Interim Chair of Biostatistics
Associate Professor of Biostatistics
Dr. Melody Goodman’s efforts seek to understand the social risk factors that contribute to health disparities in urban areas, with the goal of developing culturally competent, region-specific, and evidence-based solutions through collaborative activities with community members, community-based organizations, faith-based organizations, and other community health stakeholders. The purpose of her work is the development of solutions for improving health in minority and medically underserved communities.
Dr. Goodman conducts applied biostatistical and survey research for community-based interventions and health disparities research with a strong focus on measurement. Additionally, through academic-community collaborations, she implements, evaluates, and enhances the infrastructure of community-engaged research, in order to mitigate health disparities. As such, Dr. Goodman is the Principal Investigator of a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) grant that aims to validate and implement a quantitative survey measure to assess the level of community engagement in patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) and clinical effectiveness research (CER) studies from the community stakeholder perspective.
Previously, Dr. Goodman has been subcontracted by the National Human Genome Research Institute/NIH to analyze patterns of beliefs about the genetic causation of health conditions and health behaviors among community health center patients. She was the Principal Investigator on a NIH Partners in Research grant entitled Community Alliance for Research Empowering Social change (CARES). With numerous funders supporting her work, she has published over 70 peer-reviewed journal articles.
BS, Economics and Applied Mathematics & Statistics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NYMS, Biostatistics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MAPhD, Biostatistics (Minors: Social Determinants of Health Disparities and Theoretical Statistics), Harvard University, Cambridge, MA
Siteman Cancer Center “Rock Doc” (2013)Satcher Health Leadership Institute - Morehouse School of Medicine, Community Health Leadership Institute Intensive Cohort II (2013)Women of the Year - Health, National Coalition of 100 Black Women, Inc. - Suffolk Chapter (2010)President’s Award for Teaching Excellence - Stony Brook University (2009)President’s Award for Excellence in Team Achievement - Stony Brook University (2008)
BiostatisticsCommunity HealthCommunity-based Participatory ResearchDissemination and Implementation of Evidence-based ProgramsHealth DisparitiesHealth EquityMinoritiesMinority HealthQuantitative Research
For the Sake of All: Civic Education on the Social Determinants of Health and Health Disparities in St. LouisPurnell, J. Q., Goodman, M., Tate, W. F., Harris, K. M., Hudson, D. L., Jones, B. D., Fields, R., Camberos, G., Elder, K., Drake, B., & Gilbert, K.
Journal titleUrban Education
Page(s)711-743Civic education translates research evidence about topics of social importance for broad public audiences, with increased understanding and meaningful action of the desired outcomes. For the Sake of All is an example of civic education on the social determinants of health and health disparities situated in the local context of St. Louis, Missouri. This article describes the research translation, community engagement, strategic communication, and approach to policy that characterized this project. It presents data highlighting racial disparities in health, educational, and economic outcomes, along with policy and programmatic recommendations. Engagement and implementation strategies are described within the context of the events in Ferguson.
How segregation makes Us Fat: Food behaviors and food environment as mediators of the relationship between residential segregation and individual body mass indexGoodman, M., Lyons, S., Dean, L. T., Arroyo, C., & Hipp, J. A.
Journal titleFrontiers in Public Health
Volume6Objectives: Racial residential segregation affects food landscapes that dictate residents' food environments and is associated with obesity risk factors, including individual dietary patterns and behaviors. We examine if food behaviors and environments mediate the association between segregation and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks living in the St. Louis and Kansas City metro regions from 2012 to 2013 were surveyed on dietary behaviors, food environment, and BMI (n = 1,412). These data were combined with the CDC's modified retail food environment index and 2012 American Community Survey data to calculate racial segregation using various evenness and exposure indices. Multi-level mediation analyses were conducted to determine if dietary behavior and food environment mediate the association between racial residential segregation and individual BMI. Results: The positive association between racial segregation and individual BMI is partially mediated by dietary behaviors and fully mediated by food environments. Conclusion: Racial segregation (evenness and exposure) is associated with BMI, mediated by dietary behaviors and food environment. Elements of the food environment, which form the context for dietary behaviors, are potential targets for interventions to reduce obesity in residentially segregated areas.
Preferences for learning different types of genome sequencing results among young breast cancer patients: Role of psychological and clinical factorsKaphingst, K. A., Ivanovich, J., Lyons, S., Biesecker, B., Dresser, R., Elrick, A., Matsen, C., & Goodman, M.
