Associate Dean for Research
Associate Professor of Biostatistics
Dr. Melody Goodman’s efforts seek to understand the social risk factors that contribute to health disparities in urban areas, with the goal of developing culturally competent, region-specific, and evidence-based solutions through collaborative activities with community members, community-based organizations, faith-based organizations, and other community health stakeholders. The purpose of her work is the development of solutions for improving health in minority and medically underserved communities.
Dr. Goodman conducts applied biostatistical and survey research for community-based interventions and health disparities research with a strong focus on measurement. Additionally, through academic-community collaborations, she implements, evaluates, and enhances the infrastructure of community-engaged research, in order to mitigate health disparities. As such, Dr. Goodman is the Principal Investigator of a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) grant that aims to validate and implement a quantitative survey measure to assess the level of community engagement in patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) and clinical effectiveness research (CER) studies from the community stakeholder perspective.
Previously, Dr. Goodman has been subcontracted by the National Human Genome Research Institute/NIH to analyze patterns of beliefs about the genetic causation of health conditions and health behaviors among community health center patients. She was the Principal Investigator on a NIH Partners in Research grant entitled Community Alliance for Research Empowering Social change (CARES). With numerous funders supporting her work, she has published over 70 peer-reviewed journal articles.
BS, Economics and Applied Mathematics & Statistics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NYMS, Biostatistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MAPhD, Biostatistics (Minors: Social Determinants of Health Disparities and Theoretical Statistics), Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
Siteman Cancer Center “Rock Doc” (2013)Satcher Health Leadership Institute - Morehouse School of Medicine, Community Health Leadership Institute Intensive Cohort II (2013)Women of the Year - Health, National Coalition of 100 Black Women, Inc. - Suffolk Chapter (2010)President’s Award for Teaching Excellence - Stony Brook University (2009)President’s Award for Excellence in Team Achievement - Stony Brook University (2008)
BiostatisticsCommunity HealthCommunity-based Participatory ResearchDissemination and Implementation of Evidence-based ProgramsHealth DisparitiesHealth EquityMinoritiesMinority HealthQuantitative Research
Community partners' responses to items assessing stakeholder engagement: Cognitive response testing in measure developmentThompson, V. L., Leahy, N., Ackermann, N., Bowen, D. J., & Goodman, M. S.
Journal titlePloS one
Issue11AbstractBackground Despite recognition of the importance of stakeholder input into research, there is a lack of validated measures to assess how well constituencies are engaged and their input integrated into research design. Measurement theory suggests that a community engagement measure should use clear and simple language and capture important components of underlying constructs, resulting in a valid measure that is accessible to a broad audience. Objective The primary objective of this study was to evaluate how community members understood and responded to a measure of community engagement developed to be reliable, valid, easily administered, and broadly usable. Method Cognitive response interviews were completed, during which participants described their reactions to items and how they processed them. Participants were asked to interpret item meaning, paraphrase items, and identify difficult or problematic terms and phrases, as well as provide any concerns with response options while responding to 16 of 32 survey items. Results The results of the cognitive response interviews of participants (N = 16) suggest concerns about plain language and literacy, clarity of question focus, and the lack of context clues to facilitate processing in response to items querying research experience. Minimal concerns were related to response options. Participants suggested changes in words and terms, as well as item structure. Conclusion Qualitative research can improve the validity and accessibility of measures that assess stakeholder experience of community-engaged research. The findings suggest wording and sentence structure changes that improve ability to assess implementation of community engagement and its impact on research outcomes.
Impact of numeracy preferences on information needs for genome sequencing resultsAlbrechtsen, R. D., Goodman, M. S., Bathar, J. R., & Kaphingst, K. A.
Journal titlePatient Education and CounselingAbstractObjective: This study investigated how self-reported numeracy ability and preferences predict preferences for the amount and types of information provided about genome sequencing results among 1080 women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger. Methods: Participants reported their level of interest in 14 topics related to genome sequencing results on a survey. We calculated a Participant Information Needs (PIN) value based on the number of topics for which a participant wanted “a lot” of information. Numeracy was assessed using the Subjective Numeracy Scale. Analyses examined associations between the numeracy ability and preferences subscales, information needs for individual content topics, and PIN. Results: Higher preference for numeric data was correlated with increased PIN (β = 0.60, p < 0.01), while numeric ability was not correlated (β=0.16, p = 0.22). Family composition and knowledge about sequencing benefits were also significant covariates. Patients most preferred information on topics related to disease risk and health implications. Conclusion: There may be utility in separating numeracy ability and preferences into two components in future research in order to investigate how numeracy impacts the return of genetic testing results. Practice Implications: These data suggest that numeracy preferences may be important to inform strategies for the return of genetic results.
