Prince Michael Amegbor

Prince M. Amegbor
Prince Michael Amegbor

Assistant Professor of Global Health

Professional overview

As a health geographer using big data and a multi-methods approach in his research on the environmental and social determinants of health, Dr. Prince Michael Amegbor is an assistant professor in the Global and Environmental Public Health Program. He specializes in visualizing the geospatial distribution of risks and burdens on health that are associated with environmental exposures. He works to unravel how factors such as climate change, air pollution and other environmental exposures contribute to health inequalities, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and other geographic contexts (e.g., Denmark).

Prior to his appointment at GPH, Dr. Amegbor was a postdoctoral research fellow with the Big Data Centre for Environment and Health (BERTHA) and the Department of Environmental Science at Aarhus University (Denmark). He is also a guest researcher at Statistics Denmark and has worked as a co-task leader of two European Union Horizon 2020 Projects: REGREEN and ICARUS (Integrated Climate forcing and Air pollution Reduction in Urban Systems).

Dr. Amegbor has published dozens of articles in peer-reviewed scholarly journals including Scientific Report, Health & Place and Applied Geography. He earned his PhD in human geography from Queen’s University in Ontario, and holds an MPhil in development geography from the University of Oslo. He obtained his undergraduate degree in geography and resource development from the University of Ghana, Legon.

Education

PhD, Department of Geography & Planning, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario
MPhil Developmental Geography, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
BA Geography & Resource Development, University of Ghana, Accra

Honors and awards

Principal's International Doctoral Award, Queen’s University (201520162017)
Quota Scheme Scholarship, Department of Sociology & Human Geography, University of Oslo (201220132014)

Areas of research and study

Aging and the Life Course
Alternative Medicine
Child Health
Complementary Medicine
Environmental Public Health Services
Immigrant Health
Public Health Policy
Social Determinants of Health
Socio-cultural Identities and Health Seeking Behaviors
Traditional Medicine
Urban Geography
Violence and Victimisation
Women's Health

Publications

Publications

Assessing the association between urban features and human physiological stress response using wearable sensors in different urban contexts

Zhang, Z., Amegbor, P. M., Sigsgaard, T., & Sabel, C. E. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

Health and Place

Volume

78
Abstract
Abstract
Public open space (POS) plays a significant role in fostering human health and wellbeing in cities. A major limitation of current research on POS and health is that there is little attention on the role of various urban features on people's mental health, in different urban context. This study employed wearable sensors (a wearable camera, Empatica 4 wristband and a GPS device) to measure human physiological responses to urban indicators, objectively. To do this, we selected six kinds of public open space (water area, transit area, green area, commercial area, motor traffic area and mixed office and residential area) and recruited 86 participants for an experimental study. Next, we detected urban features by using Microsoft Cognitive Services (MCS) and calculated a change score to assess human physiological stress responses based on galvanic skin response (GSR) and skin temperature from the wristband. Lastly, we applied random effect model and geographically weighted regression analysis to examine the relationship between urban indicators and human physiological stress responses. The findings show that urban flow (vehicles, bikes and people), waterbodies, greenery and places to sit are associated with the changes of human physiological stress response. The findings indicate that the type of urban context may confound the effect of green and blue urban features; i.e., the effect on physiological stress response can be positive or negative depending on the context. The paper highlights the relevance of considering urban context in research on associations between urban features and stress response.

Early-life environmental exposures and anaemia among children under age five in Sub-Saharan Africa: An insight from the Demographic & Health Surveys

Amegbor, P. M. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

Science of the Total Environment

Volume

832
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Reports show that the majority (60%) of children under age five years in Sub-Saharan Africa are anaemic. Studies in the region have mainly focused on the effect of individual, maternal and household socioeconomic status on the prevalence of anaemia. Currently, there is limited understanding of the association between early-life environmental exposures and anaemia among children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Objective: The study examines the association between early-life environmental exposures and anaemia among children under five in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: The study used health and demographic data from the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) program and environmental data from NASA's Geospatial Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure (GIOVANNI) and Atmospheric Composition Analysis Group. Three exposure periods were defined for the study, namely: in-utero, post-utero and cumulative life exposures. Multilevel mixed-effect models were used to assess the associations between environmental exposures and anaemia in each exposure period. Results: The findings show that 63% of children in the study were anaemic. It also reveals that mean PM 2.5 exposure for in-utero (34.93 μgm−3), post-utero (35.23 μgm−3) and cumulative exposure (35.08 μgm−3) were seven times higher than the new air quality guideline WHO recommended. A 10 μgm−3 increase in in-utero, post-utero and cumulative PM 2.5 exposures was associated with 4% to 5% increase in the prevalence of anaemia among children. A 10ppbv increase in in-utero, post-utero and cumulative carbon monoxide exposures was associated with 1% increase in the prevalence of anaemia among children. The spatial risk distribution maps show that socioeconomic factors modify the spatial risk distribution pattern. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggest that early-life exposure to ambient air pollution is significantly associated with anaemia among children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Thus, policies aimed at addressing air quality should be incorporated into targeted interventions for anaemia among children in the region.