Journal titleTranslational Behavioral Medicine
Page(s)71-79The growing importance of genome sequencing means that patients will increasingly face decisions regarding what results they would like to learn. The present study examined psychological and clinical factors that might affect these preferences. 1,080 women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger completed an online survey. We assessed their interest in learning various types of genome sequencing results: risk of preventable disease or unpreventable disease, cancer treatment response, uncertain meaning, risk to relatives' health, and ancestry/physical traits. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine whether being "very" interested in each result type was associated with clinical factors: BRCA1/2 mutation status, prior genetic testing, family history of breast cancer, and psychological factors: cancer recurrence worry, genetic risk worry, future orientation, health information orientation, and genome sequencing knowledge. The proportion of respondents who were very interested in learning each type of result ranged from 16% to 77%. In all multivariable models, those who were very interested in learning a result type had significantly higher knowledge about sequencing benefits, greater genetic risks worry, and stronger health information orientation compared to those with less interest (p-values <.05). Our findings indicate that high interest in return of various types of genome sequencing results was more closely related to psychological factors. Shared decision-making approaches that increase knowledge about genome sequencing and incorporate patient preferences for health information and learning about genetic risks may help support patients' informed choices about learning different types of sequencing results.
Biostatistics for clinical and public health researchGoodman, M. S.
Publication year2017Biostatistics for Clinical and Public Health Research provides a concise overview of statistical analysis methods. Use of SAS and Stata statistical software is illustrated in full, including how to interpret results. Focusing on statistical models without all the theory, the book is complete with exercises, case studies, take-away points, and data sets. Readers will be able to maximize their statistical abilities in hypothesis testing, data interpretation, and application while also learning when and how to consult a biostatistician. This book will be an invaluable tool for students and clinical and public health practitioners.
EVALUATING COMMUNITY ENGAGEMENT IN RESEARCH: QUANTITATIVE MEASURE DEVELOPMENTGoodman, M. S., Thompson, V. L., Arroyo Johnson, C., Gennarelli, R., Drake, B. F., Bajwa, P., Witherspoon, M., & Bowen, D.
Journal titleJournal of Community Psychology
Page(s)17-32Although the importance of community engagement in research has been previously established, there are few evidence-based approaches for measuring the level of community engagement in research projects. A quantitative community engagement measure was developed, aligned with 11 engagement principles (EPs) previously established in the literature. The measure has 96 Likert response items; 3–5 quality items and 3–5 quantity items measure each EP. Cronbach's alpha is used to examine the internal consistency of items that measure a single EP. Every EP item group had a Cronbach's alpha >.85, which indicates strong internal consistency for all question groups across both scales (quality and quantity). This information determines the level of community engagement, which can be correlated with other research outcomes.
Increasing Community Research Capacity to Address Health DisparitiesKomaie, G., Ekenga, C. C., Sanders Thompson, V. L., & Goodman, M. S.
Journal titleJournal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics
Page(s)55-66The Community Research Fellows Training program is designed to enhance capacity for community-based participatory research; program participants completed a 15-week, Master of Public Health curriculum. We conducted qualitative, semistructured interviews with 81 participants from two cohorts to evaluate the learning environment and how the program improved participants' knowledge of public health research. Key areas that provided a conducive learning environment included the once-a-week schedule, faculty and participant diversity, and community-focused homework assignments. Participants discussed how the program enhanced their understanding of the research process and raised awareness of public health-related issues for application in their personal lives, professional occupations, and in their communities. These findings highlight key programmatic elements of a successful public health training program for community residents.
Psychosocial and Clinical Factors Associated with Family Communication of Cancer Genetic Test Results among Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer at a Young AgeElrick, A., Ashida, S., Ivanovich, J., Lyons, S., Biesecker, B. B., Goodman, M. S., & Kaphingst, K. A.
Journal titleJournal of Genetic Counseling
Page(s)173-181Genetic test results have medical implications beyond the patient that extend to biological family members. We examined psychosocial and clinical factors associated with communication of genetic test results within families. Women (N = 1080) diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger completed an online survey; 920 women that reported prior cancer genetic testing were included in analysis. We examined the proportion of immediate family members to whom they communicated genetic test results, and built multivariable regression models to examine clinical and psychosocial variables associated with the proportion score. Participants were most likely to communicate test results to their mother (83 %) and least likely to their son (45 %). Participants who carried a BRCA mutation (OR = 1.34; 95 % CI = 1.06, 1.70), had higher interest in genomic information (OR = 1.55; 95 % CI = 1.26, 1.91) and lower genetic worry (OR = 0.91; 95 % CI = 0.86, 0.96) communicated genetic test results to a greater proportion of their immediate family members. Participants with a BRCA1/2 mutation shared their genetic test results with more male family members (OR = 1.72; 95 % CI = 1.02, 2.89). Our findings suggest that patients with high worry about genetic risks, low interest in genomic information, or receive a negative genetic test result will likely need additional support to encourage family communication.
