Dr. Shelley received her MD from the Mount Sinai School of Medicine, and MPH in Health Policy and Management at Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health.
Accounting for Blood Pressure Seasonality Alters Evaluation of Practice-Level Blood Pressure Control InterventionGepts, T., Nguyen, A. M., Cleland, C., Wu, W., Pham-Singer, H., & Shelley, D.
Journal titleAmerican Journal of Hypertension
Page(s)220-222Background: Despite the large body of literature evaluating interventions to improve hypertension management, few studies have addressed seasonal variation in blood pressure (BP) control. This underreported phenomenon has implications for interpreting study findings and informing clinical care. We share a methodology that accounts for BP seasonality, presented through a case study - HealthyHearts NYC, an intervention aimed at increasing adherence to the Million Hearts BP control evidence-based guidelines in primary care practices. Methods: We used a randomized stepped-wedge design (n = 257 practices). Each intervention included 13 visits from practice facilitators trained in improving practice-level BP control over 12 months. Two models were used to assess the intervention effect - one that did not account for seasonality (model 1) and one that did (model 2). Model 2 was a re-specification of model 1 to include our proposed two fixed-effects terms to address BP seasonality. Results: Model 1 showed a significant negative association between the intervention and BP control (IRR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-0.99, P ≤ 0.05). In contrast, Model 2, which did address seasonality, showed no intervention effect on BP control (IRR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.97-1.01, P = 0.19). Conclusions: These findings reveal that analyses that do not account for BP seasonality may not present an accurate picture of intervention effects. In our case study, accounting for BP seasonality turned a negative association into a null association. We recommend that when evaluating BP control, studies compare outcome measures across similar seasons and that the measurement period last long enough to account for seasonal effects.
Cardiovascular Disease Guideline Adherence: An RCT Using Practice FacilitationShelley, D. R., Gepts, T., Siman, N., Nguyen, A. M., Cleland, C., Cuthel, A. M., Rogers, E. S., Ogedegbe, O., Pham-Singer, H., Wu, W., & Berry, C. A.
Journal titleAmerican journal of preventive medicine
Page(s)683-690Introduction: Practice facilitation is a promising practice transformation strategy, but further examination of its effectiveness in improving adoption of guidelines for multiple cardiovascular disease risk factors is needed. The objective of the study is to determine whether practice facilitation is effective in increasing the proportion of patients meeting the Million Hearts ABCS outcomes: (A) aspirin when indicated, (B) blood pressure control, (C) cholesterol management, and (S) smoking screening and cessation intervention. Study design: The study used a stepped-wedge cluster RCT design with 4 intervention waves. Data were extracted for 13 quarters between January 1, 2015 and March 31, 2018, which encompassed the control, intervention, and follow-up periods for all waves, and analyzed in 2019. Setting/participants: A total of 257 small independent primary care practices in New York City were randomized into 1 of 4 waves. Intervention: The intervention consisted of practice facilitators conducting at least 13 practice visits over 1 year, focused on capacity building and implementing system and workflow changes to meet cardiovascular disease care guidelines. Main outcome measures: The main outcomes were the Million Hearts’ ABCS measures. Two additional measures were created: (1) proportion of tobacco users who received a cessation intervention (smokers counseled) and (2) a composite measure that assessed the proportion of patients meeting treatment targets for A, B, and C (ABC composite). Results: The S measure improved when comparing follow-up with the control period (incidence rate ratio=1.152, 95% CI=1.072, 1.238, p<0.001) and when comparing follow-up with intervention (incidence rate ratio=1.060, 95% CI=1.013, 1.109, p=0.007). Smokers counseled improved when comparing the intervention period with control (incidence rate ratio=1.121, 95% CI=1.037, 1.211, p=0.002). Conclusions: Increasing the impact of practice facilitation programs that target multiple risk factors may require a longer, more intense intervention and greater attention to external policy and practice context. Trial registration: This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT02646488.
Challenges to implementing the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control guidelines on tobacco cessation treatment: a qualitative analysisShelley, D. R., Kyriakos, C., McNeill, A., Murray, R., Nilan, K., Sherman, S. E., & Raw, M.
Page(s)527-533Aim: To identify barriers to implementing the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) Article 14 guidelines on tobacco dependence treatment (TDT). Design: Cross-sectional survey conducted from December 2014 to July 2015 to assess implementation of Article 14 recommendations. Setting and participants: Survey respondents (n = 127 countries) who completed an open-ended question on the 26-item survey. Measurements: The open-ended question asked the following: ‘In your opinion, what are the main barriers or challenges to developing further tobacco dependence treatment in your country?’. We conducted thematic analysis of the responses. Findings: The most frequently reported barriers included a lack of health-care system infrastructure (n = 86) (e.g. treatment not integrated into primary care, lack of health-care worker training), low political priority (n = 66) and lack of funding (n = 51). The absence of strategic plans and national guidelines for Article 14 implementation emerged as subthemes of political priority. Also described as barriers were negative provider attitudes towards offering offer TDT (n = 11), policymakers’ lack of awareness about the effectiveness and affordability of TDT (n = 5), public norms supporting tobacco use (n = 11), a lack of health-care leadership and expertise in the area of TDT (n = 6) and a lack of grassroots and multi-sector networks supporting policy implementation (n = 8). The analysis captured patterns of co-occurring themes that linked, for example, low levels of political support with a lack of funding necessary to develop health-care infrastructure and capacity to implement Article 14. Conclusion: Important barriers to implementing the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Article 14 guidelines include lack of a health-care system infrastructure, low political priority and lack of funding.