Effect of individual, household and regional socioeconomic factors and PM2.5 on anaemia: A cross-sectional study of sub-Saharan African countries

Amegbor, P. M., Borges, S. S., Pysklywec, A., & Sabel, C. E. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology

Volume

40
Abstract
Abstract
There is limited knowledge on the effect of contextual and environmental factors on the risk of anaemia, as well as the spatial distribution of anaemia in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. In this study, we used multi-country data from the Demographic & Health survey (DHS) with 270,011 observations and PM2.5 data from NASA, applied to the spatial risk pattern of anaemia in the SSA region. The prevalence of anaemia amongst women (41%) was almost twice that of men (22%). A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that individual household, neighbourhood and regional socioeconomic factors were significantly associated with the likelihood of being anaemic. 1 μg/m3 increase in cumulative lifetime PM2.5 exposure accounted for 1% (β = 0.011, CI = 0.008 – 0.015) increase in the likelihood of being anaemic. The results suggest the need for a multidimensional approach to tackle anaemia in the Sub-Saharan African region and identify high-risk areas for target intervention policies or programs.

Individual and contextual predictors of overweight or obesity among women in Uganda: a spatio-temporal perspective

Amegbor, P. M., Yankey, O., Davies, M., & Sabel, C. E. (n.d.).

Publication year

2022

Journal title

GeoJournal

Volume

87

Issue

5

Page(s)

3793-3813
Abstract
Abstract
Being overweight and obesity are emerging public health issues in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, there is limited knowledge on the temporal trend of the effect of socioeconomic factors and air quality on being overweight or obesity. Using data from the Ugandan Demographic and Health Survey and NASA’s Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), we examined the spatio-temporal effect of individual and contextual factors on overweight and obesity among women in Uganda using cross-sectional data on 15,655 women in Uganda. We employed multilevel mixed-effect analysis and Bayesian hierarchical spatial models to examine the effect of individual socioeconomic status, contextual socioeconomic factors and air quality on women’s risk of being overweight or obese as well as investigate spatial heterogeneity in the association. The prevalence of overweight/obesity for the study periods were 17.23% (2000/2001), 15.36% (2006), 19.36% (2011) and 21.93% (2016). The result from the multilevel analysis shows change in the directions of the association between individual factors (educational status and household wealth) and overweight or obese over the years. Women with secondary education were 1.514 times (p = 0.002) more likely to be overweight or obese in the 2000/2001 group but 0.655 times (p = 0.007) less likely to be overweight or obese in the 2016 group. It also reveals temporal consistency in the effect of the air pollutant PM2.5 on overweight or obese. The spatial models reveal spatial heterogeneity in the association between district-level factors and the proportion of overweight or obese women. The findings suggest improving women’s socioeconomic status and air quality could reduce the rising obesity epidemic in Ugandan women.

Assessing the current integration of multiple personalised wearable sensors for environment and health monitoring

Zhang, Z., Amegbor, P. M., & Sabel, C. E. (n.d.).

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Sensors

Volume

21

Issue

22
Abstract
Abstract
The ever-growing development of sensor technology brings new opportunities to investigate impacts of the outdoor environment on human health at the individual level. However, there is limited literature on the use of multiple personalized sensors in urban environments. This review paper focuses on examining how multiple personalized sensors have been integrated to enhance the monitoring of co-exposures and health effects in the city. Following PRISMA guidelines, two reviewers screened 4898 studies from Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, Embase, and PubMed databases published from January 2010 to April 2021. In this case, 39 articles met the eligibility criteria. The review begins by examining the characteristics of the reviewed papers to assess the current situation of integrating multiple sensors for health and environment monitoring. Two main challenges were identified from the quality assessment: choosing sensors and integrating data. Lastly, we propose a checklist with feasible measures to improve the integration of multiple sensors for future studies.

