Lawrence H Yang
Chair and Professor of Social and Behavioral Sciences
Associate Director, Global Center for Implementation Science
Founding Director, Global Mental Health and Stigma Program
Dr. Lawrence Yang is Professor and Chair of the Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences; Associate Director of the Global Center for Implementation Science at NYU; and Founding Director of NYU’s Global Mental Health and Stigma Program. He is also PI of a generous donor gift from the Li Ka Shing Foundation to fund an initiative to promote Global Mental Health and Wellness (see link).
Dr. Yang has received extensive interdisciplinary training, including clinical psychology (Boston University), psychiatric epidemiology (Columbia University) and medical anthropology (Harvard University). Dr. Yang has received six national awards in stigma, including the Maltz Prize for Innovative and Promising Schizophrenia Research in 2021 (Brain and Behavior Research Foundation; see link). Dr. Yang has >160 peer-reviewed publications, including in journals such as JAMA Psychiatry, British Journal of Psychiatry, and the American Journal of Public Health. Regarding currently-funded NIH grants, he is PI of three separate R01 grants (below), is multiple PI of a D43 grant in Vietnam, and is co-investigator on 4 R01 grants and another R34 grant. Lawrence is also applying his expertise to address the novel topic of “Migration Stigma”, where he led a think tank and conference sponsored by the prestigious Ernst Strüngmann Forum (June, 2022; see link), which will yield a published book by MIT Press (anticipated 2023).
Brief Research Narrative: If every public health researcher had a calling card, Dr. Lawrence Yang's would be stigma.
What began as a curiosity to think, study and write about his own culture -- Chinese culture and its influences on how stigma is expressed-- drove the GPH Professor to develop a framework for how stigma acts to impede social recovery that could be applied to cultural groups to improve the lives of countless people with mental illness and their families around the world. Dr. Yang also conducts several ongoing research studies on the forefront of global mental health and implementation science.
Building upon dissertation research conducted in Beijing, China, Lawrence initiated his stigma research via an NIMH K-award (2005-2010). Lawrence conducted a study in New York City of how stigma shapes the course of mental illness among Chinese immigrants. Lawrence formulated how culture relates to stigma--i.e. the “What Matters Most” framework—to help implement interventions to improve recovery for stigmatizing conditions. He learned that upholding face (to achieve lineage obligations) was essential, as it is for Asians in many countries. Lawrence then formulated an anti-stigma intervention to help people with mental illness take a powerful step towards regaining face. To inform global programs, Lawrence then applied the ‘what matters most’ approach to HIV stigma in Botswana. Lawrence identified that “womanhood” in Botswana is signified by “having and caring for children” (AJPH, 2021). These cultural imperatives bring pregnant women into contact with free antenatal services, including routine HIV testing, where their HIV status is discovered before their male partners, leading women diagnosed with HIV to be blamed and stigmatized. Lawrence used this framework in a completed NIMH-funded R21 grant to implement an intervention to counter culturally-salient aspects of HIV stigma that impede anti-retroviral treatment. This stigma intervention, by utilizing the perspective that a woman in Botswana who achieves ‘what matters most’ can be protected from HIV stigma, has shown promising results. Lawrence has received a new R01 (R01 TW012402) to expand this intervention for use with women with HIV with serious mental illness in Botswana. He also participated as a Scientific member of the “NIH Office of AIDS Research & NIMH HIV-Related Intersectional Stigma” Working Group (2020).
Lawrence has advanced global mental health research in China as PI of two NIMH-funded R01 studies (R01MH108385; R01 MH127631) with co-PI's, Dr.’s Michael Phillips, William Stone and Matcheri Keshavan, seeking to characterize the cognition of completely untreated psychosis in China. Recently, China has implemented programs to detect untreated psychosis countrywide. Ascertaining participants in rural China, the study has enrolled~ 300 untreated psychosis participants, who are then matched with ~300 treated psychosis participants and an additional ~300 healthy control participants. The study’s first publication shows that cognitive performance may continue to decrease as the duration of untreated psychosis becomes prolonged (JAMA Psychiatry, 2020), thus potentially shifting the scientific thinking about schizophrenia by suggesting possible novel neurodegenerative processes in the natural course of chronic psychosis. A 3-year Supplement also examines the neurobiological markers of untreated psychosis to validate three psychosis subgroups that exhibit neurobiologically distinct differences (or ‘biotypes’). A follow-up longitudinal, 5-year R01 proposal (2021-2026) to capitalize upon this rare cohort has been recently funded by NIMH.
Relevant to implementation science, Lawrence leads a project to help address the gap in global mental health treatment among those who need but do not receive care for mental disorders, which is disproportionately high in low- and middle-income countries. There has been a call to scale-up mental health servicesvia sharing of mental health care with a broader array of nonspecialists (e.g., community health workers). Yet, knowledge on how to successfully implement task-sharing mental health strategies in real-world settings is lacking. Lawrence is PI of a third NIMH-funded R01 (with co-PI, Dr. Judy Bass; R01 MH122851) to validate a newly-developed measure that enables rapid assessment of modifiable critical factors affecting the implementation of task sharing mental health strategies. This R01 is based upon the “Shared Research Project”, where Dr.’s Yang and Bass examined the barriers and facilitators to scale-up task-sharing interventions in four previous, NIMH-funded global regional networks spanning 4 global hubs (i.e., Latin America; Africa, and India/ Pakistan). This current study will validate this measure within three additional, ongoing NIMH-funded task-sharing mental health programs in South Africa, Chile, and Nepal, thus advancing implementation science globally.