Electronic Cigarette Aerosol Modulates the Oral Microbiome and Increases Risk of InfectionPushalkar, S., Paul, B., Li, Q., Yang, J., Vasconcelos, R., Makwana, S., González, J. M., Shah, S., Xie, C., Janal, M. N., Queiroz, E., Bederoff, M., Leinwand, J., Solarewicz, J., Xu, F., Aboseria, E., Guo, Y., Aguallo, D., Gomez, C., Kamer, A., Shelley, D., Aphinyanaphongs, Y., Barber, C., Gordon, T., Corby, P., Li, X., & Saxena, D.
Issue3In Vitro Toxicology; Microbiome; Oral Microbiology
Homeless Shelter Entry in the Year After an Emergency Department Visit: Results From a Linked Data AnalysisDoran, K. M., Johns, E., Schretzman, M., Zuiderveen, S., Shinn, M., Gulati, R., Wittman, I., Culhane, D., Shelley, D., & Mijanovich, T.
Journal titleAnnals of Emergency MedicineStudy objective: Housing instability is prevalent among emergency department (ED) patients and is known to adversely affect health. We aim to determine the incidence and timing of homeless shelter entry after an ED visit among patients who are not currently homeless. Methods: We conducted a random-sample survey of ED patients at an urban public hospital from November 2016 to September 2017. Patients provided identifying information and gave informed consent for us to link their survey data with the New York City Department of Homeless Services shelter database. Shelter use was followed prospectively for 12 months after the baseline ED visit. We examined timing of shelter entry in the 12 months after the ED visit, excluding patients who were homeless at baseline. Results: Of 1,929 unique study participants who were not currently homeless, 96 (5.0%) entered a shelter within 12 months of their baseline ED visit. Much of the shelter entry occurred in the first month after the ED visit, with continued yet slower rates of entry in subsequent months. Patients in our sample who entered a shelter were predominantly men and non-Hispanic black, and commonly had past shelter and frequent ED use. Conclusion: In this single-center study, 5.0% of urban ED patients who were not currently homeless entered a homeless shelter within the year after their ED visit. Particularly if replicated elsewhere, this finding suggests that ED patients may benefit from efforts to identify housing instability and direct them to homelessness prevention programs.
How Practice Facilitation Strategies Differ by Practice ContextNguyen, A. M., Cuthel, A., Padgett, D. K., Niles, P., Rogers, E., Pham-Singer, H., Ferran, D., Kaplan, S. A., Berry, C., & Shelley, D.
Journal titleJournal of general internal medicine
Page(s)824-831Background: Practice facilitation is an implementation strategy used to build practice capacity and support practice changes to improve health care outcomes. Yet, few studies have investigated how practice facilitation strategies are tailored to different primary care contexts. Objective: To identify contextual factors that drive facilitators’ strategies to meet practice improvement goals, and how these strategies are tailored to practice context. Design: Semi-structured, qualitative interviews analyzed using inductive (open coding) and deductive (thematic) approaches. This study was conducted as part of a larger study, HealthyHearts New York City, which evaluated the impact of practice facilitation on adoption of cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment guidelines. Participants: 15 facilitators working in two practice contexts: small independent practices (SIPs) and Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). Main Measures: Strategies facilitators use to support and promote practice changes and contextual factors that impact this approach. Key Results: Contextual factors were described similarly across settings and included the policy environment, patient needs, site characteristics, leadership engagement, and competing priorities. We identified four facilitation strategies used to tailor to contextual factors and support practice change: (a) remain flexible to align with practice and organizational priorities; (b) build relationships; (c) provide value through information technology expertise; and (d) build capacity and create efficiencies. Facilitators in SIPs and FQHCs described using the same strategies, often in combination, but tailored to their specific contexts. Conclusions: Despite significant infrastructure and resource differences between SIPs and FQHCs, the contextual factors that influenced the facilitator’s change process and the strategies used to address those factors were remarkably similar. The findings emphasize that facilitators require multidisciplinary skills to support sustainable practice improvement in the context of varying complex health care delivery settings.
Secondhand smoke exposure in public and private high-rise multiunit housing serving low-income residents in New York City prior to federal smoking ban in public housing, 2018Anastasiou, E., Feinberg, A., Tovar, A., Gill, E., Ruzmyn Vilcassim, M. J., Wyka, K., Gordon, T., Rule, A. M., Kaplan, S., Elbel, B., Shelley, D., & Thorpe, L. E.