Mothers moving towards empowerment' intervention to reduce stigma and improve treatment adherence in pregnant women living with HIV in Botswana: Study protocol for a pragmatic clinical trialPoku, O. B., Ho-Foster, A. R., Entaile, P., Misra, S., Mehta, H., Rampa, S., Goodman, M., Arscott-Mills, T., Eschliman, E., Jackson, V., Melese, T., Becker, T. D., Eisenberg, M., Link, B., Go, V., Opondo, P. R., Blank, M. B., & Yang, L. H.
Issue1AbstractBackground: With high rates of HIV and multiple vulnerable subgroups across diverse settings, there is a need for culturally based, HIV stigma reduction interventions. Pregnant women who are living with HIV are especially in need of services to protect not only their own but also their children's lives. Uptake of HIV services worldwide is hindered by stigma towards persons living with HIV/AIDS. While cultural context plays a key role in shaping HIV stigma, these insights have not yet been fully integrated into stigma reduction strategies. By utilizing the "What Matters Most"stigma framework, we propose that an intervention to counter culturally salient aspects of HIV stigma will improve treatment adherence and other relevant outcomes. A pragmatic clinical trial in Botswana will evaluate the "Mothers Moving towards Empowerment"(MME) intervention, which seeks to address HIV stigma in Botswana and to specifically engage pregnant mothers so as to promote antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence in the postpartum period. Methods: This study will test MME against treatment as usual (TAU) among pregnant mothers diagnosed with HIV and their infants. Outcomes will be assessed during pregnancy and 16 weeks postpartum. Women who meet eligibility criteria are assigned to MME or TAU. Women assigned to MME are grouped with others with similar estimated delivery dates, completing up to eight intervention group sessions scheduled before week 36 of their pregnancies. Primary outcomes among mothers include (i) reducing self-stigma, which is hypothesized to mediate improvements in (ii) psychological outcomes (quality of life, depression and social functioning), and (iii) adherence to antenatal care and ART. We will also examine a set of follow-up infant birth outcomes (APGAR score, preterm delivery, mortality (at < 16 weeks), birth weight, vaccination record, and HIV status). Discussion: Our trial will evaluate MME, a culturally based HIV stigma reduction intervention using the "What Matters Most"framework, to reduce stigma and improve treatment adherence among pregnant women and their infants. This study will help inform further refinement of MME and preparation for a future large-scale, multisite, randomized controlled trial (RCT) in Botswana. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03698981. Registered on October 8, 2018
Psychometric Validation of a Scale to Assess Culturally-Salient Aspects of HIV Stigma Among Women Living with HIV in Botswana: Engaging “What Matters Most” to Resist StigmaYang, L. H., Ho-Foster, A. R., Becker, T. D., Misra, S., Rampa, S., Poku, O. B., Entaile, P., Goodman, M., & Blank, M. B.
Journal titleAIDS and BehaviorAbstractPerceived stigma deters engagement in HIV care and is powerfully shaped by culture. Yet few stigma measures consider how cultural capabilities that signify “full personhood” could be engaged to resist stigma. By applying a theory conceptualizing how culturally-salient mechanisms can worsen or mitigate HIV stigma in relation to “what matters most” (WMM), we developed the WMM Cultural Stigma Scale for Women Living with HIV in Botswana (WMM-WLHIV-BW) and psychometrically evaluated it among 201 respondents with known and unknown HIV status. The two subscales, Cultural Factors Shape Stigma (CFSS) and Cultural Capabilities Protect against Stigma (CCPS) were reliable (both α= 0.90). Among WLHIV, the CFSS Subscale showed initial construct validity with depressive symptoms (r =.39, p =.005), similar to an established HIV stigma scale, whereas the CCPS Subscale showed initial construct validity with self-esteem (r =.32, p =.026) and social support number (r =.29, p =.047), suggesting that achieving local cultural capabilities mitigates stigma and is linked with positive psychosocial outcomes. This culturally-derived scale could help WLHIV in Botswana experience improved stigma-related outcomes.
Race, Trust in Doctors, Privacy Concerns, and Consent Preferences for BiobanksHong, S. J., Drake, B., Goodman, M., & Kaphingst, K. A.