Determinants of the type of health care sought for symptoms of Acute respiratory infection in children: analysis of Ghana demographic and health surveys

Danquah, L., Amegbor, P. M., & Ayele, D. G. (n.d.).

Publication year

2021

Journal title

BMC Pediatrics

Volume

21

Issue

1
Abstract
Abstract
Background: Globally, acute respiratory infection (ARI) is a leading cause of infant and childhood morbidity and mortality. Currently, it is estimated that 50 million cases of childhood ARI are untreated. In this study, we identified determinants of the type of treatment sought for symptoms of childhood acute respiratory infection (ARI), including non-treatment, amongst a nationally representative sample of children under five years in Ghana. Methods: In total, 1 544 children were studied by a secondary analysis of pooled survey data from the 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Surveys (GDHS). Cross-tabulations, chi-square, multinomial logistic regression, and Bayesian hierarchical spatial logistic regression analyses were used to identify relationships between the type of treatment sought and maternal socio-economic and household characteristics. Results: Seeking medical care was significantly associated with child age (RRR= 1.928, 95 % CI 1.276 – 2.915), maternal employment status (RRR = 1.815, 95 % CI 1.202 – 2.740), maternal health insurance status, (RRR = 2.618, 95 % CI 1.801 – 3.989), children belonging to middle (RRR = 2.186, 95 % CI 1.473 – 3.243), richer (RRR = 1.908, 95 % CI 1.145 – 3.180) and richest households (RRR = 2.456, 95 % CI 1.363 – 4.424) and the 1998 survey period (RRR = 0.426, 95 % CI 0.240 – 7.58). Seeking self-care or visiting a traditional healer was significantly associated with maternal educational status (RRR = 0.000, 95 % CI 0.000 – 0.000), and the 1998 (RRR= 0.330, 95 % CI 0.142 – 0.765), 2003 (RRR= 0.195, 95 % CI 0.071 – 0.535), 2008 (RRR= 0.216, 95 % CI 0.068 – 0.685) and 2014 (RRR= 0.230, 95 % CI 0.081 – 0.657) GDHS periods. The probability that the odds ratio of using medical care exceeded 1 was higher for mothers/caregivers in the Western, Ashanti, Upper West, and Volta regions. Conclusions: Government policies that are aimed at encouraging medical care-seeking for children with ARI may yield positive results by focusing on improving maternal incomes, maternal NHIS enrolment, and maternal household characteristics. Improving maternal education could be a positive step towards addressing challenges with self-care or traditional healing amongst children with ARI.

Examining Spatial Variability in the Association Between Male Partner Alcohol Misuse and Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Ghana: A GWR Analysis

Amegbor, P. M., Yankey, O., Rosenberg, M. W., & Sabel, C. E. (n.d.).

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Journal of Interpersonal Violence

Volume

36

Issue

23

Page(s)

NP12855-NP12874
Abstract
Abstract
Globally, it is estimated that about 30% of ever-partnered women have experienced some form of intimate partner violence (IPV)—physical assault, sexual assault, or emotional abuse. The prevalence of IPV in sub-Saharan Africa is considerably higher than the global estimate. In Ghana, it is estimated that 24% of women have experienced physical and/or sexual IPV in their lifetime. Studies point to the association between alcohol misuse by intimate male partners and violence against women. However, there has been no consideration for potential spatial variation or heterogeneity in this association. Using estimates from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey Data, we employed geographically weighted regression (GWR) analysis to examine spatial variations in the relationship between male partner’s alcohol misuse and IPV among women in Ghana. We fitted three models to assess the relationship using a step-wise approach. The first model has alcohol misuse as the only predictor, whereas the second model included other male partner characteristics, such as post-secondary education and employment status. The final introduced female characteristics as additional covariates. The result of the GWR analysis shows that the effect of alcohol misuse on IPV is elevated in the south-western part of Ghana. The findings suggest the potential influence of place-based or contextual factors on the association between alcohol misuse and women’s exposure to IPV.

Social Frailty and Depression Among Older Adults in Ghana: Insights from the WHO SAGE Surveys

Amegbor, P. M., Kuuire, V. Z., Yawson, A. E., Rosenberg, M. W., & Sabel, C. E. (n.d.).