BA, High Honors and Phi Beta Kappa, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CTPhD, Boston University, Boston, MAClinical Fellowship, Harvard Medical School (Massachusetts Mental Health Center)Postdoctoral Fellowship, Columbia Mailman School of Public Health (NIMH funded T32 Training Program in Psychiatric Epidemiology)
Maltz Prize for Innovative and Promising Schizophrenia Research -- Brain and Behavior Research Foundation (2021)NIH Fellow-Training Institute for Dissemination & Implementation Research in Health (TIDIRH) (2019)Fellow (Elected), American Psychopathological Association (2018)Award for Emerging Leadership, Americal Psychological Association (2012)Award for Advancing Minority Mental Health, American Psychiatric Foundation (2012)Young Investigator Award, NARSAD/ Brain and Behavior Foundation (2010)Emerging Leader Award for Significant Contributions to the Advancement of Ethnic Minority Psychology, American Psychological Association (2010)Calderone Award for Junior Faculty, Columbia University School of Public Health (2009)REACH for the R01 Award, Columbia University Irving Institute for Clinical and Translational Research (2009)Early Career Research Award, American Psychological Association (2008)Early Career Award, Asian American Psychological Association (2008)Dalmas A. Taylor Outstanding Student Dissertation Award, American Psychological Association (Division of Clinical Psychology- Ethnic Minority Focus) (2002)Outstanding Dissertation Award, American Psychological Association (Division of International Psychology) (2002)
Cognition and PsychosisGlobal HealthImplementation scienceMental HealthStigma of Health Conditions“At-Risk” States for Psychosis
"It Is Hard to Be a Woman With Schizophrenia": Randomized Controlled Trial of a Brief Video Intervention to Reduce Public Stigma in Young AdultsAmsalem, D., Jankowski, S. E., Pagdon, S., Valeri, L., Smith, S., Yang, L. H., Markowitz, J. C., Lewis-Fernández, R., & Dixon, L. B. (n.d.).
Journal titleJournal of Clinical Psychiatry
Issue1AbstractObjective: Women with schizophrenia encounter specific genderrelated stressors that may affect their recovery process. They are more susceptible to victimization and tend to experience more shame and stigma about their illness. Confronting stigma early in the illness could enhance treatment seeking. No studies have examined the efficacy of stigma-reducing interventions focused on public stigma toward women living with schizophrenia or have tested the effect of genderspecific content therein. Methods: We compared the efficacy at post-intervention and 30-day follow-up of 2 brief (∼80-second) videos, with and without genderrelated content, and a non-intervention control, in 1,181 young adults, between September and November 2021. The videos feature an empowered young woman living with schizophrenia who describes struggling with her psychotic illness to attain recovery and hope. Results: A 3 × 3 group-by-time analysis of variance showed decreased mean stigma scores over time in the two intervention arms relative to controls across all 5 public stigma domains: social distance (F = 17.1, P < .001), stereotyping (F = 25.0, P < .001), separateness (F = 8.3, P < .001), social restriction (F = 16.6, P < .001), and perceived recovery (F = 7.8, P < .001). Linear mixed modeling showed a greater intervention effect for women in the gender-related video group in social distance, stereotyping, and separateness. Conclusions: Greater stigma reduction among women in the genderrelated video group underscores the importance of tailoring the narrative to specific experiences related to socio-demographic characteristics, especially among members of marginalized groups. This attenuation may result in greater identification and solidarity with the presenter. Future studies should explore other socially oppressed groups, including Black, Latinx, Asian, and LGBTQ+ communities.
A conceptual framework for how structural changes in emerging acute substance use service models can reduce stigma of medications for opioid use disorderBecker, T. D., Eschliman, E. L., Thakrar, A. P., & Yang, L. H. (n.d.).
Journal titleFrontiers in Psychiatry
Volume14AbstractStigma toward people taking medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) is prevalent, harmful to the health and well-being of this population, and impedes MOUD treatment resource provision, help-seeking, and engagement in care. In recent years, clinicians have implemented new models of MOUD-based treatment in parts of the United States that integrate buprenorphine initiation into emergency departments and other acute general medical settings, with post-discharge linkage to office-based treatment. These service models increase access to MOUD and they have potential to mitigate stigma toward opioid use and MOUD. However, the empirical literature connecting these emerging service delivery models to stigma outcomes remains underdeveloped. This paper aims to bridge the stigma and health service literatures via a conceptual model delineating how elements of emerging MOUD service models can reduce stigma and increase behavior in pursuit of life goals. Specifically, we outline how new approaches to three key processes can counter structural, public, and self-stigma for this population: (1) community outreach with peer-to-peer influence, (2) clinical evaluation and induction of MOUD in acute care settings, and (3) transition to outpatient maintenance care and early recovery. Emerging service models that target these three processes can, in turn, foster patient empowerment and pursuit of life goals. There is great potential to increase the well-being of people who use opioids by reducing stigma against MOUD via these structural changes.
Association of antiseizure medication adherence with illness perceptions in adults with epilepsyChoi, H., Wetmore, J. B., Camarillo, I. A., Misiewicz, S., Siegel, K., Chung, W. K., Leu, C. S., Phelan, J. C., Yang, L. H., & Ottman, R. (n.d.).
Journal titleEpilepsy and Behavior
Volume145AbstractObjective: We assessed the relationship of epilepsy illness perceptions to antiseizure medication (ASM) adherence. Methods: Surveys were completed by 644 adult patients with epilepsy of unknown cause. We used the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8) to define “high” adherence (score = 8) and “low-medium” adherence (score < 8). We evaluated epilepsy illness perceptions using seven items from the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ), each scored from 0-10, measuring participants’ views of the overall effect of epilepsy on their lives, how long it would last, how much control they had over their epilepsy, the effectiveness of their treatment, level of concern about epilepsy, level of understanding of epilepsy, and emotional impact of epilepsy. We investigated the association of each BIPQ item with medication adherence using logistic regression models that controlled for potential confounders (age, race/ethnicity, income, and time since the last seizure). Results: One hundred forty-nine patients (23%) gave responses indicating high adherence. In the adjusted models, for each 1-unit increase in participants’ BIPQ item scores, the odds of high adherence increased by 17% for understanding of their epilepsy (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.07–1.27, p < 0.001), decreased by 11% for overall life impact of epilepsy (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.82–0.97, p = 0.01) and decreased by 6% for emotional impact of epilepsy (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.86–0.99, p = 0.03). No other illness perception was associated with high adherence. Depression, anxiety, and stigma mediated the inverse relationships of high adherence to the overall life impact of epilepsy and the emotional impact of epilepsy. These measures did not mediate the relationship of high adherence to the perceived understanding of epilepsy. Conclusion: These results indicate that a greater perceived understanding of epilepsy is independently associated with high ASM adherence. Programs aimed at improving patients’ understanding of their epilepsy may help improve medication adherence.