Journal titleHealth Communication
Page(s)1219-1228AbstractThis study investigates how patients’ privacy concerns about research uses of biospecimen and trust in doctors are associated with their preferences for informed consent and need for control over biospecimens in a biobank. Particularly, this study focuses on the perspectives of Communication Privacy Management theory, precision medicine, and racial health disparities. We recruited 358 women aged 40 and older stratified by race (56% African American and 44% European American). Multivariable linear regression models examined hypothesis and research questions. Individuals’ privacy concerns and trust in doctors were significantly associated with their need for control. Although participants’ privacy concerns were positively associated with their preference for study-specific model, trust in doctors had no effect on the preference. African American participants needed more control over their sample and were more likely to prefer study-specific model compared to European American participants. Significant interactions by race on the associations between trust and need for control and between privacy concerns and preference for study-specific model were found. These findings suggest that when developing large diverse biobanks for future studies it is important to consider privacy concerns, trust, and need for control with an understanding that there are differences in preferences by race.
Racial Discrimination, Sexual Partner Race/Ethnicity, and Depressive Symptoms Among Black Sexual Minority MenEnglish, D., Hickson, D. M. A., Callander, D., Goodman, M. S., & Duncan, D. T.
Journal titleArchives of Sexual Behavior
Page(s)1799-1809AbstractAlthough racial sexual exclusivity among Black gay, bisexual, and other sexual minority men (SMM) is frequently framed as a cause of HIV inequities, little research has examined how these sexual relationships may be driven by and protective against racism. This study examined associations between general racial discrimination, Black sexual exclusivity, sexual racial discrimination, and depressive symptoms among Black SMM. We conducted analyses on cross-sectional self-report data from 312 cisgender Black SMM in the U.S. Deep South who participated in the MARI study. Measures included general racial and sexual identity discrimination, race/ethnicity of sexual partners, sexual racial discrimination, and depressive symptoms. We estimated a moderated-mediation model with associations from discrimination to Black sexual exclusivity, moderated by discrimination target, from Black sexual exclusivity to sexual racial discrimination, and from sexual racial discrimination to depressive symptoms. We tested an indirect effect from racial discrimination to depressive symptoms to examine whether Black sexual exclusivity functioned as an intervening variable in the associations between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Results indicated that participants who experienced racial discrimination were more likely to exclusively have sex with Black men. Men with higher Black sexual exclusivity were less likely to experience sexual racial discrimination and, in turn, reported lower depressive symptoms. The indirect pathway from racial discrimination to depressive symptoms through Black sexual exclusivity and sexual racial discrimination was significant. Our results suggest that one of the drivers of sexual exclusivity among Black SMM may be that it helps to protect against the caustic psychological effects of racial discrimination.
Racial/Ethnic Diversity in Academic Public Health: 20-Year UpdateGoodman, M. S., Plepys, C. M., Bather, J. R., Kelliher, R. M., & Healton, C. G.
Journal titlePublic Health Reports
Page(s)74-81AbstractObjective: This study is a follow-up to an examination of the racial/ethnic composition of public health students (1996) and faculty (1997) at schools of public health that was conducted 20 years ago. We examined data on the race/ethnicity of students, graduates, and faculty among Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health (ASPPH)–member institutions during 2016-2017 and how these data have changed in the past 20 years. Methods: We obtained data on the race/ethnicity of students (in 1996 and 2016), graduates (in 1996 and 2016), and faculty (in 1997 and 2017) at ASPPH-member institutions from the ASPPH Data Center. We tabulated frequencies, percentages, and 20-year percentage-point changes by race/ethnicity. We examined data for all current ASPPH-member institutions and for comparable subcohorts of 1996 and 1997 member institutions that are current ASPPH members. Results: In graduate student enrollment, the 20-year increase in each nonwhite racial/ethnic subgroup was ≤5 percentage points. Among tenured faculty, the 20-year increase was greatest among Asians (8 percentage points) but was <3 percentage points for black, Hispanic, and Native American faculty. Conclusions: The increasing racial/ethnic diversity among students, graduates, and faculty in schools and programs of public health contributes to parallel increases in racial/ethnic diversity in the public health workforce. Schools and programs of public health should recruit clusters of racial/ethnic minority students using holistic application review processes, provide enrolled students with racially/ethnically diverse role models and mentors, and dedicate staffing to ensure a student-centered approach. In addition, those who mentor racially/ethnically diverse students and junior faculty should be rewarded.