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Research on Aging

Volume

43

Issue

2

Page(s)

85-95
Abstract
Abstract
In this study, we examine the association between social frailty and depression among older adults in Ghana over time. We employed longitudinal data analysis to examine the association between social frailty, socioeconomic status and depression using data from the WHO-SAGE survey. Our descriptive and cross-tabulation analyses show that the prevalence of depression and social frailty among older adults decreased considerably in 2014/2015 compared to 2007/2008. The finding also reveals a huge reduction in social frailty among older adults in northern Ghana–the most deprived regions in Ghana–compared to those in southern Ghana. The multivariate panel data analysis reveals that depression was significantly associated with social isolation, financial needs, and physical needs. The findings suggest an over time decline in social frailty and depression among older adults, as well as, reduction in regional differences in social frailty and depression among older adults in Ghana.

The effect of sociodemographic factors on the risk of poor mental health in Akron (Ohio): A Bayesian hierarchical spatial analysis

Yankey, O., Amegbor, P. M., & Lee, J. (n.d.).

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology

Volume

38
Abstract
Abstract
We examined the association of sociodemographic factors on mental health risk within the city of Akron (Ohio). A Spatial Bayesian Hierarchical model was used in this study. We found that the risk of poor mental health was positively associated with the proportion of people lacking sufficient sleep (RR = 0.42, 95% CI:0.22-0.62), the percentage of people below poverty (RR = 0.12, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.16), and the percentage of married couples (RR = 0.02, 95% CI: -0.05, 0.08). On the contrary, the percentage of female population (RR = -0.06, 95% CI: -0.13, 0.01), the percentage of the black population (RR = -0.05, 95% CI: -0.08, -0.02), and the college-educated population (RR = -0.03, 95% CI: -0.09, 0.04) was negatively associated with the risk of poor mental health. We also found that the sociodemographic variables have spatially varying effects across different neighborhoods. Future studies will examine the joint spatial effect of poor mental health risk and suicide ideation in the study area.

The effect of socioeconomic and environmental factors on obesity: A spatial regression analysis

Yankey, O., Amegbor, P. M., & Essah, M. (n.d.).

Publication year

2021

Journal title

International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research

Volume

12

Issue

4

Page(s)

58-74
Abstract
Abstract
This paper examined the effect of socio-economic and environmental factors on obesity in Cleveland (Ohio) using an OLS model and three spatial regression models: spatial error model, spatial lag model, and a spatial error model with a spatially lagged response (SEMSLR). Comparative assessment of the models showed that the SEMSLR and the spatial error models were the best models. The spatial effect from the various spatial regression models was statistically significant, indicating an essential spatial interaction among neighboring geographic units and the need to account for spatial dependency in obesity research. The authors also found a statistically significant positive association between the percentage of families below poverty, Black population, and SNAP recipient with obesity rate. The percentage of college-educated had a statistically significant negative association with the obesity rate. The study shows that health outcomes such as obesity are not randomly distributed but are more clustered in deprived and marginalized neighborhoods.

Understanding unmet health-care need among older Ghanaians: A gendered analysis

Kuuire, V. Z., Tenkorang, E. Y., Amegbor, P. M., & Rosenberg, M. (n.d.).

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Ageing and Society

Volume

41

Issue

8

Page(s)

1748-1769
Abstract
Abstract
Health insurance schemes are important for bridging gaps in health-care needs between the rich and poor, especially in contexts where poverty is higher among seniors (persons aged 65 years and above). In this study we examined (a) gender-based predictors of unmet health-care need among seniors and (b) whether access was influenced by wealth status (measured by income quintiles). Gender-specific negative log-log regression models were fitted to data from the Study on Global Ageing and Health to examine associations between unmet health-care need and health insurance status controlling for theoretically relevant covariates. Insurance status was an important determinant of men and women's unmet health-care need but the relationship was moderated by income quintile for women and not men. While occupation was important for men, religion, marital status and income quintile were significantly associated with women's unmet health-care need. Based on the observed gender differences, we recommend the implementation of programmes aimed at improving the economic situation of older people, particularly women.

Urban Health and Wellbeing

Sabel, C. E., Amegbor, P. M., Zhang, Z., Chen, T. H. K., Poulsen, M. B., Hertel, O., Sigsgaard, T., Horsdal, H. T., Pedersen, C. B., & Khan, J. (n.d.). In Urban Book Series.