Journal titleScience of the Total Environment
Volume704Background: Tobacco remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, with 41,000 deaths attributable to secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. On July 30, 2018, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development passed a rule requiring public housing authorities to implement smoke-free housing (SFH) policies. Objectives: Prior to SFH policy implementation, we measured self-reported and objective SHS incursions in a purposeful sample of 21 high-rise buildings (>15 floors) in New York City (NYC): 10 public housing and 11 private sector buildings where most residents receive federal housing subsidies (herein ‘Section 8’ buildings). Methods: We conducted a baseline telephone survey targeting all residents living on the 3rd floor or higher of selected buildings: NYC Housing Authority (NYCHA) residents were surveyed in April-July 2018 (n = 559), and residents in ‘Section 8’ buildings in August-November 2018 (n = 471). We invited non-smoking household participants to enroll into a longitudinal air monitoring study to track SHS exposure using: (1) nicotine concentration from passive, bisulfate-coated nicotine filters and (2) particulate matter (PM2.5) from low-cost particle monitors. SHS was measured for 7-days in non-smoking households (NYCHA n = 157, Section 8 n = 118 households) and in building common areas (n = 91 hallways and stairwells). Results: Smoking prevalence among residents in the 21 buildings was 15.5%. Two-thirds of residents reported seeing people smoke in common areas in the past year (67%) and 60% reported smelling smoke in their apartments coming from elsewhere. Most stairwells (88%) and hallways (74%) had detectable nicotine levels, but nicotine was detected in only 9.9% of non-smoking apartments. Substantial variation in nicotine and PM2.5 was observed between and within buildings; on average nicotine concentrations were higher in NYCHA apartments and hallways than in Section 8 buildings (p < 0.05), and NYCHA residents reported seeing smokers in common areas more frequently. Conclusions: SFH policies may help in successfully reducing SHS exposure in public housing, but widespread pre-policy incursions suggest achieving SFH will be challenging.
Self-reported Secondhand Marijuana Smoke (SHMS) Exposure in Two New York City (NYC) Subsidized Housing Settings, 2018: NYC Housing Authority and Lower-Income Private Sector BuildingsAnastasiou, E., Chennareddy, S., Wyka, K., Shelley, D., & Thorpe, L. E.
Journal titleJournal of Community Health
Page(s)635-639The percentage of adults in the United States reporting current marijuana use has more than doubled, from 4 to 9% between 2002 and 2018, suggesting that exposure to secondhand marijuana smoke (SHMS) has probably increased. Few studies have characterized the extent to which residents experience SHMS, particularly those living in multi-unit housing. It remains unknown how recently-implemented smoke-free housing policies (SFH) targeting cigarette smoke in public housing authorities (PHAs) will affect SHMS exposure. We sought to characterize prevalence of self-reported SHMS exposure among residents living in two different subsidized housing settings prior to SFH policy implementation in PHAs: New York City Housing Authority (NYCHA) buildings and private sector buildings where most residents receive Section 8 subsidy vouchers (herein ‘Section 8’ buildings). Residents were recruited from 21 purposefully-selected buildings: 10 NYCHA and 11 Section 8 buildings (> 15 floors). Survey responses were collected during April-July 2018 for NYCHA residents (n = 559) and August-November 2018 for Section 8 residents (n = 471). Of 4628 eligible residents, 1030 participated (response rates, 35% NYCHA, 32% Section 8). Overall, two-thirds of residents reported smelling marijuana smoke (67%) in their home over the past year, higher than reports of smelling cigarette smoke (60%). Smoking status and smelling SHS were both strong predictors of smelling SHMS (p < 0.05). Nearly two thirds of residents perceived smoking marijuana and smelling SHMS as harmful to health. Our findings suggest that, immediately prior to SFH rule implementation in PHAs, SHMS was pervasive in low-income multi-unit housing, suggesting SFH policies should expand to cover marijuana use.
A protocol for measuring the impact of a smoke-free housing policy on indoor tobacco smoke exposureCardozo, R. A., Feinberg, A., Tovar, A., Vilcassim, M. J., Shelley, D., Elbel, B., Kaplan, S., Wyka, K., Rule, A. M., Gordon, T., & Thorpe, L. E.
Journal titleBMC public health
Issue1Background: Tobacco remains a leading cause of preventable death in the U.S., responsible for more than 440,000 deaths each year. Approximately 10% of these deaths are attributable to exposure of non-smokers to secondhand smoke (SHS). Residents living in public multi-unit housing (MUH) are at excess risk for SHS exposure compared to the general population. On November 30, 2016, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) passed a rule requiring all public housing agencies to implement smoke-free housing (SFH) policies in their housing developments by July 30, 2018. Methods: As part of a larger natural experiment study, we designed a protocol to evaluate indoor SHS levels before and after policy implementation through collection of repeat indoor air samples in non-smoking apartments and common areas of select high-rise NYCHA buildings subject to the HUD SFH rule, and also from socio-demographically matched private-sector high-rise control buildings not subject to the rule. A baseline telephone survey was conducted in all selected buildings to facilitate rapid recruitment into the longitudinal study and assess smoking prevalence, behaviors, and attitudes regarding the SFH policy prior to implementation. Data collection began in early 2018 and will continue through 2021. Discussion: The baseline survey was completed by 559 NYCHA residents and 471 comparison building residents (response rates, 35, and 32%, respectively). Smoking prevalence was comparable between study arms (15.7% among NYCHA residents and 15.2% among comparison residents). The majority of residents reported supporting a building-wide smoke-free policy (63.0 and 59.9%, respectively). We enrolled 157 NYCHA and 118 comparison non-smoking households into the longitudinal air monitoring study and performed air monitoring in common areas. Follow up surveys and air monitoring in participant households occur every 6 months for 2.5 years. Capitalizing on the opportunity of this federal policy rollout, the large and diverse public housing population in NYC, and robust municipal data sources, this study offers a unique opportunity to evaluate the policy's direct impacts on SHS exposure. Methods in this protocol can inform similar SFH policy evaluations elsewhere.
Barriers and Facilitators in the Recruitment and Retention of More Than 250 Small Independent Primary Care Practices for EvidenceNOWCuthel, A., Rogers, E., Daniel, F., Carroll, E., Pham-Singer, H., & Shelley, D.