Reducing health disparities by removing cost, access, and knowledge barriersGoodman, M., Onwumere, O., Milam, L., & Peipert, J. F.
Journal titleAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Page(s)382.e1-382.e5Background While the rate of unintended pregnancy has declined in the United States in recent years, unintended pregnancy among teens in the United States is the highest among industrialized nations, and disproportionately affects minority teens. Objective Our objective of this secondary analysis was to estimate the risk of unintended pregnancy for both Black and White teens age 15-19 years when barriers to access, cost, and knowledge are removed. Our hypothesis was that the Black-White disparities would be reduced when access, education, and cost barriers are removed. Study Design We performed an analysis of the Contraceptive CHOICE Project database. CHOICE is a longitudinal cohort study of 9256 sexually active girls and women ages 14-45 years in the St Louis, MO, region from 2007 through 2013. Two measures of disparities were used to analyze teenage pregnancy rates and pregnancy risk from 2008 through 2013 among teens ages 15-19 years. These rates were then compared to the rates of pregnancy among all sexually active teens in the United States during the years 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011. We estimated an absolute measure (rate difference) and a relative measure (rate ratio) to examine Black-White disparities in the rates of unintended pregnancy. Results While national rates of unintended pregnancy are decreasing, racial disparities in these rates persist. The Black-White rate difference dropped from 158.5 per 1000 in 2008 to 120.1 per 1000 in 2011; however, the relative ratio disparity decreased only from 2.6-2.5, suggesting that Black sexually active teens in the United States have 2.5 times the rate of unintended pregnancy as White teenagers. In the CHOICE Project, there was a decreasing trend in racial disparities in unintended pregnancy rates among sexually active teens (age 15-19 years): 2008 through 2009 (rate difference, 18.2; rate ratio, 3.7), 2010 through 2011 (rate difference, 4.3; rate ratio, 1.2), and 2012 through 2013 (rate difference, –1.5; rate ratio, 1.0). Conclusion When barriers to cost, access, and knowledge were removed, such as in the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, Black-White disparities in unintended pregnancy rates among sexually active teens were reduced on both absolute and relative scales. The rate of unintended pregnancy was almost equal between Black and White teens compared to large Black-White disparities on the national level.
Breast reconstruction after mastectomy at a comprehensive cancer centerConnors, S. K., Goodman, M. S., Myckatyn, T., Margenthaler, J., & Gehlert, S.
Issue1Background: Breast reconstruction after mastectomy is an integral part of breast cancer treatment that positively impacts quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Although breast reconstruction rates have increased over time, African American women remain less likely to receive breast reconstruction compared to Caucasian women. National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers, specialized institutions with more standardized models of cancer treatment, report higher breast reconstruction rates than primary healthcare facilities. Whether breast reconstruction disparities are reduced for women treated at comprehensive cancer centers is unclear. The purpose of this study was to further investigate breast reconstruction rates and determinants at a comprehensive cancer center in St. Louis, Missouri. Methods: Sociodemographic and clinical data were obtained for women who received mastectomy for definitive surgical treatment for breast cancer between 2000 and 2012. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the receipt of breast reconstruction. Results: We found a breast reconstruction rate of 54 % for the study sample. Women who were aged 55 and older, had public insurance, received unilateral mastectomy, and received adjuvant radiation therapy were significantly less likely to receive breast reconstruction. African American women were 30 % less likely to receive breast reconstruction than Caucasian women. Conclusion: These findings suggest that racial disparities in breast reconstruction persist in comprehensive cancer centers. Future research should further delineate the determinants of breast reconstruction disparities across various types of healthcare institutions. Only then can we develop interventions to ensure all eligible women have access to breast reconstruction and the improved quality of life it affords breast cancer survivors.
Comparing treatment and outcomes of ductal carcinoma in situ among women in Missouri by raceMadubata, C. C., Liu, Y., Goodman, M. S., Yun, S., Yu, J., Lian, M., & Colditz, G. A.