COVID-19 stigmatization after the development of effective vaccines: Vaccination behavior, attitudes, and news sourcesDes Jarlais, D. C., Lieff, S., Grivel, M., Meltzer, G., Choi, J., Weng, C. A., Feelemyer, J. P., Chang, V. W., & Yang, L. (n.d.).
Journal titlePloS one
Issue4AbstractObjective To compare COVID-19 stigmatization at two pandemic time points (1) August 2020—during lockdowns and prior to vaccine rollout, and (2) May 2021—during vaccine rollout, when approximately half of U.S. adults were vaccinated. Methods Comparison of COVID19-related stigmatization and associated factors in two national internet surveys conducted in August 2020 (N = 517) and May 2021 (N = 812). Factors associated with endorsing stigmatization were identified using regression analysis. The main outcomes included endorsement of stigmatization and behavioral restrictions towards persons with COVID-19 and towards persons of Chinese descent. A previously developed “stigmatizing attitudes and behavioral restrictions” scale was adapted to measure the intersection of negative attitudes toward COVID-19 disease and negative attitudes toward persons of Chinese descent. Results COVID-19 related stigmatization declined significantly from August 2020 to May 2021. Many factors were associated with stigmatizing in both surveys: full time employment, Black race, Hispanic ethnicity, worry about contracting COVID-19, probable depression, and Fox News and social media as sources of information (all positively associated), and self-assessed knowledge about COVID-19, contact with Chinese individuals, and publicly funded news as sources (all negatively associated). Positive attitudes toward vaccination were associated with stigmatization. Conclusions COVID-19 related stigmatization reduced substantially over these two points in the pandemic, with many continuities in the factors associated with stigmatizing. Despite the reduction in stigmatizing, however, some stigmatizing attitudes for both COVID-19 and Chinese individuals remained.
Editorial: Global mental health among marginalized communities in pandemic emergenciesNavario, P. S., Upadhaya, N., Hall, B. J., & Yang, L. H. (n.d.).
Journal titleFrontiers in Public Health
Effectiveness of enhancing contact model on reducing family caregiving burden and improving psychological wellbeing among caregivers of persons with schizophrenia in rural ChinaWang, Y. Z., Weng, X., Zhang, T. M., Li, M., Luo, W., Wong, Y. L. I., Yang, L. H., Thornicroft, G., Lu, L., & Ran, M. S. (n.d.).
Journal titlePsychological Medicine
Page(s)5756-5766AbstractBackground. It is unclear whether the enhancing contact model (ECM) intervention is effective in reducing family caregiving burden and improving hope and quality of life (QOL) among family caregivers of persons with schizophrenia (FCPWS). Methods. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in FCPWS in eight rural townships in Xinjin, Chengdu, China. In total, 253 FCPWS were randomly allocated to the ECM, psychoeducational family intervention (PFI), or treatment as usual (TAU) group. FCPWS in three groups were assessed caregiving burden, QOL and state of hope at baseline (T0), post-intervention (T1), 3-month (T2), and 9-month (T3) follow-up, respectively. Results. Compared with participants in the TAU group, participants in the ECM group had statistically significantly lower caregiving burden scores both at T1 and T2 (p = 0.0059 and 0.0257, respectively). Compared with participants in the TAU group, participants in the PFI group had statistically significantly higher QOL scores in T1 (p = 0.0406), while participants in the ECM group had statistically significantly higher QOL scores in T3 (p = 0.0240). Participants in both ECM and PFI groups had statistically significantly higher hope scores than those in the TAU group at T1 (p = 0.0160 and 0.0486, respectively). Conclusions. This is the first study to explore the effectiveness of ECM on reducing family caregiving burden and improving hope and QOL in rural China. The results indicate the ECM intervention, a comprehensive and multifaceted intervention, is more effective than the PFI in various aspects of mental wellbeing among FCPWS. Future research needs to confirm ECM’s effectiveness in various population.
Four very basic ways to think about policy in implementation sciencePurtle, J., Moucheraud, C., Yang, L. H., & Shelley, D. (n.d.).
Journal titleImplementation Science Communications
Issue1AbstractBackground: Policy is receiving increasing attention in the field of implementation science. However, there remains a lack of clear, concise guidance about how policy can be conceptualized in implementation science research. Building on Curran’s article “Implementation science made too simple”—which defines “the thing” as the intervention, practice, or innovation in need of implementation support—we offer a typology of four very basic ways to conceptualize policy in implementation science research. We provide examples of studies that have conceptualized policy in these different ways and connect aspects of the typology to established frameworks in the field. The typology simplifies and refines related typologies in the field. Four very basic ways to think about policy in implementation science research. 1) Policy as something to adopt: an evidence-supported policy proposal is conceptualized as “the thing” and the goal of research is to understand how policymaking processes can be modified to increase adoption, and thus reach, of the evidence-supported policy. Policy-focused dissemination research is well-suited to achieve this goal. 2) Policy as something to implement: a policy, evidence-supported or not, is conceptualized as “the thing” and the goal of research is to generate knowledge about how policy rollout (or policy de-implementation) can be optimized to maximize benefits for population health and health equity. Policy-focused implementation research is well-suited to achieve this goal. 3) Policy as context to understand: an evidence-supported intervention is “the thing” and policies are conceptualized as a fixed determinant of implementation outcomes. The goal of research is to understand the mechanisms through which policies affect implementation of the evidence-supported intervention. 4) Policy as strategy to use: an evidence-supported intervention is “the thing” and policy is conceptualized as a strategy to affect implementation outcomes. The goal of research is to understand, and ideally test, how policy strategies affect implementation outcomes related to the evidence-supported intervention. Conclusion: Policy can be conceptualized in multiple, non-mutually exclusive ways in implementation science. Clear conceptualizations of these distinctions are important to advancing the field of policy-focused implementation science and promoting the integration of policy into the field more broadly.
Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on chronic pain and opioid use in marginalized populations: A scoping reviewChoe, K., Zinn, E., Lu, K., Hoang, D., & Yang, L. H. (n.d.).
Journal titleFrontiers in Public Health
Volume11AbstractIntroduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a variable effect on vulnerable populations, including patients with chronic pain who rely on opioid treatment or have comorbid opioid use disorder. Limited access to care due to isolation measures may lead to increased pain severity, worse mental health symptoms, and adverse opioid-related outcomes. This scoping review aimed to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the dual epidemics of chronic pain and opioids in marginalized communities worldwide. Methods: Searches of primary databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and PsycINFO were performed in March 2022, restricting the publication date to December 1, 2019. The search yielded 685 articles. After title and abstract screening, 526 records were screened by title and abstract, 87 through full-text review, of which 25 articles were included in the final analysis. Results: Our findings illuminate the differential distribution of pain burden across marginalized groups and how it serves to heighten existing disparities. Service disruptions due to social distancing orders and infrastructural limitations prevented patients from receiving the care they needed, resulting in adverse psychological and physical health outcomes. Efforts to adapt to COVID-19 circumstances included modifications to opioid prescribing regulations and workflows and expanded telemedicine services. Conclusion: Results have implications for the prevention and management of chronic pain and opioid use disorder, such as challenges in adopting telemedicine in low-resource settings and opportunities to strengthen public health and social care systems with a multidisciplinary and multidimensional approach.
Impacts of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansion on Mental Health Treatment Among Low-income Adults Across Racial/Ethnic Subgroups, 2010–2017Lieff, S. A., Mijanovich, T., Yang, L., & Silver, D. (n.d.).
Journal titleJournal of Behavioral Health Services and ResearchAbstractThis study examines whether the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Medicaid expansion (ME) was associated with changes in racial/ethnic disparities in insurance coverage, utilization, and quality of mental health care among low-income adults with probable mental illness using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health with state identifiers. This study employed difference-in-difference models to compare ME states to non-expansion states before (2010–2013) and after (2014–2017) expansion and triple difference models to examine these changes across non-Hispanic White (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and Hispanic/Latino racial/ethnic subgroups. Insurance coverage increased significantly for all racial/ethnic groups in expansion states relative to non-expansion states (DD: 9.69; 95% CI: 5.17, 14.21). The proportion low-income adults that received treatment but still had unmet need decreased (DD: −3.06; 95% CI: −5.92, −0.21) and the proportion with unmet need and no mental health treatment increased (DD: 2.38; 95% CI: 0.03, 4.73). ME was not associated with reduced disparities.
Investigating the Physical and Mental Health Nexus: a Network Analysis of Depression, Cardiometabolic Health, Bone Mass, and Perceived Health Status Among Filipino Domestic WorkersGarabiles, M. R., Shen, Z. Z., Yang, L., Chu, Q., Hannam, K., & Hall, B. J. (n.d.).
Journal titleInternational Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Page(s)234-249AbstractBackground: Migrant domestic workers are vulnerable to physical and mental health problems given the many challenges they experience while working abroad. Using network analysis, this study examined the structure of depression, cardiometabolic health indicators (BMI, waist-hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, and heart rate), bone mass, and perceived health status in this population. The network model allowed for an examination of central symptoms or symptoms with the most direct connections with other symptoms; bridge symptoms, or symptoms that link two or more communities; and edges, or relationships among symptoms. Method: Cross-sectional data were gathered from 1375 Filipino domestic workers in Macao (SAR), China. Data from a subsample of 510 participants who met a cutoff indicating depression were analyzed. Anthropometric measurements and surveys were used to collect data, which was analyzed using R statistical software. Results: Results showed four community clusters: three communities consisted of at least two depression symptoms each and the fourth community included physical health indicators. Strong edges were formed between BMI-bone mass, psychomotor-concentration, BMI-WHR, and sad mood-anhedonia. The node with the highest expected influence was BMI. There were three bridges: worthlessness, psychomotor difficulties, and concentration difficulties. Conclusion: The link between depression, cardiometabolic indicators, bone mass, and poor perceived health reinforces the need to address multimorbidity within migrant populations. Health promotion interventions that address mental and physical health may improve the health of this population.
Is schizophrenia neurodevelopmental, neurodegenerative or something else: A reply to Murray et al. (2022)Stone, W. S., Phillips, M. R., Yang, L. H., Kegeles, L. S., & Lieberman, J. A. (n.d.). In Schizophrenia Research (1–).
Knowledge and beliefs about epilepsy genetics among Hispanic and non-Hispanic patientsTrujillo, S., Wetmore, J. B., Camarillo, I. A., Misiewicz, S., May, H., Choi, H., Siegel, K., Chung, W. K., Phelan, J. C., Yang, L. H., Leu, C. S., Bergner, A. L., & Ottman, R. (n.d.).