Journal titleAmerican Journal of Medical QualityFew studies have examined factors that facilitate recruitment of small independent practices (SIPs) (<5 full-time clinicians) to participate in research and methods for optimizing retention. The authors analyzed qualitative data (eg, recruiter’s field notes and diary entries, provider interviews) to identify barriers and facilitators encountered in recruiting and retaining 257 practices in HealthyHearts New York City (NYC). This study was a stepped-wedge randomized controlled trial that took place 2015 through 2018 across 5 boroughs in NYC. Three main factors facilitated rapid recruitment: (1) a prior well-established relationship with the local health department, (2) alignment of project goals with practice priorities, and (3) providing appropriate monetary incentives. Retention was facilitated through similar mechanisms and an ongoing multifaceted communication strategy. This article identifies specific strategies that enhance recruitment of SIPs and fills gaps in knowledge about factors that influence retention in the context of a design that requires waiting to receive the intervention.
Clinician perspectives on the benefits of practice facilitation for small primary care practicesRogers, E. S., Cuthel, A. M., Berry, C. A., Kaplan, S. A., & Shelley, D. R.
Journal titleAnnals of family medicine
Page(s)S17-S23PURPOSE Small independent primary care practices (SIPs) often lack the resources to implement system changes. HealthyHearts NYC, funded through the EvidenceNOW initiative of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, studied the effectiveness of practice facilitation to improve cardiovascular disease– related care in 257 SIPs. We sought to understand SIP clinicians’ perspectives on the benefits of practice facilitation. METHODS We conducted in-depth interviews with 19 SIP clinicians enrolled in HealthyHearts NYC. Interviews were transcribed and coded using deductive and inductive approaches. To understand whether the perceived benefits of practice facilitation differ based on the availability of internal staff for quality improvement (QI), we compared themes pertaining to benefits between practices with 3 or fewer office staff vs more than 3 office staff. RESULTS Clinicians perceived 2 main benefits of practice facilitation. First, facilitators served as a connection to the external health care environment for SIPs, often through teaching and information sharing. Second, facilitators provided electronic health record (EHR)/data expertise, often by teaching functionality and completing technical assistance and tasks. SIPs with more than 3 office staff felt that facilitators provided benefits primarily through teaching, whereas SIPs with 3 or fewer staff felt that facilitators also provided hands-on support. At the intersections of these benefits, there emerged 3 central practice facilitation benefits: (1) creating awareness of quality gaps, (2) connecting practices to information, resources, and strategies, and (3) optimizing the EHR for QI goals. CONCLUSIONS SIP clinicians perceived practice facilitation to be an important resource for connecting their practice to the external health care environment and resources, and helping their practice build QI capacity through teaching, hands-on support, and EHR-driven solutions.
Effectiveness of Village Health Worker-Delivered Smoking Cessation Counseling in VietnamJiang, N., Siman, N., Cleland, C. M., Van Devanter, N., Nguyen, T., Nguyen, N., & Shelley, D.
Journal titleNicotine and Tobacco Research
Page(s)1524-1530Introduction: Smoking prevalence is high in Vietnam, yet tobacco dependence treatment (TDT) is not widely available. Methods: We conducted a quasiexperimental study that compared the effectiveness of health care provider advice and assistance (ARM 1) versus ARM 1 plus village health worker (VHW) counseling (ARM 2) on abstinence at 6-month follow-up. This study was embedded in a larger two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 26 community health centers (CHCs) in Vietnam. Subjects (N = 1318) were adult patients who visited any participating CHC during the parent randomized controlled trial intervention period and were self-identified as current tobacco users (cigarettes and/or water pipe). Results: At 6-month follow-up, abstinences rates in ARM 2 were significantly higher than those in ARM 1 (25.7% vs. 10.5%; p <. 001). In multivariate analyses, smokers in ARM 2 were almost three times more likely to quit compared with those in ARM 1 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.78% to 4.92%). Compared to cigarette-only smokers, water pipe-only smokers (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.26% to 0.62%) and dual users (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.45% to 0.86%) were less likely to achieve abstinence; however, the addition of VHW counseling (ARM 2) was associated with higher quit rates compared with ARM 1 alone for all smoker types. Conclusion: A team approach in TDT programs that offer a referral system for health care providers to refer smokers to VHW-led cessation counseling is a promising and potentially scalable model for increasing access to evidence-based TDT and increasing quit rates in low middle-income countries (LMICs). TDT programs may need to adapt interventions to improve outcomes for water pipe users. Implications: The study fills literature gaps on effective models for TDT in LMICs. The addition of VHW-led cessation counseling, available through a referral from primary care providers in CHCs in Vietnam, to health care provider's brief cessation advice, increased 6-month biochemically validated abstinence rates compared to provider advice alone. The study also demonstrated the potential effectiveness of VHW counseling on reducing water pipe use. For LMICs, TDT programs in primary care settings with a referral system to VHW-led cessation counseling might be a promising and potentially scalable model for increasing access to evidence-based treatment.
Impact of a tobacco cessation intervention on adherence to tobacco use treatment guidelines among village health workers in VietnamNguyen, N., Nguyen, T., Truong, V., Dang, K., Siman, N., & Shelley, D.