Journal titleBreast Cancer Research and Treatment
Page(s)563-572Purpose: To investigate whether treatment (surgery, radiation therapy, and endocrine therapy) contributes to racial disparities in outcomes of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Patients and methods: The analysis included 8184 non-Hispanic White and 954 non-Hispanic Black women diagnosed with DCIS between 1996 and 2011 and identified in the Missouri Cancer Registry. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) of treatment for race. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of ipsilateral breast tumor (IBT) and contralateral breast tumor (CBT) for race. Results: There was no significant difference between Black and White women in utilization of mastectomy (OR 1.16; 95 % CI 0.99–1.35) or endocrine therapy (OR 1.19; 95 % CI 0.94–1.51). Despite no significant difference in underutilization of radiation therapy (OR 1.14; 95 % CI 0.92–1.42), Black women had higher odds of radiation delay, defined as at least 8 weeks between surgery and radiation (OR 1.92; 95 % CI 1.55–2.37). Among 9138 patients, 184 had IBTs and 326 had CBTs. Black women had a higher risk of IBTs (HR 1.69; 95 % CI 1.15–2.50) and a comparable risk of CBTs (HR 1.19; 95 % CI 0.84–1.68), which were independent of pathological features and treatment. Conclusion: Racial differences in DCIS treatment and outcomes exist in Missouri. This study could not completely explain the higher risk of IBTs in Black women. Future studies should identify differences in timely initiation and completion of treatment, which may contribute to the racial difference in IBTs after DCIS.
Descriptive Analysis of the 2014 Race-Based Healthcare Disparities Measurement LiteratureGoodman, M. S., Gilbert, K. L., Hudson, D., Milam, L., & Colditz, G. A.
Journal titleJournal of racial and ethnic health disparities
Page(s)1-7Importance: There are more than 500 articles in the 2014 race-based healthcare disparities literature across a broad array of diseases and outcomes. However, unlike many other forms of research (e.g., clinical trials and systematic reviews), there are no required reporting guidelines when submitting results of disparities studies to journals. Objective: This study describes the race-based healthcare disparities measurement literature in terms of study design, journal characteristics, generation of health disparities research, type of disparity measure used, and adherence to disparities measurement guidelines. Methods: We searched three databases of peer-reviewed literature, PubMed, Ovid Medline, and JSTOR, for English language articles published in 2014 on racial/ethnic healthcare disparities. Studies must have quantitatively measured the difference in health outcomes between two racial/ethnic groups in order to be included. Our final sample included 266 studies from 167 medical and public health journals. Findings: Only 7 % (n = 19) of articles reported both an absolute and relative measure of disparity; the majority of studies (64 %, n = 171) reported only a relative measure of effect. Most studies were published in clinical journals (74 %, n = 198), used secondary data (86 %, n = 229), and calculated black-white disparities (82 %, n = 218). The most common condition studied was cancer (25 %, n = 67), followed by a surgical procedure (18 %, n = 48). On average, articles in the sample only met 61 % of the applicable guidelines on reporting of disparities. Conclusions and Relevance: To be able to synthesize findings in the racial disparities literature (meta-analysis), there is a need for the use of consistent methods for quantifying disparities and reporting in the literature. A more consistent battery of measures and consistent reporting across studies may help speed our understanding of the origins and development of solutions to address healthcare disparities. Despite guidelines for best practices in reporting disparities, there is a lack of adherence in the current literature.
Development of Plain Language Supplemental Materials for the Biobank Informed Consent ProcessDrake, B. F., Brown, K. M., Gehlert, S., Wolf, L. E., Seo, J., Perkins, H., Goodman, M. S., & Kaphingst, K. A.
Journal titleJournal of Cancer Education
Page(s)1-9The US Department of Health and Human Services addresses clear communication in the informed consent process as part of the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for revisions to the Common Rule. However, prior research has shown that participants may not fully comprehend research studies despite completion of an informed consent process. Our main goal was to provide plain language information about donation processes to a cancer biobank to supplement an informed consent form. We developed and conducted cognitive testing with supplemental brochures that clearly communicated information about three different models for consent (notice, broad and study-specific) to future use of biospecimens. During the brochure development process, we conducted qualitative, semi-structured, individual, in-person cognitive interviews among 14 women to examine participants’ perceptions of the brochures. Each participant provided feedback regarding the understandability, graphics and layout, and cultural appropriateness of the brochures. Our findings demonstrate that these methods may be used to tailor consent form brochures, such as the ones developed here, to other populations. This study therefore adds to our understanding of how best to present content to help women from two different racial groups make informed decisions about participation in a cancer biobank.