Publication year

2021

Page(s)

259-280
Abstract
Abstract
This chapter explores how the Internet of Things and the utilization of cutting-edge information technology are shaping global research and discourse on the health and wellbeing of urban populations. The chapter begins with a review of smart cities and health and then delves into the types of data available to researchers. The chapter then discusses innovative methods and techniques, such as machine learning, personalized sensing, and tracking, that researchers use to examine the health and wellbeing of urban populations. The applications of these data, methods, and techniques are then illustrated taking examples from BERTHA (Big Data Centre for Environment and Health) based at Aarhus University, Denmark. The chapter concludes with a discussion on issues of ethics, privacy, and confidentiality surrounding the use of sensitive and personalized data and tracking or sensing individuals across time and urban space.

Variations in Emotional, Sexual, and Physical Intimate Partner Violence Among Women in Uganda: A Multilevel Analysis

Amegbor, P. M., & Pascoe, L. (n.d.).

Publication year

2021

Journal title

Journal of Interpersonal Violence

Volume

36

Issue

15

Page(s)

NP7868-NP7898
Abstract
Abstract
Evidence shows that a significant proportion of ever-partnered women suffer some form of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetuated by male partners. The prevalence of IPV in sub-Saharan African countries is considerably higher than global estimates. Although existing studies show the effect of women’s and intimate male partner’s characteristics on IPV, knowledge on how these factors increase or reduce women’s risk to specific types of IPV is limited. Using the 2016 Ugandan Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS), we examine regional variations in women’s and intimate male partner’s characteristics and their effect on emotional, sexual, and physical violence perpetuated by men and experienced by women in Uganda. The result shows that women’s educational status is a significant predictor of all forms of IPV, whereas other characteristics, such as employment and housing ownership, have differential effects on specific types of IPV. Less educated women were more likely to experience emotional, sexual, and physical violence. Alcohol abuse was a significant determinant of men perpetuating all types of IPV; other male characteristics had differential effects on specific types of IPV. Male partners who abuse alcohol “often” and “sometimes” were more likely to commit acts of emotional, sexual, and physical violence against their female intimate partners. The findings also show that ~5%, ~8%, and ~2% of the variance in emotional, sexual, and physical violence (respectively; in the final models) are attributable to regional differences. The findings suggest the need for interventions aimed at increasing women’s access to higher education, working with men and boys to reduce the occurrence of alcohol abuse and address harmful constructions of masculinity, and promoting gender equality among men as well as women.

Determinants of Overnight Stay in Health Centres and Length of Admission: A Study of Canadian Seniors

Amegbor, P. M., Plumb, K. B., & Rosenberg, M. W. (n.d.).

Publication year

2020

Journal title

Canadian Journal on Aging

Volume

39

Issue

4

Page(s)

533-544
Abstract
Abstract
This study examines the influence of chronic health conditions and socio-economic status on overnight admission and length of stay among Canadian seniors. Incremental multivariate logistic and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models assessed the relationship between selected predictors, overnight admission, and duration of stay. The findings show that all chronic health conditions and socio-economic factors examined were significantly associated with overnight hospital admission. However, seniors with cardiovascular health conditions, the very old, and seniors living in lower-income households had a greater risk of longer stays. Canadian seniors diagnosed with hypertension, cancer, diabetes, and stroke had greater risk of longer overnight hospital stays. Seniors aged 75 to 79 years, 80 years or older, and those living in lower-income households (≤ $39,999) were more likely to have a longer overnight hospital stay. Findings suggest that improving seniors' health and socio-economic status may reduce the risk of overnight admission and longer stays of hospitalisation.

Effect of cognitive and structural social capital on depression among older adults in Ghana: A multilevel cross-sectional analysis

Amegbor, P. M., Braimah, J. A., Adjaye-Gbewonyo, D., Rosenberg, M. W., & Sabel, C. E. (n.d.).

Publication year

2020

Journal title

Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics

Volume

89
Abstract
Abstract
Evidence from existing studies suggests social capital has mixed effects on depression and other common mental disorders. There is little knowledge of the possible association between social capital and depression among the growing older population in sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigates the effect of cognitive social capital (trust and sense of safety) and structural social capital (social participation or engagement in social activities) on depression among older adults in Ghana. Utilizing multilevel mixed-effect analysis, we investigate the effect of individual-level and neighborhood-level social capital (cognitive and structural) on depression using data from the World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (WHO-SAGE) survey (Wave 1). The findings show that at an individual level, older adults who felt safe at home were less likely to have depression. We observed mixed results for elements of structural social capital at the individual level. Older adults who frequently engaged in club or group meetings, worked with neighbors and engaged in social outings were more likely to have depression; while attending public meetings and socializing with co-workers were associated with reduced likelihood of having depression. At the neighborhood level, increased trust in neighbors was associated with an increased likelihood of having depression (OR = 1.01, p < 0.05) while higher levels of neighborhood safety and structural social capital were associated with a reduced likelihood of having depression. The findings suggest that the differential associations between elements of social capital and depression may be the result of contextual factors.