Reaching consensus on principles of stakeholder engagement in researchFailed generating bibliography.Abstract
Journal titleProgress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
Page(s)117-127AbstractBackground: Stakeholder-engaged research is an umbrella term for the types of research that have community, patient, and/or stakeholder engagement, feedback, and bidirectional communication as approaches used in the research process. The level of stakeholder engagement across studies can vary greatly, from minimal engagement to fully collaborative partnerships. Objectives: To present the process of reaching consensus among stakeholder and academic experts on the stakeholder engagement principles (EPs) and to identify definitions for each principle. Methods: We convened 19 national experts, 18 of whom remained engaged in a five-round Delphi process. The Delphi panel consisted of a broad range of stakeholders (e.g., patients, caregivers, advocacy groups, clinicians, researchers). We used web-based surveys for most rounds (1–3 and 5) and an in-person meeting for round 4. Panelists evaluated EP titles and definitions with a goal of reaching consensus (>80% agreement). Panelists’ comments guided modifications, with greater weight given to non-academic stakeholder input. Conclusions: EP titles and definitions were modified over five Delphi rounds. The panel reached consensus on eight EPs (dropping four, modifying four, and adding one) and corresponding definitions. The Delphi process allowed for a stakeholder-engaged approach to methodological research. Stakeholder engagement in research is time consuming and requires greater effort but may yield a better, more relevant outcome than more traditional scientist-only processes. This stakeholder-engaged process of reaching consensus on EPs and definitions provides a key initial step for the content validation of a survey tool to examine the level of stakeholder engagement in research studies.
Relationships of Family History-related Factors and Causal Beliefs to Cancer Risk Perception and Mammography Screening Adherence Among Medically Underserved WomenHong, S. J., Goodman, M., & Kaphingst, K. A.
Journal titleJournal of Health Communication
Page(s)1-12AbstractThis study examines how family history-related factors and causal beliefs affect underserved women’s cancer risk perceptions and adherence to mammography. 1,010 patients at a primary care safety net clinic at a large urban hospital completed a survey in 2015. Of the 1,010 patients, 467 women 45 years of age or older were included in this analysis. The majority of participants were African American (68%). We built multivariable linear and logistic regression models to examine the dependent variables of cancer risk perception and mammography screening adherence. According to the results, those with a family history of cancer were significantly more likely to be adherent to mammography. Perceived importance of family health history also significantly predicted their mammography screening adherence. However, cancer risk perceptions did not predict underserved women’s mammography adherence. Significant interaction effects on the associations 1) between family cancer history, cancer risk perceptions, and mammography screening adherence and 2) between race, behavioral causal beliefs, and risk perceptions were found. Findings suggest that implementing different strategies across racial groups and by cancer history may be necessary to promote regular mammography screening.
Relationships of health information orientation and cancer history on preferences for consent and control over biospecimens in a biobank: A race-stratified analysisHong, S. J., Drake, B., Goodman, M., & Kaphingst, K. A.
Journal titleJournal of Genetic Counseling
Page(s)479-490AbstractIn this study, we investigated how patients’ self-reported health information efficacy, relationship with health providers, and cancer history are associated with their preferences for informed consent and need for control over biobank biospecimens. We recruited 358 women aged 40 and older (56% African American; 44% European American) and analyzed the data using multivariable regression models. Results show that African American participants’ health information efficacy was significantly and negatively associated with their need for control over biospecimens and preference for a study-specific model. European American participants’ dependency on doctors was a significant and negative predictor of their preference for a study-specific model. Several significant interaction effects, which varied across races, were found with regard to health information efficacy, personal cancer history, need for control, and preference for a study-specific model. The study findings suggest it is important to consider health information efficacy, relationship with providers, and need for control when developing large diverse biobanks.
Comparing preferences for return of genome sequencing results assessed with rating and ranking itemsGuo, S., Goodman, M., & Kaphingst, K.
Journal titleJournal of Genetic Counseling
Comparison of unintended pregnancy at 12 months between two contraceptive care programs; a controlled time-trend designMadden, T., Paul, R., Maddipati, R., Buckel, C., Goodman, M., & Peipert, J. F.
Page(s)196-201AbstractObjectives: To compare unintended pregnancy rates at 12 months between women receiving structured contraceptive counseling plus usual contraceptive care and women receiving structured contraceptive counseling, healthcare provider education and cost support for long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods. Study design: Using a controlled time-trend study design, we first enrolled 502 women receiving structured contraceptive counseling in addition to usual care (“Enhanced Care”) and subsequently enrolled 506 women receiving counseling plus healthcare provider education and cost support for LARC methods (“Complete CHOICE”) at three federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). Cost support included funds to health centers for “on-the-shelf” LARC methods and no-cost LARC methods for uninsured women. Participants completed in-person baseline surveys and follow-up surveys by telephone at 3, 6 and 12 months. We used Kaplan–Meier survival function to estimate 12-month unintended pregnancy rates and Cox proportional-hazards regression to compare unintended pregnancy rates between the two groups. We imputed pregnancy outcomes for women lost to follow-up (9%) prior to 12 months. Results: “Complete CHOICE” participants were less likely to report an unintended pregnancy at 12 months compared to “Enhanced Care”; 5.3 vs. 9.8 pregnancies per 100 women-years (p=.01). After adjusting for confounders (recruitment site, race, age and federal poverty level), women in “Complete CHOICE” had a 40% lower risk of unintended pregnancy at 12 months (adjusted hazard ratio 0.60; 95% confidence interval 0.37–0.99). Conclusions: Contraceptive provision that includes cost support and healthcare provider education in addition to patient counseling reduced unintended pregnancy at 12 months compared to counseling plus usual contraceptive care. Implications: A program of contraceptive care that includes comprehensive counseling; healthcare provider education; cost support; and on-the-shelf, long-acting reversible contraception can reduce unintended pregnancy compared to contraceptive counseling in addition to usual health center care in the FQHC setting.