Differences in preferences for models of consent for biobanks between Black and White womenBrown, K. M., Drake, B. F., Gehlert, S., Wolf, L. E., DuBois, J., Seo, J., Woodward, K., Perkins, H., Goodman, M. S., & Kaphingst, K. A.
Journal titleJournal of Community Genetics
Page(s)41-49Biobanks are essential resources, and participation by individuals from diverse groups is needed. Various models of consent have been proposed for secondary research use of biospecimens, differing in level of donor control and information received. Data are needed regarding participant preferences for models of consent, particularly among minorities. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 60 women to examine their attitudes about different models of consent. Recruitment was stratified by race (Black/White) and prior biobank participation (yes/no). Two coders independently coded interview transcripts. Qualitative thematic analysis was conducted using NVivo 10. The majority of Black and White participants preferred “broad” consent (i.e., blanket permission for secondary research use of biospecimens), and the second most preferred model for both groups was “study-specific” consent (i.e., consent for each future research study). The qualitative analysis showed that participants selected their most preferred model for 3 major reasons: having enough information, having control over their sample, and being asked for permission. Least preferred was notice model (i.e., participants notified that biospecimens may be used in future research). Attitudes toward models of consent differed somewhat by race and prior biobank participation. Participants preferred models of consent for secondary research use of biospecimens that provided them with both specific and general information, control over their biospecimens, and asked them to give permission for use. Our findings suggest that it will be important for researchers to provide information about future uses of biospecimens to the extent possible and have an explicit permission step for secondary research use.
Does learning about race prevent substance abuse? Racial discrimination, racial socialization and substance use among African AmericansThompson, A. B., Goodman, M. S., & Kwate, N. O.
Journal titleAddictive Behaviors
Estimates of mental health problems in a vulnerable population within a primary care settingHudson, D. L., Kaphingst, K. A., Croston, M. A., Blanchard, M. S., & Goodman, M. S.
Journal titleJournal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Page(s)308-326We examined the prevalence of mental disorders in a primary care setting affiliated with a large academic medical center. We also examined whether there were racial differences in mental health disorders. Patients were seeking medical care in an outpatient medical clinic; mental health data were available for them via medical records (n=767). Overall, 45% of patients had a diagnosed mental health problem; the most commonly reported form of mental disorder was depression. African Americans (OR= 1.88; CI: 1.21– 2.91) were more likely than Whites to have a diagnosed mental health problem. These results suggest a strong mental health treatment need among patients seeking primary care in urban settings. The evidence garnered from this study underscores the need to detect and treat mental health problems systematically within outpatient primary care clinics that serve similarly vulnerable populations.
Information Topics of Greatest Interest for Return of Genome Sequencing Results among Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer at a Young AgeSeo, J., Ivanovich, J., Goodman, M. S., Biesecker, B. B., & Kaphingst, K. A.
Journal titleJournal of Genetic Counseling
Page(s)1-11We investigated what information women diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age would want to learn when genome sequencing results are returned. We conducted 60 semi-structured interviews with women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger. We examined what specific information participants would want to learn across result types and for each type of result, as well as how much information they would want. Genome sequencing was not offered to participants as part of the study. Two coders independently coded interview transcripts; analysis was conducted using NVivo10. Across result types, participants wanted to learn about health implications, risk and prevalence in quantitative terms, causes of variants, and causes of diseases. Participants wanted to learn actionable information for variants affecting risk of preventable or treatable disease, medication response, and carrier status. The amount of desired information differed for variants affecting risk of unpreventable or untreatable disease, with uncertain significance, and not health-related. Women diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age recognize the value of genome sequencing results in identifying potential causes and effective treatments and expressed interest in using the information to help relatives and to further understand their other health risks. Our findings can inform the development of effective feedback strategies for genome sequencing that meet patients’ information needs and preferences.
Preferences for return of incidental findings from genome sequencing among women diagnosed with breast cancer at a young ageKaphingst, K. A., Ivanovich, J., Biesecker, B. B., Dresser, R., Seo, J., Dressler, L. G., Goodfellow, P. J., & Goodman, M. S.