Examining the Effect of Geographic Region of Residence on Childhood Malnutrition in Uganda

Amegbor, P. M., Yankey, O., & Sabel, C. E. (n.d.).

Publication year

2020

Journal title

Journal of Tropical Pediatrics

Volume

66

Issue

6

Page(s)

598-611
Abstract
Abstract
Objectives: In our study, we examine how geographic region of residence may predict childhood malnutrition, expressed as stunting, wasting and underweight, among children under the age of 5 years in Uganda. Methods: Using data from the 2016 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey, we performed an incremental multivariate multilevel mixed-effect modelling to examine the effect of a child, parental and household factors on the association between region of residence and each indicator of childhood malnutrition. Results: Approximately 28%, 3% and 9% of children under age 5 suffered from stunting, wasting and underweight, respectively. The bivariate result shows that the proportion of children suffering from stunting and underweight was relatively lower in the Kampala region compared with the other regions. With the exception of the Northern region (6.44%), wasting was higher (4.12%) among children in the Kampala region. Children in the other regions were more likely to experience stunting and underweight. When controlling for child, parent and household factors, children in the other regions were less likely to suffer from underweight and stunting, compared with those in Kampala region. Children in the other regions, except the Northern region, were less likely to be wasted compared with those in Kampala region. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that child, parental and household characteristics have effects on the association between region of residence and childhood malnutrition. Addressing individual and household socioeconomic disparities may be vital in tackling regional differences in childhood malnutrition.

Health and socioeconomic risk factors for overnight admission among older adults in Ghana

Amegbor, P. M., & Rosenberg, M. W. (n.d.).

Publication year

2020

Journal title

Journal of Population Ageing
Abstract
Abstract
Ghana’s older adult population is growing significantly. However, there is limited knowledge or research on the effect of place, chronic health conditions, and socioeconomic status on the risk of overnight hospital admission or the frequency of hospitalisation among older adults in Ghana. Using the WHO SAGE (Wave 1) data, we examine the influence of place of residence, chronic health conditions, and socioeconomic status on overnight hospital admission, as well as, frequency of hospital admission among older adults in Ghana. Multivariate logistic regression and zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to study the influence of place, health conditions, and socioeconomic status on overnight hospital admission. The findings show that older adults with functional limitations and chronical health conditions were more likely to have experienced an overnight hospital admission. The expected number of overnight hospital admission was greater among chronically ill older adults than their healthy counterparts. However, the findings show that socioeconomically vulnerable older adults were less likely to have overnight hospital admission and they had lower admission rates. The presence of chronic health conditions is associated with overnight hospital admission, while poor socioeconomic status may imply underutilization or limited access to healthcare for the socioeconomically vulnerable.

Multilevel and spatial analyses of childhood malnutrition in Uganda: examining individual and contextual factors

Amegbor, P. M., Zhang, Z., Dalgaard, R., & Sabel, C. E. (n.d.).

Publication year

2020

Journal title

Scientific reports

Volume

10

Issue

1
Abstract
Abstract
In this study, we examine the concepts of spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity in the effect of macro-level and micro-level factors on stunting among children aged under five in Uganda. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 3624 Ugandan children aged under five, using data from the 2016 Ugandan Demographic and Health Survey. Multilevel mixed-effect analysis, spatial regression methods and multi-scale geographically weight regression (MGWR) analysis were employed to examine the association between our predictors and stunting as well as to analyse spatial dependence and variability in the association. Approximately 28% of children were stunted. In the multilevel analysis, the effect of drought, diurnal temperature and livestock per km2 on stunting was modified by child, parent and household factors. Likewise, the contextual factors had a modifiable effect on the association between child’s sex, mother’s education and stunting. The results of the spatial regression models indicate a significant spatial error dependence in the residuals. The MGWR suggests rainfall and diurnal temperature had spatial varying associations with stunting. The spatial heterogeneity of rainfall and diurnal temperature as predictors of stunting suggest some areas in Uganda might be more sensitive to variability in these climatic conditions in relation to stunting than others.