Journal titleGlobal Health PromotionCommunity health workers (in Vietnam referred to as village health workers) have the potential to play a key role in expanding access to evidence-based tobacco use treatment. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in community health centers in Vietnam that compared the effect of provider advice and cessation assistance (i.e. brief counseling and patient education materials) (BC) vs. BC + three sessions of in-person counseling delivered by a village health worker (BC+R) on providers’ and village health workers’ adherence to tobacco use treatment guidelines. All village health workers and health care providers received training. This paper presents data on the effect of the intervention on village health workers’ adherence to tobacco use treatment guidelines, including asking about tobacco use, advising smokers to quit, offering assistance and their attitude, norms, and self-efficacy related to tobacco use treatment. We examined changes in adherence to tobacco use treatment guidelines before and 12 months after the intervention among 89 village health workers working in the 13 community health centers enrolled in the BC+R study condition. Village health workers’ adherence to tobacco use treatment guidelines increased significantly. Village health workers were more likely to ask about tobacco use (3.4% at baseline, 32.6% at 12 months), offer advice to quit (4.5% to 48.3%) and offer assistance (1.1% to 38.2%). Perceived barriers to treating tobacco use decreased significantly. Self-efficacy and attitudes towards treating tobacco use improved significantly. Increased adherence to tobacco use treatment guidelines was associated with positive attitudes towards their role in delivering tobacco use treatment and increasing awareness of the community health center smoke-free policy. The findings suggest that, with training and support systems, village health workers can extend their role to include smoking cessation services. This workforce could represent a sustainable resource for supporting smokers who wish to quit.
Interrupting providers with clinical decision support to improve care for heart failureBlecker, S., Austrian, J. S., Horwitz, L. I., Kuperman, G., Shelley, D., Ferrauiola, M., & Katz, S. D.
Journal titleInternational Journal of Medical Informatics
Volume131Background: Evidence-based therapy for heart failure remains underutilized at hospital discharge, particularly for patients with heart failure who are hospitalized for another cause. We developed clinical decision support (CDS) to recommend an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor during hospitalization to promote its continuation at discharge. The CDS was designed to be implemented in both interruptive and non-interruptive versions. Objectives: To compare the effectiveness and implementation of interruptive and non-interruptive versions of a CDS to improve care for heart failure. Methods: Hospitalizations of patients with reduced ejection fraction were pseudo-randomized to deliver interruptive or non-interruptive CDS alerts to providers based on even or odd medical record number. We compared discharge utilization of an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) for these two implementation approaches. We also assessed adoption and implementation fidelity of the CDS. Results: Of 958 hospitalizations, interruptive alert hospitalizations had higher rates of discharge utilization of ACE inhibitors or ARBs than non-interruptive alert hospitalizations (79.6% vs. 74.2%, p = 0.05). Utilization was higher for interruptive alert versus non-interruptive alert hospitalizations which were principally for causes other than heart failure (79.8% vs. 73.4%; p = 0.05) but no difference was observed among hospitalizations with a principal heart failure diagnosis (85.9% vs.81.7%; p = 0.49). As compared to non-interruptive hospitalizations, interruptive alert hospitalizations were more likely to have had: an alert with any response (40.6% vs. 13.1%, p < 0.001), contraindications reported (33.1% vs 11.3%, p < 0.001), and an ACE inhibitor ordered within twelve hours of the alert (17.6% vs 10.3%, p < 0.01). The response rate for the interruptive alert was 1.7%, and a median (25th, 75th percentile) of 14 (5,32) alerts were triggered per hospitalization. Conclusions: A CDS implemented as an interruptive alert was associated with improved quality of care for heart failure. Whether the potential benefits of CDS in improving cardiovascular care were worth the high burden of interruptive alerts deserves further consideration. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02858674.
Interruptive versus noninterruptive clinical decision support: Usability studyBlecker, S., Pandya, R., Stork, S., Mann, D., Kuperman, G., Shelley, D., & Austrian, J. S.
Journal titleJournal of medical Internet research
Issue4Background: Clinical decision support (CDS) has been shown to improve compliance with evidence-based care, but its impact is often diminished because of issues such as poor usability, insufficient integration into workflow, and alert fatigue. Noninterruptive CDS may be less subject to alert fatigue, but there has been little assessment of its usability. Objective: This study aimed to study the usability of interruptive and noninterruptive versions of a CDS. Methods: We conducted a usability study of a CDS tool that recommended prescribing an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor for inpatients with heart failure. We developed 2 versions of the CDS: an interruptive alert triggered at order entry and a noninterruptive alert listed in the sidebar of the electronic health record screen. Inpatient providers were recruited and randomly assigned to use the interruptive alert followed by the noninterruptive alert or vice versa in a laboratory setting. We asked providers to "think aloud" while using the CDS and then conducted a brief semistructured interview about usability. We used a constant comparative analysis informed by the CDS Five Rights framework to analyze usability testing. Results: A total of 12 providers participated in usability testing. Providers noted that the interruptive alert was readily noticed but generally impeded workflow. The noninterruptive alert was felt to be less annoying but had lower visibility, which might reduce engagement. Provider role seemed to influence preferences; for instance, some providers who had more global responsibility for patients seemed to prefer the noninterruptive alert, whereas more task-oriented providers generally preferred the interruptive alert. Conclusions: Providers expressed trade-offs between impeding workflow and improving visibility with interruptive and noninterruptive versions of a CDS. In addition, 2 potential approaches to effective CDS may include targeting alerts by provider role or supplementing a noninterruptive alert with an occasional, well-timed interruptive alert.