Content validation of a quantitative stakeholder engagement measureGoodman, M. S., Ackermann, N., Bowen, D. J., & Thompson, V.
Journal titleJournal of Community Psychology
Page(s)1937-1951AbstractAim: Using a stakeholder-engaged approach, this study conducted content validation and item reduction of a quantitative measure of research engagement. Methods: A five-round modified Delphi process was used to reach consensus on items. Rounds 1–3 and 5 were conducted using web-based surveys. Round 4 consisted of a 2-day, in-person meeting. Delphi panelists received individualized reports outlining individual and aggregate group responses after rounds 1–3. Results: Over the five-round process, items were added, dropped, modified, and moved from one engagement principle to another. The number of items was reduced from 48 to 32, with three to five items corresponding to eight engagement principles. Conclusions: Research that develops standardized, reliable, and accurate measures to assess stakeholder engagement is essential to understanding the impact of engagement on scientific discovery and the scientific process. Valid quantitative measures to assess stakeholder engagement in research are necessary to assess associations between engagement and research outcomes.
Decision role preferences for return of results from genome sequencing amongst young breast cancer patientsMatsen, C. B., Lyons, S., Goodman, M. S., Biesecker, B. B., & Kaphingst, K. A.
Journal titlePatient Education and Counseling
Page(s)155-161AbstractObjective: To better understand decision role preferences in women diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age for return of results of genome sequencing in research and clinical settings. Methods: Participants were surveyed about communication and decision-making preferences related to genome sequencing results and factors that may affect these preferences. The primary outcome was decision role preference (Control Preference Scale) for selecting what results to receive within medical care or within a research study. Results: For results returned as part of medical care, most patients preferred a collaborative (N = 481, 45%) or active (N = 488, 45%) role with only 107 (10%) choosing a passive role. When making the decision as part of a research study, most patients preferred an active role (N = 617, 57%), 350 (33%) choosing a collaborative role, and110 (10%) choosing a passive role. Conclusion: Most women in this study preferred to share in decision making. Participants had somewhat different role preferences for clinical and research contexts, with greater preference for active roles in the research context. Practice Implications: We advocate for practice guidelines that incorporate discussion of decision role as an integral part of patient centered care and shared decision-making and recognize that more work is needed to inform guidelines.
Effect of staff training and cost support on provision of long-acting reversible contraception in community health centersBuckel, C., Maddipati, R., Goodman, M., Peipert, J. F., & Madden, T.
Page(s)222-227AbstractObjective: To compare the proportion of women receiving same-day long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) between two different models of contraceptive provision adapted from the Contraceptive CHOICE Project. Study Design: We used a controlled time-trend study design to compare 502 women receiving structured contraceptive counseling in addition to usual care (“Enhanced Care”) to 506 women receiving counseling plus healthcare provider education and cost support for LARC (“Complete CHOICE”) at three federally qualified health centers. We provided funds to health centers to ensure an “on-the-shelf” supply and no-cost LARC for uninsured women. We recorded the contraceptive method chosen after contraceptive counseling and the healthcare provider appointment as well as the contraceptive method received that day. Among women choosing LARC, we calculated proportions and performed Poisson regression with robust error variance to estimate relative risks for same-day insertion. Results: Participant demographics reflected the health center populations; 69% were black, 66% had a high school diploma or less, 57% were publicly insured, and 75% reported household income less than 101% federal poverty line. There were 153 (30.5%) women in “Enhanced Care” and 273 (54.0%) in “Complete CHOICE” who chose LARC (p<0.01). Among women who chose LARC (n=426), those in “Complete CHOICE” were more likely to receive a same-day insertion, 53.8% vs. 13.7% (RR adj 4.73; 95%CI 3.20–6.98) compared to “Enhanced Care.” Conclusions: A contraceptive care model that included healthcare provider education and cost support for LARC in addition to structured contraceptive counseling resulted in higher rates of same-day LARC insertion compared to contraceptive counseling and usual care alone. Implications: Contraceptive care provision which includes contraceptive counseling, healthcare provider education, and “on-the-shelf” long-acting reversible contraception facilitate same-day initiation of these methods. Interventions that focus solely on contraceptive counseling do not address other structural barriers to same-day contraceptive provision of all methods including cost and provider practice.