Page(s)2443-2453AbstractObjective: Hispanics continue to face challenges when trying to access health care, including epilepsy care and genetic-related health care services. This study examined epilepsy genetic knowledge and beliefs in this historically underserved population. Methods: Questionnaires were completed by 641 adults with epilepsy without identified cause, of whom 122 self-identified as Hispanic or Latino and 519 as non-Hispanic. Participants were asked about their views on the contribution of genetics to the cause of their epilepsy (“genetic attribution”), optimism for advancements in epilepsy genetic research (“genetic optimism”), basic genetic knowledge, and epilepsy-specific genetic knowledge. Generalized linear models were used to compare the two groups in the means of quantitative measures and percents answered correctly for individual genetic knowledge items. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, education, religion, family history of epilepsy, and time since last seizure. Results: Hispanics did not differ from non-Hispanics in genetic attribution, genetic optimism, or number of six basic genetic knowledge items answered correctly. The number of nine epilepsy-specific genetic knowledge items answered correctly was significantly lower for Hispanics than non-Hispanics (adjusted mean = 6.0 vs. 6.7, p <.001). After adjustment for education and other potential mediators, the proportion answered correctly was significantly lower for Hispanics than non-Hispanics for only two items related to family history and penetrance of epilepsy-related genes. Only 54% of Hispanics and 61% of non-Hispanics answered correctly that “If a person has epilepsy, his or her relatives have an increased chance of getting epilepsy.”. Significance: Despite large differences in sociodemographic variables including education, most attitudes and beliefs about genetics were similar in Hispanics and non-Hispanics. Epilepsy-specific genetic knowledge was lower among Hispanics than non-Hispanics, and this difference was mostly mediated by differences in demographic variables. Genetic counseling should address key concepts related to epilepsy genetics to ensure they are well understood by both Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients.
PERSPECTIVE: Forecasting the Future: Lived Experience and the Transformation of Mental Health Services Research in the United StatesJones, N., Mascayano, F., Susser, E., & Yang, L. H. (n.d.).
Journal titleJournal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
Page(s)77-83AbstractOver the past two decades, consensus has emerged in WHO and other international organizations regarding the foundational role and importance of integrated service users – individuals with lived experience of mental health services and systems – into mental health clinical and services research. At present, support and infrastructure in the United States (US) lags behind many other high-income, Anglophone and Western European countries. This Perspective, originally part of the 2022 NIMH Mental Health Services Research Conference’s “Forecasting the Future” plenary panel, makes the case for systematic and coordinated investment in the policy, funding, infrastructure and organizational change that would be necessary to substantively strengthen participatory and co-produced mental health services research in the US.
Psychoeducation for individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis: A scoping reviewHerrera, S. N., Sarac, C., Phili, A., Gorman, J., Martin, L., Lyallpuri, R., Dobbs, M. F., DeLuca, J. S., Mueser, K. T., Wyka, K. E., Yang, L. H., Landa, Y., & Corcoran, C. M. (n.d.).
Journal titleSchizophrenia Research
Page(s)148-158AbstractPsychoeducation is recommended in the treatment of patients with schizophrenia and has been shown to improve satisfaction with mental health service and treatment adherence, reduce relapse and hospital readmission rates, and enhance functioning and quality of life. Youth at clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR) may also benefit from receiving psychoeducation as part of their treatment. The goal of this study was to conduct a scoping review to map out the existing literature on psychoeducation for CHR individuals, including content, utilization, and benefits, in order to identify areas for future research and clinical care. Following PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a systematic search of electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science Core Collection) to identify literature through 02/25/2022 that provided data or significant commentary about the provision of psychoeducation to CHR individuals. After screening titles and abstracts, four co-authors assessed full-text articles for eligibility. Thirty-three studies were included in the review. Psychoeducation is recommended in the treatment of CHR individuals, is a preferred treatment option among CHR individuals, and many CHR programs report offering psychoeducation. However, details about the psychoeducational content and method of delivery are notably absent from recommendations and reports on the provision of CHR psychoeducation in real-world settings. We identified two brief and structured CHR psychoeducation interventions and one longer-term psychoeducational multifamily group model for CHR that show feasibility and promise, though they have not yet undergone randomized trials to evaluate effectiveness of the psychoeducation. We also identified several comprehensive CHR interventions that included an explicit psychoeducation module, though the unique role of the psychoeducational component is unknown. Despite being recommended as a critical component of treatment for CHR individuals and preferred by CHR individuals, the ways in which psychoeducation are being delivered to CHR individuals in real-world practice is still largely ambiguous. Rigorous evaluations of psychoeducation treatment models are needed, as well as investment from clinical programs to facilitate the implementation and dissemination of standardized psychoeducation for CHR individuals.
Selfie Videos to Reduce Stigma and Increase Treatment Seeking Among Youths: Two Noninferiority Randomized Controlled TrialsAmsalem, D., Jankowski, S. E., Pagdon, S., Valeri, L., Yang, L. H., Markowitz, J. C., Neria, Y., Pescosolido, B. A., Dixon, L. B., & Martin, A. (n.d.).
Journal titleHospital and Community Psychiatry
Page(s)229-236AbstractOBJECTIVE: Confronting stigma early in life could enhance treatment seeking. In two randomized controlled trials (RCTs), one focused on psychosis and the other on adolescent depression, the efficacy and equivalence of brief social contact-based videos were evaluated and compared with a control condition. The outcomes of interest were changes in illness-related stigma and treatment-seeking intention. The hypotheses were that the intervention videos would show greater efficacy than control conditions and that traditional and selfie videos would demonstrate similar efficacy. METHODS: Young adults (study 1, N=895) and adolescents (study 2, N=637) were randomly assigned to view intervention videos (in traditional or selfie styles) or to a control condition. In short videos (58-102 seconds), young presenters humanized their illness by emotionally describing their struggles and discussing themes of recovery and hope. RESULTS: Repeated-measures analyses of variance and paired t tests showed significant differences in stigma and treatment seeking between the intervention and control groups and similar efficacy of the traditional and selfie videos. Cohen's d effect sizes ranged from 0.31 to 0.76 for changes in stigma from baseline to 30-day follow-up in study 1 and from 0.13 to 0.47 for changes from baseline to postintervention in study 2. CONCLUSIONS: The RCTs demonstrated the efficacy of brief videos, both traditional and selfie, in reducing illness-related stigma among young adults and adolescents and in increasing treatment-seeking intention among adolescents. Future studies should explore the effects of brief videos presented by social media influencers on mental health stigma and treatment engagement.