Study protocol for a pragmatic trial of the Consult for Addiction Treatment and Care in Hospitals (CATCH) model for engaging patients in opioid use disorder treatmentMcNeely, J., Troxel, A. B., Kunins, H. V., Shelley, D., Lee, J. D., Walley, A., Weinstein, Z. M., Billings, J., Davis, N. J., Marcello, R. K., Schackman, B. R., Barron, C., & Bergmann, L.
Journal titleAddiction science & clinical practice
Page(s)5BACKGROUND: Treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD) is highly effective, yet it remains dramatically underutilized. Individuals with OUD have disproportionately high rates of hospitalization and low rates of addiction treatment. Hospital-based addiction consult services offer a potential solution by using multidisciplinary teams to evaluate patients, initiate medication for addiction treatment (MAT) in the hospital, and connect patients to post-discharge care. We are studying the effectiveness of an addiction consult model [Consult for Addiction Treatment and Care in Hospitals (CATCH)] as a strategy for engaging patients with OUD in treatment as the program rolls out in the largest municipal hospital system in the US. The primary aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of CATCH in increasing post-discharge initiation and engagement in MAT. Secondary aims are to assess treatment retention, frequency of acute care utilization and overdose deaths and their associated costs, and implementation outcomes. METHODS: A pragmatic trial at six hospitals, conducted in collaboration with the municipal hospital system and department of health, will be implemented to study the CATCH intervention. Guided by the RE-AIM evaluation framework, this hybrid effectiveness-implementation study (Type 1) focuses primarily on effectiveness and also measures implementation outcomes to inform the intervention's adoption and sustainability. A stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial design will determine the impact of CATCH on treatment outcomes in comparison to usual care for a control period, followed by a 12-month intervention period and a 6- to 18-month maintenance period at each hospital. A mixed methods approach will primarily utilize administrative data to measure outcomes, while interviews and focus groups with staff and patients will provide additional information on implementation fidelity and barriers to delivering MAT to patients with OUD. DISCUSSION: Because of their great potential to reduce the negative health and economic consequences of untreated OUD, addiction consult models are proliferating in response to the opioid epidemic, despite the absence of a strong evidence base. This study will provide the first known rigorous evaluation of an addiction consult model in a large multi-site trial and promises to generate knowledge that can rapidly transform practice and inform the potential for widespread dissemination of these services. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03611335.
The DREAM Initiative: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial testing an integrated electronic health record and community health worker intervention to promote weight loss among South Asian patients at risk for diabetesLim, S., Wyatt, L. C., Mammen, S., Zanowiak, J. M., Mohaimin, S., Goldfeld, K. S., Shelley, D., Gold, H. T., & Islam, N. S.
Issue1Background: Electronic health record (EHR)-based interventions that use registries and alerts can improve chronic disease care in primary care settings. Community health worker (CHW) interventions also have been shown to improve chronic disease outcomes, especially in minority communities. Despite their potential, these two approaches have not been tested together, including in small primary care practice (PCP) settings. This paper presents the protocol of Diabetes Research, Education, and Action for Minorities (DREAM) Initiative, a 5-year randomized controlled trial integrating both EHR and CHW approaches into a network of PCPs in New York City (NYC) in order to support weight loss efforts among South Asian patients at risk for diabetes. Methods/design: The DREAM Initiative was funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (National Institutes of Health). A total of 480 individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes will be enrolled into the intervention group, and an equal number will be included in a matched control group. The EHR intervention components include the provision of technical assistance to participating PCPs regarding prediabetes-related registry reports, alerts, and order sets. The CHW intervention components entail group education sessions on diabetes prevention, including weight loss and nutrition. A mixed-methods approach will be used to evaluate the feasibility, adoption, and impact (≥ 5% weight loss) of the integrated study components. Additionally, a cost effectiveness analysis will be conducted using outcomes, implementation costs, and healthcare claims data to determine the incremental cost per person achieving 5% weight loss. Discussion: This study will be the first to test the efficacy of an integrated EHR-CHW intervention within an underserved, minority population and in a practical setting via a network of small PCPs in NYC. The study's implementation is enhanced through cross-sector partnerships, including the local health department, a healthcare payer, and EHR vendors. Through use of a software platform, the study will also systematically track and monitor CHW referrals to social service organizations. Study findings, including those resulting from cost-effectiveness analyses, will have important implications for translating similar strategies to other minority communities in sustainable ways. Trial registration: This study protocol has been approved and is made available on ClinicalTrials.gov by NCT 03188094 as of 15 June 2017.
“It Wasn't Just One Thing”: A Qualitative Study of Newly Homeless Emergency Department PatientsDoran, K. M., Ran, Z., Castelblanco, D., Shelley, D., & Padgett, D. K.
Journal titleAcademic Emergency Medicine
Page(s)982-993Objectives: Emergency departments (EDs) frequently care for patients who are homeless or unstably housed. One promising approach taken by the homeless services system is to provide interventions that attempt to prevent homelessness before it occurs. Experts have suggested that health care settings may be ideal locations to identify and intervene with patients at risk for homelessness, yet little is known even about the basic characteristics of patients who might benefit from such interventions. Methods: We conducted in-depth, one-on-one qualitative interviews with ED patients who had become homeless within the past 6 months. Using a semistructured interview guide, we asked patients about their pathways into homelessness and what might have prevented them from becoming homeless. Interviews were digitally recorded and professionally transcribed. Transcripts were coded line by line by multiple investigators who then met as a group to discuss and refine codes in an iterative fashion. Results: Interviews were completed with 31 patients. Mean interview length was 42 minutes. Four main themes emerged: 1) unique stories yet common social and health contributors to homelessness, 2) personal agency versus larger structural forces, 3) limitations in help from family or friends, and 4) homelessness was not expected. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate gaps in current homeless prevention services and can help inform future interventions for unstably housed and homeless ED patients. More immediately, the findings provide rich, unique context to the lives of a vulnerable patient population commonly seen in EDs.