Journal titleClinical Genetics
Page(s)378-384While experts have made recommendations, information is needed regarding what genome sequencing results patients would want returned. We investigated what results women diagnosed with breast cancer at a young age would want returned and why. We conducted 60 semi-structured, in-person individual interviews with women diagnosed with breast cancer at age 40 or younger. We examined interest in six types of incidental findings and reasons for interest or disinterest in each type. Two coders independently coded interview transcripts; analysis was conducted using NVivo 10. Most participants were at least somewhat interested in all six result types, but strongest interest was in actionable results (i.e. variants affecting risk of a preventable or treatable disease and treatment response). Reasons for interest varied between different result types. Some participants were not interested or ambivalent about results not seen as currently actionable. Participants wanted to be able to choose what results are returned. Participants distinguished between types of individual genome sequencing results, with different reasons for wanting different types of information. The findings suggest that a focus on actionable results can be a common ground for all stakeholders in developing a policy for returning individual genome sequencing results.
Racial and ethnic heterogeneity in self-reported diabetes prevalence trends across hispanic subgroups, National Health Interview Survey, 1997-2012Arroyo-Johnson, C., Mincey, K. D., Ackermann, N., Milam, L., Goodman, M. S., & Colditz, G. A.
Journal titlePreventing Chronic Disease
Issue1Introduction: We examined racial/ethnic heterogeneity in self-reported diabetes prevalence over 15 years. Methods: We used National Health Interview Survey data for 1997 through 2012 on 452,845 adults aged 18 years or older. Annual self-reported diabetes prevalence was estimated by race/ethnicity and education. We tested for trends over time by education and race/ethnicity. We also analyzed racial/ethnic and education trends in average annual prevalence. Results: During the 15 years studied, diabetes prevalence differed significantly by race/ethnicity (P < .001) and by Hispanic subgroup (P < .001). Among participants with less than a high school education, the 5-year trend in diabetes prevalence was highest among Cubans and Cuban Americans (β5YR = 4.8, P = .002), Puerto Ricans (β5YR = 2.2, P = .06), non-Hispanic blacks (β5YR = 2.2, P < .001), and non-Hispanic whites (β5YR = 2.1, P < .001). Among participants with more than a high school education, non-Hispanic blacks had the highest average annual prevalence (5.5%) and Puerto Ricans had the highest 5-year trend in annual diabetes prevalence (β5YR = 2.6, P = .001). Conclusions: In this representative sample of US adults, results show ethnic variations in diabetes prevalence. The prevalence of diabetes is higher among Hispanics than among non-Hispanic whites, unevenly distributed across Hispanic subgroups, and more pronounced over time and by education. Findings support disaggregation of data for racial/ethnic populations in the United States to monitor trends in diabetes disparities and the use of targeted, culturally appropriate interventions to prevent diabetes.
Relationship Between Health Literacy and Unintentional and Intentional Medication Nonadherence in Medically Underserved Patients With Type 2 DiabetesFan, J. H., Lyons, S. A., Goodman, M. S., Blanchard, M. S., & Kaphingst, K. A.
Journal titleDiabetes Educator
Page(s)199-208Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between health literacy and overall medication nonadherence, unintentional nonadherence, and intentional nonadherence. Limited health literacy may be associated with worse diabetes outcomes, but the literature shows mixed results, and mechanisms remain unclear. Medication adherence is associated with diabetes outcomes and may be a mediating factor. Distinguishing between unintentional and intentional nonadherence may elucidate the relationship between health literacy and nonadherence in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 208 patients with type 2 diabetes recruited from a primary care clinic in St. Louis, Missouri. Information was obtained from written questionnaire and patient medical records. Bivariate and multivariable regression were used to examine predictors of medication nonadherence. Results: The majority of patients in the study were low income, publicly insured, and African American, with limited health literacy and a high school/GED education or less. In multivariable models, limited health literacy was significantly associated with increased unintentional nonadherence but not intentional nonadherence. Conclusions: Results suggest differences in factors affecting intentional and unintentional nonadherence. The findings also suggest interventions are needed to decrease unintentional nonadherence among patients with type 2 diabetes and limited health literacy. Efforts to address unintentional medication nonadherence among patients with type 2 diabetes with limited health literacy may improve patient health.
Relationships between health literacy and genomics-related knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived importance, and communication in a medically underserved populationKaphingst, K. A., Blanchard, M., Milam, L., Pokharel, M., Elrick, A., & Goodman, M. S.