Factors affecting breast cancer patients' need for genetic risk information: From information insufficiency to information needHong, S. J., Biesecker, B., Ivanovich, J., Goodman, M., & Kaphingst, K. A.
Journal titleJournal of Genetic Counseling
Page(s)543-557AbstractInformation-seeking models typically focus on information-seeking behaviors based on individuals' interest in information, because their current level is perceived to be insufficient. In the context of genetic risk information (GRI), however, information insufficiency is difficult to measure and thus can limit understanding of information behavior in the context of GRI. We propose that an individual's need for information might be a more direct and conceptually clearer alternative to predicting their information-seeking behavior. To test this hypothesis, this study investigates the extent to which previously identified factors affecting interest in GRI are also predictors of need for GRI among women diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 40 or younger (N = 1,069). As hypothesized, there was a positive association between interest in and need for GRI. Furthermore, hypothesized factors of numeracy, information orientation, and genetic knowledge were significant predictors of increased interest in and need for GRI. In contrast, hypothesized factors of genetic worry and genetic causal belief predicted increased interest in GRI only, while genetic self-efficacy predicted increased need for GRI only. As hypothesized, BRCA status significantly moderated associations between informational norm and both interest in and need for GRI. Collectively, the findings support inclusion of need for GRI in theoretical information-seeking models in the context of genomic risk.
How neighborhoods matter in fatal interactions between police and men of colorJohnson, O., St. Vil, C., Gilbert, K. L., Goodman, M., & Johnson, C. A.
Journal titleSocial Science and Medicine
Page(s)226-235AbstractThis article addresses the concern that death by legal intervention is a health outcome disproportionately experienced by boys and men of color, and predicated on the quality of the locations in which encounters with law enforcement occur. Using a more comprehensive cross-verified sample of police homicides from online databases and a nationally representative sample of law enforcement agencies, this study examines whether neighborhood social disorganization, minority threat, and defense of inequality theories help explain the odds that males of color will have a fatal interaction with police (FIP). There are several noteworthy results. First, in support of the defense of inequality thesis, we found that income inequality within the area in which a FIP occurred is related to increased relative odds of fatal injury for males of color and Hispanic males. Second, consistent with the minority threat thesis, we found low levels of racial segregation dramatically reduced the odds of a FIP for Black males while higher levels of segregation increased the odds for Hispanic males. Third, Hispanic males were over 2.6 times as likely as others to be killed by officers from agencies with relatively higher percentages of Hispanic officers. We conclude the study with a discussion of its implications for research and policy.
Adaptation, Implementation, and Evaluation of a Public Health Research Methods Training for YouthGoodman, M. S., Gbaje, E., Yassin, S. M., Johnson DIas, J., Gilbert, K., & Thompson, V.
Journal titleHealth Equity
Page(s)349-355AbstractPurpose: To adapt, implement, and evaluate a public health research methods training program for youth. The Community Research Fellows Training Program is an evidence-based public health research methods training program for adults (18 years and older). The Youth Research Fellows Training (YRFT) is an adaptation of this program for youth. Methods: University faculty facilitate didactic training sessions and experiential small group activities in biweekly sessions conducted as part of an existing 4-week summer camp. Participants were African American girls (n=11) ranging from ages 10 to 14 years (most recent grade completed 4th-8th). To evaluate participant knowledge gain and satisfaction pre-tests were administered before each session, and post-test and evaluations were administered after each session. In addition, faculty completed web-based evaluation surveys on their experience teaching in the program. Results: Mean and median post-test scores were higher than pre-test scores for most (6 of the 7) of the training sessions; one session had no difference in scores. Participants rated the sessions well, on average overall session ratings of 4.3-4.8 on a 5-point Likert scale. Faculty rated their experience teaching in the program as excellent or very good and would be willing to teach in the program again (n=7; 100%). Conclusion: This pilot implementation of the YRFT program proved highly successful in terms of participant and faculty experience. The program evaluation demonstrates increased knowledge of public health research methods. This program has the potential to prepare youth to engage in public health research as partners not just participants.
Are You Making an Impact? Evaluating the Population Health Impact of Community Benefit ProgramsRains, C. M., Todd, G., Kozma, N., & Goodman, M. S.