Predictors of Unmet Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine Need Among Persons of Sub-Saharan African Origin Living in the Greater Toronto Area

Amegbor, P. M., & Rosenberg, M. W. (n.d.).

Publication year

2020

Journal title

Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health

Volume

22

Issue

5

Page(s)

1031-1038
Abstract
Abstract
Our study seeks to examine how chronic health status, insurance coverage and socioeconomic factors predict unmet traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) needs among immigrants from sub-Saharan African origin living in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The data for the study comes from a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 273 sub-Saharan African immigrants living in the GTA. ~ 21% of respondents surveyed had unmet TCAM needs in the 12-month period prior to the survey. Persons with chronic health conditions, lower socioeconomic status, and those with previous history of TCAM use before immigrating were more likely to have unmet TCAM need. The study suggests that the current TCAM healthcare environment in the GTA limits that ability of sub-Saharan immigrants to meet their healthcare needs, especially persons in most need of such treatments—persons with chronic health conditions and those of lower socioeconomic background.

Modern or traditional health care? Understanding the role of insurance in health-seeking behaviours among older Ghanaians

Amegbor, P. M., Kuuire, V. Z., Bisung, E., & Braimah, J. A. (n.d.).

Publication year

2019

Journal title

Primary health care research & development

Volume

20

Page(s)

e71
Abstract
Abstract
AIM: This paper examined the association between wealth and health insurance status and the use of traditional medicine (TM) among older persons in Ghana. BACKGROUND: There have been considerable efforts by sub-Saharan African countries to improve access to primary health care services, partly through the implementation of risk-pooling community or national health insurance schemes. The use of TM, which is often not covered under these insurance schemes, remains common in many countries, including Ghana. Understanding how health insurance and wealth influence the use of TM, or otherwise, is essential to the development of equitable health care policies. METHODS: The study used data from the first wave of the World Health Organisation's Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health conducted in Ghana in 2008. Descriptive statistics and negative loglog regression models were fitted to the data to examine the influence of insurance and wealth status on the use of TM, controlling for theoretically relevant factors. FINDINGS: Seniors who had health insurance coverage were also 17% less likely to frequently seek treatment from a TM healer relative to the uninsured. For older persons in the poorest income quintile, the odds of frequently seeking treatment from TM increased by 61% when compared to those in the richest quintile. This figure was 46%, 62% and 40% for older persons in poorer, middle and richer income quintiles, respectively, compared to their counterparts in the richest income quintile. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that TM was primarily used by the poor and persons who were not enrolled in the National Health Insurance Scheme. TM continues to be a vital health care resource for the poor and uninsured older adults in Ghana.

What geography can tell us? Effect of higher education on intimate partner violence against women in Uganda

Amegbor, P. M., & Rosenberg, M. W. (n.d.).

Publication year

2019

Journal title

Applied Geography

Volume

106

Page(s)

71-81
Abstract
Abstract
Studies in Uganda show that a sizeable proportion – between 27% and 48% – of women suffer from intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV leads to negative health outcomes among women, including vulnerability to HIV infection, depression and suicide. Lower socioeconomic status among women has been identified as a major risk factor for exposure to IPV. Evidence from existing studies shows that higher education level among women serves as a protective measure against IPV. However, knowledge about spatial variations in IPV and higher education among women is limited. Using estimates from the 2016 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey data, we employed geographically weighted regression analysis to examine the spatial variability of the relationship between women's post-secondary education and IPV. The results of our OLS and GWR models show that women's post-secondary education significantly reduce their exposure to IPV. Mapping the GWR coefficient estimates of women's post-secondary education shows that the protective effect of women's post-secondary education is high in the eastern and central parts of Uganda. The findings suggest geographical variations in the relationship between women's post-secondary education and IPV. It also offers insight on areas for possible interventions measures to reduce IPV rates among women and increase women's access to post-secondary education.

Does place matter? A multilevel analysis of victimization and satisfaction with personal safety of seniors in Canada

Amegbor, P. M., Rosenberg, M. W., & Kuuire, V. Z. (n.d.).