Journal titleJournal of Health Communication
Page(s)58-68The increasing importance of genomic information in clinical care heightens the need to examine how individuals understand, value, and communicate about this information. Based on a conceptual framework of genomics-related health literacy, we examined whether health literacy was related to knowledge, self-efficacy, and perceived importance of genetics and family health history (FHH) and communication about FHH in a medically underserved population. The analytic sample was composed of 624 patients at a primary care clinic in a large urban hospital. About half of the participants (47%) had limited health literacy; 55% had no education beyond high school, and 58% were Black. In multivariable models, limited health literacy was associated with lower genetic knowledge (β = -0.55, SE = 0.10, p <.0001), lower awareness of FHH (odds ratio [OR] = 0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.28, 0.90], p =.020), and greater perceived importance of genetic information (OR = 1.95, 95% CI [1.27, 3.00], p =.0022) but lower perceived importance of FHH information (OR = 0.47, 95% CI [0.26, 0.86], p =.013) and more frequent communication with a doctor about FHH (OR = 2.02, 95% CI [1.27, 3.23], p =.0032). The findings highlight the importance of considering domains of genomics-related health literacy (e.g., knowledge, oral literacy) in developing educational strategies for genomic information. Health literacy research is essential to avoid increasing disparities in information and health outcomes as genomic information reaches more patients.
Still Separate, Still Unequal: Social Determinants of Playground Safety and Proximity Disparities in St. LouisArroyo-Johnson, C., Woodward, K., Milam, L., Ackermann, N., Komaie, G., Goodman, M. S., & Hipp, J. A.
Journal titleJournal of Urban Health
Page(s)627-638Physical activity among youth is shaped by the natural and built environment within which they live; however, few studies have focused on assessing playground safety and proximity in detail as part of the built environment for youth physical activity. We analyzed data on 100 publicly accessible playgrounds from Play Across St. Louis, a community-partnered study of the built environment for youth physical activity. Outcomes included overall playground safety, maintenance, and construction scores; distance to nearest playground; and distance to nearest top playground. Independent variables included neighborhood % youth, % black residents, % owner-occupied units, and % vacant units. Playgrounds in the city have varying degrees of safety and proximity. Mean overall playground safety score was 67.0 % (CI = 63.5, 70.4). Neighborhood % youth and % black residents were inversely associated with overall playground safety (p = 0.03 and p < 0.01) and maintenance (p < 0.01 and p < 0.0001). Mean distance to nearest playground was 638.1 and 1488.3 m to nearest top playground. Clusters of low safety scores were found in the northern and central areas while all high safety score clusters were found in the southern part of St. Louis. Public playground safety and proximity vary across St. Louis neighborhoods, especially by neighborhood demographics. Disparities in playground safety and proximity reveal an opportunity to develop community-wide interventions focused on playgrounds for youth activity. Further work is needed to examine the association between playground safety, proximity, and use and youth physical activity and weight.
A Community Coalition to Address Cancer Disparities: Transitions, Successes and ChallengesThompson, V. L., Drake, B., James, A. S., Norfolk, M., Goodman, M., Ashford, L., Jackson, S., Witherspoon, M., Brewster, M., & Colditz, G.
Journal titleJournal of Cancer Education
Page(s)616-622Community-based participatory (CBP) strategies are considered important to efforts to eliminate disparities. This paper outlines how the Program for the Elimination of Cancer Disparities (PECaD) uses CBP strategies as a part of a long-term cancer education, prevention, and control strategy in an urban community. Community partnerships have proved to be vital resources to inform PECaD’s agenda and the research practice of academic partners. We begin with a description of PECaD governance and partnership structures. The paper then describes programmatic activities and successes, including efforts to monitor clinical trials, deployment of mammography resources, anti-smoking, and prostate and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening education. The influence of changes in funding priorities, preventive screening policy, and community partner development on the partnership process over time is discussed. PECaD community partners have grown and expanded beyond the Program’s mission and developed additional partnerships, resulting in a reevaluation of relationships. The impact of these external and internal changes and pressures on the partnerships are noted. The evolution of the evaluation process and what it has revealed about needed improvements in PECaD activities and operations is presented. A summary of the lessons learned and their implications for CBP practice are provided.
A Community-Based Partnership to Successfully Implement and Maintain a Breast Health Navigation ProgramDrake, B. F., Tannan, S., Anwuri, V. V., Jackson, S., Sanford, M., Tappenden, J., Goodman, M. S., & Colditz, G. A.