Journal titleJournal of Public Health Management and Practice
Page(s)335-339AbstractContext: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act includes a change to the IRS 990 Schedule H, requiring nonprofit hospitals to submit a community health needs assessment every 3 years. Such health care entities are challenged to evaluate the effectiveness of community benefit programs addressing the health needs identified. Objective: In an effort to determine the population health impact of community benefit programs in 1 hospital outreach department, researchers and staff conducted an impact evaluation to develop priority areas and overarching goals along with program- and department-level objectives. Design: The longitudinal impact evaluation study design consists of retrospective and prospective secondary data analyses. Setting: As an urban pediatric hospital, St Louis Children's Hospital provides an array of community benefit programs to the surrounding community. Participants: Hospital staff and researchers came together to form an evaluation team. Data from program evaluation and administrative data for analysis were provided by hospital staff. Main Outcome Measure: Impact scores were calculated by scoring objectives as met or unmet and averaged across goals to create impact scores that measure how closely programs meet the overarching departmental mission and goals. Results: Over the 4-year period, there is an increasing trend in program-specific impact scores across all programs except one, Healthy Kids Express Asthma, which had a slight decrease in year 4 only. Implications: Current work in measuring and assessing the population health impact of community benefit programs is mostly focused on quantifying dollars invested into community benefit work rather than measuring the quality and impact of services. This article provides a methodology for measuring population health impact of community benefit programs that can be used to evaluate the effort of hospitals in providing community benefit. This is particularly relevant in our changing health care climate, as hospitals are being asked to justify community benefit and make meaningful contributions to population health. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act includes a change to the IRS 990 Schedule H, requiring nonprofit hospitals to submit a community health needs assessment every 3 years, and requires evaluation of program effectiveness; yet, it does not require any quantification of the impact of community benefit programs. The IRS Schedule H 990 policies could be strengthened by requiring an impact evaluation such as outlined in this article. Conclusion: As hospitals are being asked to justify community benefit and make meaningful contributions to population health, impact evaluations can be utilized to demonstrate the cumulative community benefit of programs and assess population health impact of community benefit programs.
For the Sake of All: Civic Education on the Social Determinants of Health and Health Disparities in St. LouisPurnell, J. Q., Goodman, M., Tate, W. F., Harris, K. M., Hudson, D. L., Jones, B. D., Fields, R., Camberos, G., Elder, K., Drake, B., & Gilbert, K.
Journal titleUrban Education
Page(s)711-743AbstractCivic education translates research evidence about topics of social importance for broad public audiences, with increased understanding and meaningful action of the desired outcomes. For the Sake of All is an example of civic education on the social determinants of health and health disparities situated in the local context of St. Louis, Missouri. This article describes the research translation, community engagement, strategic communication, and approach to policy that characterized this project. It presents data highlighting racial disparities in health, educational, and economic outcomes, along with policy and programmatic recommendations. Engagement and implementation strategies are described within the context of the events in Ferguson.
How segregation makes Us Fat: Food behaviors and food environment as mediators of the relationship between residential segregation and individual body mass indexGoodman, M., Lyons, S., Dean, L. T., Arroyo, C., & Hipp, J. A.
Journal titleFrontiers in Public Health
Volume6AbstractObjectives: Racial residential segregation affects food landscapes that dictate residents' food environments and is associated with obesity risk factors, including individual dietary patterns and behaviors. We examine if food behaviors and environments mediate the association between segregation and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks living in the St. Louis and Kansas City metro regions from 2012 to 2013 were surveyed on dietary behaviors, food environment, and BMI (n = 1,412). These data were combined with the CDC's modified retail food environment index and 2012 American Community Survey data to calculate racial segregation using various evenness and exposure indices. Multi-level mediation analyses were conducted to determine if dietary behavior and food environment mediate the association between racial residential segregation and individual BMI. Results: The positive association between racial segregation and individual BMI is partially mediated by dietary behaviors and fully mediated by food environments. Conclusion: Racial segregation (evenness and exposure) is associated with BMI, mediated by dietary behaviors and food environment. Elements of the food environment, which form the context for dietary behaviors, are potential targets for interventions to reduce obesity in residentially segregated areas.
Preferences for learning different types of genome sequencing results among young breast cancer patients: Role of psychological and clinical factorsKaphingst, K. A., Ivanovich, J., Lyons, S., Biesecker, B., Dresser, R., Elrick, A., Matsen, C., & Goodman, M.