Publication year

2018

Journal title

Health and Place

Volume

53

Page(s)

17-25
Abstract
Abstract
Studies on the victimization and abuse of seniors in Canada have largely ignored the influence of place-based variations in social bonds and socioeconomic characteristics. Using the 2014 General Social Survey (GSS) data on Canadians’ safety, we examine neighborhood, social capital, and socioeconomic characteristics as predictors of the incidence of victimization among seniors and their satisfaction with personal safety from crime. Generally, seniors with poor neighborhood ties and social capital were more likely to have experienced victimization and have a lower satisfaction with personal safety. Seniors who viewed people in their neighborhood as unhelpful were more likely to have experienced some form of victimization and more likely to have a lower satisfaction with personal safety. Highly educated and high-income seniors were also more likely to have experienced some form of victimization. Paradoxically, such seniors were less likely to have lower satisfaction with personal safety. The results also show that place, defined as population centers (urban and rural) may have a significant influence on variations in victimization and satisfaction with personal safety. A significant proportion of the variance in victimization (38%) and satisfaction with personal safety (23%) are largely the result of differences in place of residence (urban and rural). Our findings suggest that there is the need to improve neighborhood social capital, reduce neighborhood disorder and improve the socioeconomic status of community-dwelling seniors in order to minimize their susceptibility to victimization as well as to improve their sense of safety from crime.

Predictors of basic self-care and intermediate self-care functional disabilities among older adults in Ghana

Amegbor, P. M., Kuuire, V. Z., Robertson, H., & Kuffuor, O. A. (n.d.).

Publication year

2018

Journal title

Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics

Volume

77

Page(s)

81-88
Abstract
Abstract
The number of older adults in Ghana is growing rapidly. Associated with this growth, is the rise in age-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular and musculoskeletal conditions. However, there is limited knowledge in the Ghanaian context on the effect of chronic diseases on functional disabilities among older adults. In this study, we examine the association between chronic diseases, socioeconomic status, and functional disabilities. Data from 4107 Ghanaian older adults (persons aged 50 years and above) who participated in the World Health Organization's Global Ageing and Adult Health survey (SAGE-Wave 1) were used to fit random effect multivariate logistic and complementary log-log regression. Stroke was significantly associated with difficulty in performing both basic self-care functions and intermediate self-care functions. Hypertension and arthritis, on the other hand, were associated with basic self-care functional disability only. Socioeconomically vulnerable groups such as females, those with less education and low-incomes were more likely to have functional disabilities associated with basic self-care and intermediate self-care activities. In order to reduce functional disabilities among older persons in Ghana, efforts should be aimed at reducing chronic conditions as well as improving socioeconomic status.

The use of dental care services in Alberta, Manitoba, and Newfoundland and Labrador: A comparative analysis

Amegbor, P. M., & Rosenberg, M. W. (n.d.).

Publication year

2018

Journal title

Canadian Geographer

Volume

62

Page(s)

414-426
Abstract
Abstract
Public support for dental care in Canada is uniform. Universal coverage and access to health care in the country are narrowly limited to hospital-based and physician-based services—“medically necessary services.” In view of the variations in public support programs for dental care, our study examines differences in the use of dental care services among different socio-economic groups in Alberta, Manitoba, and Newfoundland and Labrador. The study used 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey data. Our analyses find that in all the three provinces persons of lower socio-economic status have lower utilization of dental care. However, the study further reveals that the gaps between age and household income groups was wider in Newfoundland and Labrador compared to the other provinces. These findings suggest that public support for dental care reduces socio-economic disparities in the use of dental services.

An Assessment of Care-Seeking Behavior in Asikuma-Odoben-Brakwa District: A Triple Pluralistic Health Sector Approach

Amegbor, P. M. (n.d.).

Publication year

2017

Journal title

SAGE Open

Volume

7

Issue

2
Abstract
Abstract
Discussions and studies on Ghana’s pluralistic health care system usually ignore or downplay self-care as a crucial sector in this system of care. In view of this, this study uses a triple sector approach of the pluralistic health care system as advocated by Kleinman to assess care-seeking behaviors of residents in the Asikuma-Odoben-Brakwa District (Ghana). The results of cross-tabulation analysis demonstrate that respondents’ general care–seeking behavior is different from the type of care sought for last illness before the study. Data for the study were obtained from 227 urban and rural respondents in the study district in 2013. The findings indicate that factors such as geographic location, health insurance, and perception of the cost of professional care had a bearing on residents’ general care–seeking behavior. However, age, sex, relationship status, economic status, and proximity to nearest biomedical care service influenced the type of treatment sought for last illness. The approach use of the study demonstrates that self-care remains a general avenue of care for residents, whereas in times of severe illness, respondents often rely on professional biomedical care. The use of professional indigenous care services is generally low due to the financial burden associated with its use.

Contact

prince.amegbor@nyu.edu 708 Broadway New York, NY, 10003