A Tale of 2 ConstituenciesGoytia, C. N., Kastenbaum, I., Shelley, D., Horowitz, C. R., & Kaushal, R.
Journal titleMedical care
Page(s)S64-S69Background: Patient and clinician stakeholders are inadequately engaged in key aspects of research, particularly regarding use of Big Data to study and improve patient-centered outcomes. Little is known about the attitudes, interests, and concerns of stakeholders regarding such data. Research Design: The New York City Clinical Data Research Network (NYC-CDRN), a collaboration of research, clinical, and community leaders built a deidentified dataset containing electronic health records from millions of New Yorkers. Guided by a patient-clinician advisory board, we developed a question guide to explore patient and clinician experiences and ideas about research using large datasets. Trained facilitators led discussions during preexisting patient, community, and clinician group meetings. The research team coded meeting notes and identified themes. Results: Fully 272 individuals participated in 19 listening sessions (139 patients/advocates, 133 clinicians) at 6 medical centers with diverse NYC communities: 76% were female and 63% were nonwhite. Clinicians and patients agreed on all major themes including the central role of clinicians in introducing patients to research and the need for public campaigns to inform stakeholders about Big Data. Stakeholders were interested in using granular data to compare the care and clinical outcomes of their neighborhoods with others across NYC, but were also concerned that data could not truly be deidentified. Conclusions: Clinicians and patients agree on potential benefits of stakeholder-engaged Big Data research and provided suggestions for further research and building stakeholder research capacity. This evaluation demonstrated the potential of brief meetings with existing patient and clinical groups to explore barriers and facilitators to patient and clinician engagement.
An analysis of adaptations to multi-level intervention strategies to enhance implementation of clinical practice guidelines for treating tobacco use in dental care settingsShelley, D. R., Kyriakos, C., Campo, A., Li, Y., Khalife, D., & Ostroff, J.
Journal titleContemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Page(s)142-148Introduction: Our team conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial (DUET) that compared the effectiveness of three theory-driven, implementation strategies on dental provider adherence to tobacco dependence treatment guidelines (TDT). In this paper we describe the process of adapting the implementation strategies to the local context of participating dental public health clinics in New York City. Methods: Eighteen dental clinics were randomized to one of three study arms testing several implementation strategies: Current Best Practices (CBP) (i.e. staff training, clinical reminder system and Quitline referral system); CBP + Performance Feedback (PF) (i.e. feedback reports on provider delivery of TDT); and CBP + PF + Pay-for-Performance (i.e. financial incentives for provision of TDT). Through an iterative process, we used Stirman's modification framework to classify, code and analyze modifications made to the implementation strategies. Results: We identified examples of six of Stirman's twelve content modification categories and two of the four context modification categories. Content modifications were classified as: tailoring, tweaking or refining (49.8%), adding elements (14.1%), departing from the intervention (9.3%), loosening structure (4.4%), lengthening and extending (4.4%) and substituting elements (4.4%). Context modifications were classified as those related to personnel (7.9%) and to the format/channel (8.8%) of the intervention delivery. Common factors associated with adaptations that arose during the intervention included staff changes, time constraints, changes in leadership preferences and functional limitations of to the Electronic Dental Record. Conclusions: This study offers guidance on how to capture intervention adaptation in the context of a multi-level intervention aimed at implementing sustainable changes to optimize TDT in varying public health dental settings.
Correlates of burnout in small independent primary care practices in an urban settingBlechter, B., Jiang, N., Cleland, C., Berry, C., Ogedegbe, O., & Shelley, D.
Journal titleJournal of the American Board of Family Medicine
Page(s)529-536Background: Little is known about the prevalence and correlates of burnout among providers who work in small independent primary care practices (<5 providers). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis by using data collected from 235 providers practicing in 174 small independent primary care practices in New York City. Results: The rate of provider-reported burnout was 13.5%. Using bivariate logistic regression, we found higher adaptive reserve scores were associated with lower odds of burnout (odds ratio, 0.12; 95% CI, 0.02– 0.85; P .034). Conclusion: The burnout rate was relatively low among our sample of providers compared with previous surveys that focused primarily on larger practices. The independence and autonomy providers have in these small practices may provide some protection against symptoms of burnout. In addition, the relationship between adaptive reserve and lower rates of burnout point toward potential interventions for reducing burnout that include strengthening primary care practices’ learning and development capacity.
Perceptions about the federally mandated smoke-free housing policy among residents living in public housing in New York cityJiang, N., Thorpe, L., Kaplan, S., & Shelley, D.