Stigma Toward Psychosis in Urban Chile: Engaging “What Matters Most” to Resist Stigma Through Recovery-Oriented ServicesBecker, T. D., Blasco, D., Burrone, M. S., Dishy, G., Velasco, P., Reginatto, G., Mascayano, F., Wu, M. S., Hu, C., Bharadwaj, S., Khattar, S., Calderon, L., Filgueira, C., Alvarado, R., Susser, E. S., & Yang, L. H. (n.d.).
Journal titlePsychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
Page(s)65-73AbstractObjective: Stigma jeopardizes recovery and successful implementation of mental health services (MHS) globally. Despite cultural variation in how stigma manifests, few studies have examined how culture fundamentally impacts the concept of “personhood” in Latin America. Chile has expanded MHS, providing universal coverage for evaluation and treatment of first episode psychosis (FEP).We applied the “what matters most” (WMM) framework of stigma to identify culturally salient factors that shape or protect against stigma in urban Chile, identifying potential implications for MHS and recovery. Methods: In-depth interviews (n = 48) were conducted with MHS users with psychotic disorders (n = 18), their family members (n = 15), and community members (n = 15), from two urban regions in Chile. Interviews were coded and analyzed to identify WMM, how WMM shapes stigma, and how MHS can influence achieving WMM. Results: Traditional values emphasizing physical/social appearance, gender roles, family, and social connectedness are highly valued. Socioeconomic transitions have engendered capitalistic variations on traditional values, with increasing emphasis on professional careers for men and women, individualism, and independence. Psychotic disorders interfere with fulfillment of both traditional and capitalist values, thereby reinforcing stigma. However, MHS are seen as partially effective in enabling fulfillment of some goals, including employment, appearance, and independence, while often remaining insufficient in enabling capacity to achieve marriage and having a family.
The development and validation of the Discrimination and Stigma Scale Ultra Short for People Living with Dementia (DISCUS-Dementia)Bhatt, J., Brohan, E., Blasco, D., Oliveira, D., Bakolis, I., Comas-Herrera, A., D’Amico, F., Farina, N., Knapp, M., Stevens, M., Thornicroft, G., Wilson, E., Salcher-Konrad, M., Yang, L. H., & Evans-Lacko, S. (n.d.).
Journal titleBJPsych Open
Issue5AbstractBackground The recent World Health Organization (WHO) blueprint for dementia research and Lancet Commission on ending stigma and discrimination in mental health has identified a gap around dementia-related measures of stigma and discrimination that can be used in different cultural, language and regional contexts. Aims We aimed to characterise experiences of discrimination, and report initial psychometric properties of a new tool to capture these experiences, among a global sample of people living with dementia. Method We analysed data from 704 people living with dementia who took part in a global survey from 33 different countries and territories. Psychometric properties were examined, including internal consistency and construct validity. Results A total of 83% of participants reported discrimination in one or more areas of life, and this was similar across WHO Regions. The exploratory factor analysis factor loadings and scree plot supported a unidimensional structure for the Discrimination and Stigma Scale Ultra Short for People Living with Dementia (DISCUS-Dementia). The instrument demonstrated excellent internal consistency, with most of the construct validity hypotheses being confirmed and qualitative responses demonstrating face validity. Conclusions Our analyses suggest that the DISCUS-Dementia performs well with a global sample of people living with dementia. This scale can be integrated into large-scale studies to understand factors associated with stigma and discrimination. It can also provide an opportunity for a structured discussion around stigma and discrimination experiences important to people living with dementia, as well as planning psychosocial services and initiatives to reduce stigma and discrimination.
Towards a youth mental health paradigm: a perspective and roadmapUhlhaas, P. J., Davey, C. G., Mehta, U. M., Shah, J., Torous, J., Allen, N. B., Avenevoli, S., Bella-Awusah, T., Chanen, A., Chen, E. Y., Correll, C. U., Do, K. Q., Fisher, H. L., Frangou, S., Hickie, I. B., Keshavan, M. S., Konrad, K., Lee, F. S., Liu, C. H., … Wood, S. J. (n.d.).
Journal titleMolecular Psychiatry
Page(s)3171-3181AbstractMost mental disorders have a typical onset between 12 and 25 years of age, highlighting the importance of this period for the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of mental ill-health. This perspective addresses interactions between risk and protective factors and brain development as key pillars accounting for the emergence of psychopathology in youth. Moreover, we propose that novel approaches towards early diagnosis and interventions are required that reflect the evolution of emerging psychopathology, the importance of novel service models, and knowledge exchange between science and practitioners. Taken together, we propose a transformative early intervention paradigm for research and clinical care that could significantly enhance mental health in young people and initiate a shift towards the prevention of severe mental disorders.
“It’s Better If I Die Because Even in the Hospital, There is a Stigma, People Still Gossip”: Gossip as a Culturally Shaped Labeling Process and Its Implications for HIV-Related Stigma in BotswanaPoku, O. B., Eschliman, E. L., Entaile, P., Rampa, S., Mehta, H., Tal, D., Silvert, L., Li, T., Becker, T. D., Govindasamy, D., Stockton, M. A., Adedimeji, A., Ho-Foster, A., Blank, M. B., Dangerfield, D. T., Yang, L. H., & Murray, S. M. (n.d.).
Journal titleAIDS and Behavior
Page(s)2535-2547AbstractThis study qualitatively explores HIV-related gossip as both a manifestation and driver of HIV-related stigma, which is a known barrier to HIV testing and treatment in Botswana. Data were elicited from 5 focus group discussions and 46 semi-structured in-depth interviews with individuals living with HIV and community members with undisclosed serostatus in Gaborone, Botswana in 2017 (n = 84). Directed content analysis using the ‘What Matters Most’ theoretical framework identified culturally salient manifestations of HIV-related stigma; simultaneous use of Modified Labeling Theory allowed interpretation and stepwise organization of how the social phenomenon of gossip leads to adverse HIV outcomes. Results indicated that HIV-related gossip can diminish community standing through culturally influenced mechanisms, in turn precipitating poor psychosocial well-being and worsened HIV-related outcomes. These harms may be offset by protective factors, such as appearing healthy, accepting one’s HIV status, and community education about the harms of gossip.