Journal titleJournal of Community Health
Page(s)1216-1223Breast cancer screening combined with follow-up and treatment reduces breast cancer mortality. However, in the study clinic, only 12 % of eligible women ≥40 years received a mammogram in the previous year. The objective of this project was to implement patient navigation, in our partner health clinic to (1) identify women overdue for a mammogram; and (2) increase mammography utilization in this population over a 2-year period. Women overdue for a mammogram were identified. One patient navigator made navigation attempts over a 2-year period (2009–2011). Navigation included working around systems- and individual-level barriers to receive a mammogram as well as the appropriate follow-up post screening. Women were contacted up to three times to initiate navigation. The proportion of women navigated and who received a mammogram during the study period were compared to women who did not receive a mammogram using Chi square tests for categorical variables and t tests for continuous variables with an α = 0.05. Barriers to previous mammography were also assessed. With 94.8 % of eligible women navigated and 94 % of these women completing mammography, the implementation project reached 89 % of the target population. This project was a successful implementation of an evidence-based patient navigation program that continues to provide significant impact in a high-need area. Cost was the most commonly cite barrier to mammography. Increasing awareness of resources in the community for mammography and follow-up care remains a necessary adjunct to removing structural and financial barriers to accessing preventive services.
A tale of two community networks program centers: Operationalizing and assessing CBPR principles and evaluating partnership outcomesArroyo-Johnson, C., Allen, M. L., Colditz, G. A., Ali Hurtado, G., Davey, C. S., Thompson, V. L., Drake, B. F., Svetaz, M. V., Rosaslee, M., & Goodman, M. S.
Journal titleProgress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
Page(s)61-69Background: Community Networks Program (CNP) centers are required to use a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach within their specific priority communities. Not all communities are the same and unique contextual factors and collaborators’ priorities shape each CBPR partnership. There are also established CBPR and community engagement (CE) principles shown to lead to quality CBPR in any community. However, operationalizing and assessing CBPR principles and partnership outcomes to understand the conditions and processes in CBPR that lead to achieving program and project level goals is relatively new in the science of CBPR. Objectives: We sought to describe the development of surveys on adherence to and implementation of CBPR/CE principles at two CNP centers and examine commonalities and differences in program- versus project-level CBPR evaluation. Methods: A case study about the development and application of CBPR/CE principles for the Missouri CNP, Program for the Elimination of Cancer Disparities, and Minnesota CNP, Padres Informados/Jovenes Preparados, surveys was conducted to compare project versus program operationalization of principles. Survey participant demographics were provided by CNP. Specific domains found in CBPR/CE principles were identified and organized under an existing framework to establish a common ground. Operational definitions and the number of survey items were provided for each domain by CNP. Conclusion: There are distinct differences in operational definitions of CBPR/CE principles at the program and project levels of evaluation. However, commonalities support further research to develop standards for CBPR evaluation across partnerships and at the program and project levels.
Breast Cancer Treatment among African American Women in North St. Louis, MissouriConnors, S. K., Goodman, M. S., Noel, L., Chavakula, N. N., Butler, D., Kenkel, S., Oliver, C., McCullough, I., & Gehlert, S.
Journal titleJournal of Urban Health
Page(s)67-82Similar to disparities seen at the national and state levels, African American women in St. Louis, Missouri have higher breast cancer mortality rates than their Caucasian counterparts. We examined breast cancer treatment (regimens and timing) in a sample of African American breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2008 while residing in a North St. Louis cluster (eight zip codes) of late stage at diagnosis. Data were obtained from medical record extractions of women participating in a mixed-method study of breast cancer treatment experiences. The median time between diagnosis and initiation of treatment was 27 days; 12.2 % of the women had treatment delay over 60 days. These findings suggest that treatment delay and regimens are unlikely contributors to excess mortality rates for African American women diagnosed in early stages. Conflicting research findings on treatment delay may result from the inconsistent definitions of treatment delay and variations among study populations. Breast cancer treatment delay may reduce breast cancer survival; additional research is needed to better understand the points at which delays are most likely to occur and develop policies, programs, and interventions to address disparities in treatment delay. There may also be differences in treatment-related survivorship quality of life; approximately 54 % of the women in this sample treated with mastectomies received breast reconstruction surgery. Despite the high reconstruction rates, most women did not receive definitive completion. African American women have higher reconstruction complication rates than Caucasian women; these data provide additional evidence to suggest a disparity in breast reconstruction outcomes by race.