Journal titleInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue10Background: To assess residents’ attitudes towards the United States (U.S.) Department of Housing and Urban Development’s new smoke-free public housing policy, perceptions about barriers to policy implementation, and suggestions for optimizing implementation. Methods: In 2017, we conducted 10 focus groups among 91 residents (smokers and nonsmokers) living in New York City public housing. Results: Smokers and nonsmokers expressed skepticism about the public housing authority’s capacity to enforce the policy due to widespread violations of the current smoke-free policy in common areas and pervasive use of marijuana in buildings. Most believed that resident engagement in the roll-out and providing smoking cessation services was important for compliance. Resident expressed concerns about evictions and worried that other building priorities (i.e., repairs, drug use) would be ignored with the focus now on smoke-free housing. Conclusions: Resident-endorsed strategies to optimize implementation effectiveness include improving the access to cessation services, ongoing resident engagement, education and communication to address misconceptions and concerns about enforcement, and placing smoke-free homes in a larger public housing authority healthy housing agenda.
Quality of cardiovascular disease care in small urban practicesShelley, D., Blechter, B., Siman, N., Jiang, N., Cleland, C., Ogedegbe, G., Williams, S., Wu, W., Rogers, E., & Berry, C.
Journal titleAnnals of family medicine
Page(s)S21-S28PURPOSE We wanted to describe small, independent primary care practices’ performance in meeting the Million Hearts ABCSs (aspirin use, blood pressure control, cholesterol management, and smoking screening and counseling), as well as on a composite measure that captured the extent to which multiple clinical targets are achieved for patients with a history of arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). We also explored relationships between practice characteristics and ABCS measures. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional, bivariate analysis using baseline data from 134 practices in New York City. ABCS data were extracted from practices’ electronic health records and aggregated to the site level. Practice characteristics were obtained from surveys of clinicians and staff at each practice. RESULTS The proportion of at-risk patients meeting clinical goals for each of the ABCS measures was 73.0% for aspirin use, 69.6% for blood pressure, 66.7% for cholesterol management, and 74.2% screened for smoking and counseled. For patients with a history of ASCVD, only 49% were meeting all ABC (aspirin use, blood pressure control, cholesterol management) targets (ie, composite measure). Solo practices were more likely to meet clinical guidelines for aspirin (risk ratio [RR ] = 1.17, P = .007) and composite (RR = 1.29, P = .011) than practices with multiple clinicians. CONCLUSION Achieving targets for ABCS measures varied considerably across practices; however, small practices were meeting or exceeding Million Hearts goals (ie, 70% or greater). Practices were less likely to meet consistently clinical targets that apply to patients with a history of ASCVD risk factors. Greater emphasis is needed on providing support for small practices to address the complexity of managing patients with multiple risk factors for primary and secondary ASCVD.
Social norms and self-efficacy to quit waterpipe use: Findings from a tobacco study among male smokers in rural Viet NamKumar, P. C., Cleland, C. M., Latkin, C., VanDevanter, N., Siman, N., Nguyen, T., Nguyen, L., Nguyen, N., & Shelley, D.
Journal titleJournal of Smoking Cessation
Page(s)154-161Introduction: Waterpipe use is a significant health concern in low- A nd middle-income countries like Viet Nam, yet there is a lack of research on factors that may influence use and self-efficacy to quit among adults. Aims: This study examined the relationship between social norms related to waterpipe use and self-efficacy to quit among male waterpipe smokers in Viet Nam. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 214 adult male waterpipe smokers enrolled in a large cluster-randomised controlled trial conducted in a rural province in Viet Nam. Associations between social norms related to waterpipe smoking and the participants' confidence to quit waterpipes were assessed using hierarchical regression models to account for differences among study sites and other covariates. Results: Self-efficacy to quit smoking was positively associated with immediate family members' not minding participants smoking and with extended family's encouragement to quit smoking. Conclusions: The findings suggest the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the functions and characteristics of the social context of waterpipe smoking, including the social networks of waterpipe smokers, to inform effective cessation interventions for waterpipe smokers.
Substance use and homelessness among emergency department patientsDoran, K. M., Rahai, N., McCormack, R. P., Milian, J., Shelley, D., Rotrosen, J., & Gelberg, L.
Journal titleDrug and alcohol dependence
Page(s)328-333Background: Homelessness and substance use often coexist, resulting in high morbidity. Emergency department (ED) patients have disproportionate rates of both homelessness and substance use, yet little research has examined the overlap of these issues in the ED setting. We aimed to characterize alcohol and drug use in a sample of homeless vs. non-homeless ED patients. Methods: A random sample of urban hospital ED patients were invited to complete an interview regarding housing, substance use, and other health and social factors. We compared substance use characteristics among patients who did vs. did not report current literal (streets/shelter) homelessness. Additional analyses were performed using a broader definition of homelessness in the past 12-months. Results: Patients who were currently homeless (n = 316, 13.7%) versus non-homeless (n = 1,993, 86.3%) had higher rates of past year unhealthy alcohol use (44.4% vs. 30.5%, p <.0001), any drug use (40.8% vs. 18.8%, p <.0001), heroin use (16.7% vs. 3.8%, p <.0001), prescription opioid use (12.5% vs. 4.4%, p <.0001), and lifetime opioid overdose (15.8% vs. 3.7%, p <.0001). In multivariable analyses, current homelessness remained significantly associated with unhealthy alcohol use, AUDIT scores among unhealthy alcohol users, any drug use, heroin use, and opioid overdose; past 12-month homelessness was additionally associated with DAST-10 scores among drug users and prescription opioid use. Conclusions: Patients experiencing homelessness have higher rates and greater severity of alcohol and drug use than other ED patients across a range of measures. These findings have implications for planning services for patients with concurrent substance use and housing problems.