A pilot pragmatic trial of a “what matters most”-based intervention targeting intersectional stigma related to being pregnant and living with HIV in BotswanaYang, L. H., Eschliman, E. L., Mehta, H., Misra, S., Poku, O. B., Entaile, P., Becker, T. D., Melese, T., Brooks, M. J., Eisenberg, M., Stockton, M. A., Choe, K., Tal, D., Li, T., Go, V. F., Link, B. G., Rampa, S., Jackson, V. W., Manyeagae, G. D., … Blank, M. B. (n.d.).
Journal titleAIDS Research and Therapy
Issue1AbstractWe conducted a pilot trial of an intervention targeting intersectional stigma related to being pregnant and living with HIV while promoting capabilities for achieving ‘respected motherhood’ (‘what matters most’) in Botswana. A pragmatic design allocated participants to the intervention (N = 44) group and the treatment-as-usual (N = 15) group. An intent-to-treat, difference-in-difference analysis found the intervention group had significant decreases in HIV stigma (d = − 1.20; 95% CI − 1.99, − 0.39) and depressive symptoms (d = − 1.96; 95% CI − 2.89, − 1.02) from baseline to 4-months postpartum. Some, albeit less pronounced, changes in intersectional stigma were observed, suggesting the importance of structural-level intervention components to reduce intersectional stigma.
A Recovery-Oriented Intervention for People With Psychosis: A Pilot Randomized Controlled TrialMascayano, F., Alvarado, R., Andrews, H. F., Baumgartner, J. N., Burrone, M. S., Cintra, J., Conover, S., Dahl, C. M., Fader, K. M., Gorroochurn, P., Galea, S., Jorquera, M. J., Lovisi, G. M., Mitkiewicz De Souza, F., Pratt, C., Restrepo-Toro, M. E., Rojas, G., Rodrigues Sarução, K., Rosenheck, R., … Susser, E. (n.d.).
Journal titleHospital and Community Psychiatry
Page(s)1225-1231AbstractOBJECTIVE: This pilot randomized controlled trial evaluated the effectiveness of critical time intervention-task shifting (CTI-TS) for people with psychosis in Santiago, Chile, and Rio de Janeiro. CTI-TS is a 9-month intervention involving peer support workers and is designed to maintain treatment effects up to 18 months. METHODS: A total of 110 people with psychosis were recruited when they enrolled in community mental health clinics (Santiago, N=60; Rio de Janeiro, N=50). Participants within each city were randomly assigned to either CTI-TS or usual care for 9 months. Primary outcomes were quality of life, measured with the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), and unmet needs, measured with the Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN), at 18-month follow-up. Results were analyzed according to intention-to-treat guidelines. Generalized estimating equations, with observations clustered within cities, and multiple imputation for missing data were used. RESULTS: At 18 months, both groups showed improved primary outcomes. In both unadjusted and fully adjusted analyses, no significant differences between CTI-TS and usual care (WHOQOL-BREF question on quality of life and CAN mean number of unmet needs) were found. CONCLUSIONS: Three factors might explain the lack of difference between CTI-TS and usual care: first-contact enrollment precluded rapport prior to randomization, a minority of patients were uncomfortable with peers being on the treatment team, and primary outcome measures may not have been sensitive enough to capture the effects of a recovery-oriented intervention. The results have implications for the design of transitional services for people with psychosis, especially in Latin America.
Anti-Vaccine Attitudes among Adults in the U.S. during the COVID-19 Pandemic after Vaccine RolloutChoi, J., Lieff, S., Meltzer, G., Grivel, M., Chang, V., Yang, L., & Desjarlais, D. (n.d.).
Issue6AbstractEven though vaccination is the most effective measure against COVID-19 infections, vaccine rollout efforts have been hampered by growing anti-vaccine attitudes. Based on current knowledge, we identified three domains (beliefs, discrimination, and news) as our correlates of primary interest to examine the association with anti-vaccine attitudes. This is one of the first studies to examine key correlates of anti-vaccine attitudes during the critical early stages of vaccine implementation in the United States. An online survey was administered in May 2021 to a non-representative, nationally based sample of adults (N = 789). Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found that individuals who expressed worry about COVID-19 (OR = 0.34, 95% CI 0.21, 0.55) and had greater knowledge of COVID-19 (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.25, 0.99) were less likely to hold antivaccine attitudes. Conversely, individuals who held stigmatizing views of COVID-19 (OR = 2.47, 95% CI 1.53, 3.99), had experienced racial discrimination (OR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.25, 3.67) and discrimination related to COVID-19 (OR = 2.84, 95% CI 1.54, 5.24), and who had been watching Fox News (OR = 3.95, 95% CI 2.61, 5.97) were more likely to hold anti-vaccine attitudes. These findings suggest COVID-19 beliefs, experiences of discrimination, and news sources should be considered when designing targeted approaches to address the anti-vaccine movement.
Barriers and facilitators to implementation of evidence-based task-sharing mental health interventions in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review using implementation science frameworksLe, P. T. D., Eschliman, E. L., Grivel, M. M., Tang, J., Cho, Y. G., Yang, X., Tay, C., Li, T., Bass, J., & Yang, L. H. (n.d.).