Journal titleTranslational Behavioral Medicine
Page(s)71-79AbstractThe growing importance of genome sequencing means that patients will increasingly face decisions regarding what results they would like to learn. The present study examined psychological and clinical factors that might affect these preferences. 1,080 women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger completed an online survey. We assessed their interest in learning various types of genome sequencing results: risk of preventable disease or unpreventable disease, cancer treatment response, uncertain meaning, risk to relatives' health, and ancestry/physical traits. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine whether being "very" interested in each result type was associated with clinical factors: BRCA1/2 mutation status, prior genetic testing, family history of breast cancer, and psychological factors: cancer recurrence worry, genetic risk worry, future orientation, health information orientation, and genome sequencing knowledge. The proportion of respondents who were very interested in learning each type of result ranged from 16% to 77%. In all multivariable models, those who were very interested in learning a result type had significantly higher knowledge about sequencing benefits, greater genetic risks worry, and stronger health information orientation compared to those with less interest (p-values <.05). Our findings indicate that high interest in return of various types of genome sequencing results was more closely related to psychological factors. Shared decision-making approaches that increase knowledge about genome sequencing and incorporate patient preferences for health information and learning about genetic risks may help support patients' informed choices about learning different types of sequencing results.
Training Community Members in Public Health Research: Development and Implementation of a Community Participatory Research Pilot ProjectKomaie, G., Goodman, M., McCall, A., McGill, G., Patterson, C., Hayes, C., & Sanders Thompson, V.
Journal titleHealth Equity
Page(s)282-287AbstractPurpose: Community-based training in public health research can build capacity for community-based participatory research (CBPR) and foster health partnerships between academics and stakeholders. We describe a community-academic partnership developed from a 15-week program, the Community Research Fellows Training (CRFT), designed to increase research literacy and facilitate equitable relationships in community/researcher collaborations and partnerships. The article provides a description of a community and faculty collaboration to conduct a participatory pilot research project that followed program completion. Methods: Four CRFT program alumni formed a community research team and selected a faculty mentor. After a request for proposal release, the team developed a pilot research proposal that addressed a concern for mental health among women experiencing economic stress. After completion of the pilot research, the community researchers elected to participate in two dissemination efforts, including a manuscript reflecting on their research experience. Team successes, challenges, and recommendations for future training are discussed. Results: Each member of the CRFT pilot research team reflects on how training prepared community members to conduct CBPR research through development and implementation of a pilot research project. Community researchers gained experience in grant proposal development, choosing appropriate health interventions, conducting in-person surveys and telephone interviews, and disseminating study findings. Conclusions: Providing training in public health research before community/researcher collaboration can increase community capacity to engage in research as equitable partners in research question development, study design, and data interpretation and dissemination. The project success suggests that this and similar programs maximize the potential of community-academic health partnerships to address health disparities.
Biostatistics for clinical and public health researchGoodman, M. S.
Publication year2017AbstractBiostatistics for Clinical and Public Health Research provides a concise overview of statistical analysis methods. Use of SAS and Stata statistical software is illustrated in full, including how to interpret results. Focusing on statistical models without all the theory, the book is complete with exercises, case studies, take-away points, and data sets. Readers will be able to maximize their statistical abilities in hypothesis testing, data interpretation, and application while also learning when and how to consult a biostatistician. This book will be an invaluable tool for students and clinical and public health practitioners.
Descriptive Analysis of the 2014 Race-Based Healthcare Disparities Measurement LiteratureGoodman, M. S., Gilbert, K. L., Hudson, D., Milam, L., & Colditz, G. A.
Journal titleJournal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Page(s)796-802AbstractImportance: There are more than 500 articles in the 2014 race-based healthcare disparities literature across a broad array of diseases and outcomes. However, unlike many other forms of research (e.g., clinical trials and systematic reviews), there are no required reporting guidelines when submitting results of disparities studies to journals. Objective: This study describes the race-based healthcare disparities measurement literature in terms of study design, journal characteristics, generation of health disparities research, type of disparity measure used, and adherence to disparities measurement guidelines. Methods: We searched three databases of peer-reviewed literature, PubMed, Ovid Medline, and JSTOR, for English language articles published in 2014 on racial/ethnic healthcare disparities. Studies must have quantitatively measured the difference in health outcomes between two racial/ethnic groups in order to be included. Our final sample included 266 studies from 167 medical and public health journals. Findings: Only 7 % (n = 19) of articles reported both an absolute and relative measure of disparity; the majority of studies (64 %, n = 171) reported only a relative measure of effect. Most studies were published in clinical journals (74 %, n = 198), used secondary data (86 %, n = 229), and calculated black-white disparities (82 %, n = 218). The most common condition studied was cancer (25 %, n = 67), followed by a surgical procedure (18 %, n = 48). On average, articles in the sample only met 61 % of the applicable guidelines on reporting of disparities. Conclusions and Relevance: To be able to synthesize findings in the racial disparities literature (meta-analysis), there is a need for the use of consistent methods for quantifying disparities and reporting in the literature. A more consistent battery of measures and consistent reporting across studies may help speed our understanding of the origins and development of solutions to address healthcare disparities. Despite guidelines for best practices in reporting disparities, there is a lack of adherence in the current literature.