Journal titleImplementation Science
Issue1AbstractBackground: Task-sharing is a promising strategy to expand mental healthcare in low-resource settings, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Research on how to best implement task-sharing mental health interventions, however, is hampered by an incomplete understanding of the barriers and facilitators to their implementation. This review aims to systematically identify implementation barriers and facilitators in evidence-based task-sharing mental health interventions using an implementation science lens, organizing factors across a novel, integrated implementation science framework. Methods: PubMed, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Embase were used to identify English-language, peer-reviewed studies using search terms for three categories: “mental health,” “task-sharing,” and “LMIC.” Articles were included if they: focused on mental disorders as the main outcome(s); included a task-sharing intervention using or based on an evidence-based practice; were implemented in an LMIC setting; and included assessment or data-supported analysis of barriers and facilitators. An initial conceptual model and coding framework derived from the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and the Theoretical Domains Framework was developed and iteratively refined to create an integrated conceptual framework, the Barriers and Facilitators in Implementation of Task-Sharing Mental Health Interventions (BeFITS-MH), which specifies 37 constructs across eight domains: (I) client characteristics, (II) provider characteristics, (III) family and community factors, (IV) organizational characteristics, (V) societal factors, (VI) mental health system factors, (VII) intervention characteristics, and (VIII) stigma. Results: Of the 26,935 articles screened (title and abstract), 192 articles underwent full-text review, yielding 37 articles representing 28 unique intervention studies that met the inclusion criteria. The most prevalent facilitators occur in domains that are more amenable to adaptation (i.e., the intervention and provider characteristics domains), while salient barriers occur in domains that are more challenging to modulate or intervene on—these include constructs in the client characteristics as well as the broader societal and structural levels of influence (i.e., the organizational, mental health system domains). Other notable trends include constructs in the family and community domains occurring as barriers and as facilitators roughly equally, and stigma constructs acting exclusively as barriers. Conclusions: Using the BeFITS-MH model we developed based on implementation science frameworks, this systematic review provides a comprehensive identification and organization of barriers and facilitators to evidence-based task-sharing mental health interventions in LMICs. These findings have important implications for ongoing and future implementation of this critically needed intervention strategy, including the promise of leveraging task-sharing intervention characteristics as sites of continued innovation, the importance of but relative lack of engagement with constructs in macro-level domains (e.g., organizational characteristics, stigma), and the need for more delineation of strategies for task-sharing mental health interventions that researchers and implementers can employ to enhance implementation in and across levels.
Comparison of social cognition using an adapted Chinese version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test in drug-naive and regularly medicated individuals with chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls in rural ChinaDeng, F., Phillips, M. R., Cai, B., Yu, G., Qian, M., Grivel, M. M., Chen, H., Ouyang, X., Xue, F., Zhao, M., Kegeles, L. S., Susser, E. S., Keshavan, M. S., Stone, W. S., & Yang, L. H. (n.d.).
Journal titlePsychological Medicine
Page(s)3655-3667AbstractBackground Social cognition has not previously been assessed in treatment-naive patients with chronic schizophrenia, in patients over 60 years of age, or in patients with less than 5 years of schooling. Methods We revised a commonly used measure of social cognition, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET), by expanding the instructions, using both self-completion and interviewer-completion versions (for illiterate respondents), and classifying each test administration as 'successfully completed' or 'incomplete'. The revised instrument (RMET-CV-R) was administered to 233 treatment-naive patients with chronic schizophrenia (UT), 154 treated controls with chronic schizophrenia (TC), and 259 healthy controls (HC) from rural communities in China. Results In bivariate and multivariate analyses, successful completion rates and RMET-CV-R scores (percent correct judgments about emotion exhibited in 70 presented slides) were highest in HC, intermediate in TC, and lowest in UT (adjusted completion rates, 97.0, 72.4, and 49.9%, respectively; adjusted RMET-CV-R scores, 45.4, 38.5, and 34.6%, respectively; all p < 0.02). Stratified analyses by the method of administration (self-completed v. interviewer-completed) and by education and age ('educated-younger' v. 'undereducated-older') show the same relationship between groups (i.e. NC>TC>UT), though not all differences remain statistically significant. Conclusions We find poorer social cognition in treatment-naive than in treated patients with chronic schizophrenia. The discriminant validity of RMET-CV-R in undereducated, older patients demonstrates the feasibility of administering revised versions of RMET to patients who may otherwise be considered ineligible due to education or age by changing the method of test administration and carefully assessing respondents' ability to complete the task successfully.
Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Related Discrimination and Mental Health in Five U.S. Southern CitiesLe, P. T. D., Misra, S., Hagen, D., Wang, S. M., Li, T., Brenneke, S. G., Yang, L. H., & Goldmann, E. (n.d.).
Journal titleStigma and Health
Page(s)133-137AbstractEvidence is mounting that stigma and discrimination related to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) disproportionately impact racial/ethnic minority groups, and that these experiences can worsen mental health. The present study sought to examine multiple types of COVID-related discrimination and their associations with mental health outcomes among racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. South, a region characterized by high levels of racial polarization and increasingly large numbers of undocumented immigrants.We used the cross-sectional, population-based COVID-19 Southern Cities Study (5/26/20–6/6/20) of n = 1,688 adults in Atlanta-GA, Austin-TX, Dallas-TX, Houston-TX, and New Orleans-LA. Three adapted scales (Everyday Discrimination, Major Discrimination, Heightened Vigilance) assessed self-reported COVID-related discrimination. Mental health outcomes included psychological distress, sleep troubles, physical reactions, and self-rated worsened mental health. Bivariable comparisons and adjusted logistic regression models were conducted. The study found that major discrimination was more common (p <.001) among Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black than non-Hispanic Asian and non-Hispanic White respondents. All racial/ethnic minority groups experienced more everyday discrimination (p =.004) and heightened vigilance due to anticipated discrimination (p <.001) than non-Hispanic White respondents. All discrimination types were associated with all mental health outcomes (Odds Ratio; OR range: 1.63–2.61) except everyday and major discrimination with sleep troubles. Results showing greater COVID-related discrimination for racial/ethnic minority groups confirm that these discrimination experiences are not solely about the infectious disease itself, but also entrenched with persistent racism. Responses to COVID-related discrimination should also consider long-lasting impacts on mental health for racial/ethnic minority groups even after the immediate pandemic ends.